Government of Peru
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Government of Peru
Republic of Peru
Spanish: Gobierno de la República de Perú
Legislative branch
LegislatureCongress of the Republic of Peru
Executive branch
LeaderPresident of Peru[note 1]
AppointerPresident of Peru
Main organCouncil of Ministers
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg

politics and government of
Flag of Peru.svg Peru portal

The Republic of Peru is a unitary state and a presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. The current government was established by the 1993 Constitution of Peru. The government is composed of three branches, being executive, judicial, and legislative branches.

Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Francisco Sagasti Independent 17 November 2020
First Vice President Vacant N/A 23 March 2018
Second Vice President Vacant N/A 7 May 2020
Prime Minister Violeta Bermúdez Independent 18 November 2020

The head of state is the President of Peru, who is elected to a term of five years; incumbents cannot be re-elected for a second consecutive term.[1] Family members may also not immediately succeed in another family member's presidency.[2] The current president is Martín Vizcarra. He was sworn into office as President on March 23, 2018, following the resignation of President Kuczynski.[3] The executive branch, in addition to the legislative branch, may propose legislation. After legislation has been passed by the congress, the President may promulgate the legislation, giving it the force of law.
In addition to the president, the executive branch contains the Council of Ministers, which, in addition to the Prime Minister, are appointed by the president.

Requirements to be Minister of State

According to Article 125 of the Political Constitution of Peru (1993), in order to be Minister, it is required:

  • Being born in Peru.
  • Be a current citizen.
  • Be 25 years old or older.
  • Members of the Armed Forces and National Police can be Ministers.

Article 92 states that members of Congress can be Ministers of State.


  1. Run the process of strategic planning, embedded in the National System of Strategic Planning and determining the sector's functional national goals applicable to every level of government; approve action plans; assign necessary resources to their execution, within the boundaries of the corresponding public budget.
  2. Approve the budget proposal to the entities within their sector, abiding by article 32 and supervising their execution.
  3. Stablish the management measurements of the entities within their sector and evaluate their fulfillment.
  4. Propose the inner organization of their Ministry and approve it according to their competencies attributed by Law.
  5. Designate and remove the advising positions or any directly appointed, the heads of public entities and other entities of the sector, when this appointment is not explicitly attributed to the Council of Ministries, other authorities or the President; and submit to the President the new appointees for approval on the contrary.
  6. Maintain relations with the regional and local government within the competencies attributed to the sector.
  7. Countersign the presidential mandates that concern to their Ministry
  8. Issue Supreme Resolution and Ministerial Resolutions.
  9. Put into effect the transfer of competencies, functions, and sectorial resources to Regional and Local Government and account for their execution.
  10. Execute all other functions that are put upon the Ministry by the Political Constitution of Peru, the Law, and the President.mlg

The Ministers of State can delegate, within their Ministry, the faculties and powers that are not exclusive to their function, to the extent that it is allowed by Law. Functions 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 are exclusive to the Minister.

Ministries in Peru

Ministry Current minister Party Oath date

Presidency of the Council of Ministers
Ántero Flores-Aráoz Esparza.jpg Ántero Flores Aráoz Esparza indep. 11 November 2020
Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Peru.png

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Franca Lorella Deza Ferreccio indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Defense
Walter Fernando Chávez Cruz indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Economy and Finance
José Arista Arbildo (cropped).jpg José Berley Arista Arbildo indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of the Interior
Gastón Rodríguez.jpg Gastón César Augusto Rodríguez Limo indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights
Delia Muñoz Muñoz indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Education
Fernando Antonio d'Alessio Ipinza indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Health
Abel Salinas Rivas.jpg Abel Hernán Jorge Salinas Rivas PAP 12 November 2020

Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
Fernando Hurtado Pascual indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment
Juan Sheput Moore.png Juan Manuel Kosme Sheput Moore Contigo 12 November 2020
Ministry of Production Mario Alfonso Miranda Eyzaguirre indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Foreign Commerce and Tourism
María Magdalena Seminario Marón indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Energy and Mines
Carlos Fernando Herrera Descalzi indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Transportation and Communications
Augusto Raúl Valqui Malpica indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation
Hilda Sandoval Cornejo indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations
Patricia Lisetta Teullet Pipoli indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Environment
Lizzet del Carmen Rojas Sánchez indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Culture
María del Carmen Angélica de Reparaz Zamora indep. 12 November 2020

Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion
Teodoro Federico Tong Hurtado PPC 12 November 2020

Judicial branch

The judicial branch is represented by the Supreme Court Of Justice, a 16-member body divided into three supreme sectors:[4]

Legislative branch

The legislative branch of Peru is vested in the Congress of the Republic of Peru, which is a 130-member unicameral house.[5] The legislators are elected for five-year terms on a proportional representation basis. The legislation is voted on in Congress, then sent to the president, who may approve it.


Universal suffrage is granted to all over the age of 18. Voting is compulsory until the age of 70. Some argue whether compulsive voting is for the best of the country and the citizens. Enforced strictly, with exceptions.[6]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ While there is the office of prime minister, officially called "President of the Council of Ministers" (Presidente del Consejo de Ministros del Perú), the President of Peru is the actual head of government
  1. ^ Constitucion Política Del Perú 1993 (Ultima actualización / Last updated: July 2011) Titulo IV De La Estructura Del Estado; Capitulo IV Poder Ejecutivo; Articulo 112°. El mandato presidencial es de cinco años, no hay reelección inmediata. Transcurrido otro periodo constitucional, como mínimo, el ex presidente puede volver an postular, sujeto a las mismas condiciones.
  2. ^ Taj, Mitra. "Keiko Fujimori's brother says he will run for president of Peru in 2021 if she loses". Business Insider. Retrieved 2016.
  3. ^ "Martín Vizcarra sworn in as Peru's new president as embattled Kuczynski exits". The Guardian. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ "Judicial Branch of Peru". World Fact Book. CIA. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ "Legislative Branch of Peru". World Fact Book. CIA. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2017.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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