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Gorani Goranci ?
Gorani inhabited area (green) in Albania, Kosovo and North Macedonia
The ethnonymGoranci, meaning "highlanders", is derived from the Slavic toponym gora, which means "hill, mountain". Another autonym of this people is Na?inci, which literally means "our people, our ones".
The Gora municipality and Opoja region remained separated during the Milo?evi? period. After the war, the Gorani-majority Gora municipality was merged with the Albanian inhabited Opoja region to form the municipality of Draga? by the United Nations Mission (UNMIK) and the new administrative unit has an Albanian majority.
In 2007 the Kosovar provisional institutions opened a school in Gora to teach the Bosnian language, which sparked minor consternation amongst the Gorani population. Many Gorani refuse to send their children to school due to societal prejudices, and threats of assimilation to Bosniaks or Albanians. Consequently, Gorani organized education per Serbia's curriculum.
In 2018 Bulgarian activists among Gorani have filed a petition in the country's parliament demanding their official recognition as a separate minority.
Most Gorani state that the unstable situation and economic issues drive them to leave Kosovo. There is also some mention of threats and discrimination by ethnic Albanians.
Apart from the multiethic town of Dragash, the Gorani of Kosovo continue to live in villages primarily inhabited by their community and relations with Albanians remain tense. Mixed marriage between both communities do not occur with the exception of a few Gorani families that have migrated to Prizren.
Mosque in Restelica
In the 18th century, a wave of Islamization began in Gora. The Ottoman abolition of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid and Serbian Patriarchate of Pe? in 1766/1767 is thought to have prompted the Islamization of Gora as was the trend of many Balkan communities. The last Christian Gorani, Bo?ana, died in the 19th century – she has received a cult, signifying the Gorani's Christian heritage, collected by Russian consuls Anastasiev and Yastrebov in the second half of the 19th century.
The Gorani are known for being "the best confectioners and bakers" in former Yugoslavia.
Traditional Gorani folk music includes a two-beat dance called "oro" ('circle'), which is a circle dance focused on the foot movements: it always starts on the right foot and moves in an anti-clockwise direction. The Oro is usually accompanied by instruments such as curlje, kaval, ?iftelija or tapan, and singing is used less frequently in the dances than in those of the Albanians and Serbs.
The "national" sport of Pelivona is a form of Oil wrestling popular among Gorani with regular tournaments being held in the outdoors to the accompaniment of Curlje and Tapan with associated ritualized hand gestures and dances, with origins in the Middle East through the Ottoman Empire's conquest of Balkans.
The "national" drink of the Gorani is Rakija which is commonly distilled at home by elderly people. Another popular drink is Turkish Coffee which is drunk in small cups accompanied by a glass of water. Tasseography is popular among all Gorani using the residue of Turkish Coffee.
The Gorani people speak South Slavic, a local dialect known as "Na?inski" or "Goranski", which is part of a wider Torlakian dialect, spoken in Western Bulgaria, Southern Serbia and part of North Macedonia. The Slavic dialect of the Gorani community is known as Gorançe by Albanians. Within the Gorani community there is a recognition of their dialects being closer to the Macedonian language, than to Serbian. The Torlakian dialect is a transitional dialect of Bulgarian and Serbian whilst also sharing features with Macedonian. The Gorani speech is classified as an Old-Shtokavian dialect of Serbian (Old Serbian), the Prizren-Timok dialect. Bulgarian linguists classify the Gorani dialect as part of a Bulgarian dialectal area. Within scholarship the Goran dialects previously classified as belonging to Serbian have been reassigned as belonging to Macedonian in the 21 century. Gorani speech has numerous loan words, being greatly influenced by Turkish and Arabic due to the influence of Islam, as well as Albanian areally. It is similar to the Bosnian language because of the numerous Turkish loanwords. Gorani speak Serbo-Croatian in school.
According to the last 1991 Yugoslav census, 54.8% of the inhabitants of the Gora municipality said that they spoke the Gorani language, while the remainder had called it Serbian. Some Gorani scholars define their language as Bulgarian, similar to the Bulgarian dialects spoken in the northwestern region of North Macedonia. Some linguists, including Vidoeski, Brozovic and Ivic, identify the Slavic-dialect of the Gora region as Macedonian. There are assertions that Macedonian is spoken in 50 to 75 villages in the Gora region (Albania and Kosovo). According to some unverified sources in 2003 the Kosovo government acquired Macedonian language and grammar books for Gorani school.
Albanian-Gorani scholar Nazif Dokle compiled the first Gorani-Albanian dictionary (with 43,000 words and phrases) in 2007, sponsored and printed by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. In 2008 the first issue of a Macedonian language newspaper, (Gorocvet) was published.
^"Progam politi?ke stranke GIG". Do Nato intervencije na Srbiju, 24.03.1999.godine, u Gori je ?ivelo oko 18.000 Goranaca. U Srbiji i biv?im jugoslovenskim republikama nalazi se oko 40.000 Goranaca, a zna?ajan broj Goranaca ?ivi i radi u zemljama Evropske unije i u drugim zemljama. Po na?im procenama ukupan broj Goranaca, u Gori i u rasejanju iznosi oko 60.000.
^ abcSteinke, Klaus; Ylli, Xhelal (2010). Die slavischen Minderheiten in Albanien (SMA). 3. Gora. Munich: Verlag Otto Sagner. p. 11. ISBN978-3-86688-112-9. "In den 17 Dörfern des Kosovo wird Na?inski/Goran?e gesprochen, und sie gehören zu einer Gemeinde mit dem Verwaltungszentrum in Draga?. Die 19 Dörfer in Albanien sind hingegen auf drei Gemeinden des Bezirks Kukës aufgeteilt, und zwar auf Shishtavec, Zapod und Topojan. Slavophone findet man freilich nur in den ersten beiden Gemeinden. Zur Gemeinde Shishtavec gehören sieben Dörfer und in den folgenden vier wird Na?inski/Goran?e gesprochen: Shishtavec (?i?taec/?i?teec), Borja (Borje), Cërnaleva (C?rnolevo/C?rneleve) und Oreshka (Ore?ek). Zur Gemeinde Zapod gehören ebenfalls sieben Dörfer, und in den folgenden fünf wird Na?inski/Goran?e gesprochen: Orgjost (Orgosta), Kosharisht (Ko?ari?ta), Pakisht (Paki?a/Pakia) Zapod (Zapod) und Orçikla (Or?ikl'e/O?ikl'e)'. In der Gemeinde Topojan gibt es inzwischen keine slavophone Bevölkerung mehr. Die Einwohner selbst bezeichnen sich gewöhnlich als Goranen 'Einwohner von Gora oder Na?inci Unsrige, und ihre Sprache wird von ihnen als Na?inski und von den Albanern als Gorançe bezeichnet."
^, . ? , ?: ? ? ? 1916, 1993, ?. 184. (Mladenov, Stefan. Journey through Macedonia and Pomoraviya, in: Scientific expeditions in Macedonia and Pomoraviya 1916, Sofia 1993, p. 184) ?, ?. ? ? ? ? (? ?, ?), ? ?, "" ? ". ? ", ?, , 17-19 2004 (Assenova, Petya. Archaisms and Balkanisms in an isolated Bulgarian dialect (Kukas Gora, Albania), Balkan studies readings on the tenth anniversary of the major Balkan studies in Sofia University, 17-19 May 2004)
^ abDokle, Nazif. Reçnik Goransko (Nashinski) - Albanski, Sofia 2007, Peçatnica Naukini akademiji "Prof. Marin Drinov", s. 5, 11, 19 (Nazif Dokle. Goranian (Nashinski) - Albanian Dictionary, Sofia 2007, Published by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, p. 5, 11, 19)
?or?evi?-Crnobrnja, Jadranka (2014). "Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century". Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU. 62 (2): 35-47. doi:10.2298/GEI1402035D.