Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
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Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Grand Vizier of
the Ottoman Empire
Sadrazamlik-nisanlari.svg
Seal of the Grand Vizier
Ahmed Tevfik Pasha chair.jpg
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
StyleHis Excellency
ResidenceBab-? Ali
AppointerThe Sultan
Formation1328
First holderAlaeddin Pasha
Final holderAhmet Tevfik Pasha
Abolished1 November 1922

The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-? Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: ? or ? ?) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution. He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state in the Imperial Council; the viziers in conference were called "kubbe viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealt? ('under-the-dome') in Topkap? Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.

History

During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "Vizier" was the only title used. The first of these Ottoman Viziers who was titled "Grand Vizier" was Çandarl? Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (also known as Çandarl? Halil Pasha the Elder). The purpose in instituting the title "Grand Vizier" was to distinguish the holder of the Sultan's seal from other viziers. The initially more frequently used title of vezir-i âzam was gradually replaced by sadrazam, both meaning grand vizier in practice. Throughout Ottoman history, the grand viziers have also been termed sadr-? âlî ('high vizier'), vekil-i mutlak ('absolute attorney'), sâhib-i devlet ('holder of the state'), serdar-? ekrem ('gracious general'), serdar-? azam ('grand general') and zât-? âsafî ('vizieral person') and ba?naz?r,[1] literally "prime minister" in Ottoman Turkish.

In the late periods of the Ottoman Empire, especially during and after the 19th century, the Grand Vizier began to hold a position almost identical to that of a Prime Minister in other European states.[2] Reforms seen during and after the Tanzimat (1838), the First Constitutional Era (1876-1878), and the Second Constitutional Era (1908-1920) further brought the office of the Grand Vizier in line with the European standard, making the incumbent the head of a Cabinet of other ministers. During the two constitutional eras, the Grand Vizier also served as the speaker of the Senate, the upper house of the bicameral Ottoman Parliament. With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Prime Minister of Turkey took on the roles of the former office.

Grand Viziers were often replaced or resigned in rapid succession, frequently leading to political instability. In the final 10 years of the Empire alone, the office of the Grand Vizier changed hands 13 times between 12 men; some, such as Ahmed Izzet Pasha and Salih Hulusi Pasha, held office for less than a month.

List of Grand Viziers

Coat of arms of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Grand Viziers Flag of the Ottoman Empire
Number Name Took office Left office Background notes
1 Alaeddin Pasha 1320 1331 Turk,[3] probably from Cendere, Nall?han.[4]
2 Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha 1331 1348 Turk[5]
3 Hac? Pasha 1348 1349 Turk[5]
4 Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha 1349 1364 Turk,[5] from Ahi.
5 Çandarl? Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (Çandarl? Halil Pasha the Elder) 1364 22 January 1387 Turk, from Cendere (or Çandar), a village near Ankara; see Çandarl? family. The first vizier to hold the title "grand vizier" and also the first with a military background.
6 Çandarl? Ali Pasha 1387 1406 Turk[6] (Çandarl? family)
7 "Osmanc?kl?" Imamzade Halil Pasha 1406 1413 Turk,[6] from Osmanc?k
8 Amasyal? Bayezid Pasha 1413 1421 Turk,[6] of Albanian origin,[7][incomplete short citation] from Amasya.
9 Çandarl? Ibrahim Pasha the Elder 1421 1429 Turk[6] (Çandarl? family)
10 Amasyal? Haz?r Dâni?mendo?lu Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha 1429 1439 Turk,[6] from Osmanc?k or Amasya
11 Çandarl? Halil Pasha the Younger 1439 1 June 1453 Turk[8] (Çandarl? family). First grand vizier who was executed.
12 Zaganos Pasha 1453 1456 Albanian (Dev?irme) maybe Serbian
13 Mahmud Pasha Angelovi? (1st time) 1456 1468 Serbian[8] (Dev?irme)
14 Rum Mehmed Pasha 1468 1469 Greek[8]
15 ?shak Pasha (1st time) 1469 1472 Albanian[9]
13 Mahmud Pasha Angelovi? (2nd time) 1472 1474 Serbian[8] (Dev?irme)
16 Gedik Ahmed Pasha 1474 1477 Albanian[10] or Greek[10] or Serbian.[11]
17 Karamanl? Mehmed Pasha 1477 1481 Turk,[10] from Karaman
15 ?shak Pasha (2nd time) 1481 1482 Albanian[9][better source needed]
18 Koca Davud Pasha 1482 1497 Albanian[10]
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1st time) 1497 1498 Serbian Dev?irme (Kosa?a family)
20 Çandarl? Ibrahim Pasha the Younger 1498 1499 Turk[12] (Çandarl? family)
21 Mesih Pasha 1499 1501 Abducted during Fall of Constantinople. Nephew of Constantine XI Palaiologos.[13]
22 Hadim Ali Pasha (1st time) 1501 1503 Serbian from Drozgometva (Hadim = Manservant), from a minor noble family called Ostoja.
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (2nd time) 1503 1506 Serbian Dev?irme ( dukes of St. Sava Kosa?a family)
22 Hadim Ali Pasha (2nd time) 1506 1511 Serbian from Drozgometva(Hadim = Manservant), from a minor noble family called Ostoja.
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (3rd time) 1511 1511 Serbian Dev?irme (Kosa?a family)
23 Koca Mustafa Pasha 1511 1512 Greek (Rum), and not a dev?irme.[14][15] Possibly "Western" (Frenk)[15][]
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (4th time) 1512 28 November 1514 Serbian Dev?irme (Kosa?a family)
24 Dukakinzade Ahmed Pasha 18 December 1514 8 September 1515 Albanian[16] (Dukagjin family)
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (5th time) 8 September 1515 26 April 1516 Serbian Dev?irme (Kosa?a family)
25 Had?m Sinan Pasha 26 April 1516 22 January 1517 Serbian Dev?irme (from the noble Boronivic family (Hadim = Manservant) from Fo?a
26 Yunus Pasha 22 January 1517 13 September 1517 Ottoman Greeks, Pomak, Serbian, or Croat origin[17][18] (Dev?irme)
27 Piri Mehmed Pasha 25 January 1518 27 June 1523 Turk,[17] from Aksaray
28 Pargal? Ibrahim Pasha, also called Frenk Ibrahim Pasha 27 June 1523 14 March 1536 Albanian or Greek from Parga (The nickname Frenk refers to his European manners and tastes)
29 Ayas Mehmed Pasha 14 March 1536 13 July 1539 Albanian[19] Dev?irme (from Vlora or Delvina)
30 Çelebi Lütfi Pasha 13 July 1539 April 1541 Albanian,[20] Dev?irme (from Avlonya (Vlorë)) (Çelebi = a refined gentleman with good manners)
31 Hadim Süleyman Pasha April 1541 28 November 1544 Hungarian (eunuch)[20][21] Dev?irme (Hadim = Manservant)
32 Kehle-i-ikbâl Damat Rüstem Pasha (1st time) 28 November 1544 6 October 1553 Serbian Dev?irme from Sarajevo (possibly Croat from Skradin) (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
33 Kara Ahmed Pasha 6 October 1553 29 September 1555 Albanian[22]
32 Kehle-i-ikbâl Damat Rüstem Pasha (2nd time) 29 September 1555 10 July 1561 Serbian Dev?irme from Sarajevo (possibly Croat from Skradin) (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
34 Semiz Ali Pasha 10 July 1561 28 June 1565 Serb originally from a family Pra?i? from the village of Pra?a, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
35 Sokollu Mehmed Pasha 28 June 1565 12 October 1579 Serbian , relative of Serb patriarch Makarije sokolovi?
36 ?emsi Pasha 12 October 1579 28 April 1580 Paternal Albanian[23] and maternal Ottoman,[24] including distant Arabic ancestry.[25]
37 Vekîl-i Saltanat Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha 28 April 1580 7 August 1580 Serbian from Klasinac, Rudo(Lala = a tutor to a Sultan)
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (1st time) 7 August 1580 6 December 1582 Albanian[26]
39 Kanijeli Siyavu? Pasha (1st time) 24 December 1582 25 July 1584 Hungarian[26] from Nagykanizsa
40 Özdemiro?lu Osman Pasha 28 July 1584 29 October 1585 Turk[27] or Circassian[27]Mameluks
41 Hadim Mesih Pasha 1 November 1585 14 April 1586 Serbian Dev?irme (Hadim = Manservant)
39 Kanijeli Siyavu? Pasha (2nd time) 14 April 1586 2 April 1589 Hungarian[26] from Nagykanizsa
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (2nd time) 14 April 1589 1 August 1591 Albanian[28]
42 Serdar Ferhad Pasha (1st time) 1 August 1591 4 April 1592 Albanian[8]
39 Kanijeli Siyavu? Pasha (3rd time) 4 April 1592 28 January 1593 Hungarian[26] from Nagykanizsa
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (3rd time) 28 January 1593 16 February 1595 Albanian[29]
42 Serdar Ferhad Pasha (2nd time) 16 February 1595 7 July 1595 Albanian[29]
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (4th time) 7 July 1595 19 November 1595 Albanian[29]
43 Tekeli Lala Mehmed Pasha 19 November 1595 28 November 1595 Turk,[8] from Manisa (Lala = Tutor to a Sultan)
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (5th time) 1 December 1595 3 April 1596 Albanian[16]
44 Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1st time) 4 April 1596 27 October 1596 Serbian (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
45 (Ca?alo?lu/Ca?alazâde) Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha 27 October 1596 5 December 1596 Italian[30] From the noble Genoese family of Cicala.
44 Damat Ibrahim Pasha (2nd time) 5 December 1596 3 November 1597 Serbian (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
46 Hadim Hasan Pasha 3 November 1597 9 April 1598 Albanian[30] Dev?irme
47 Cerrah Mehmed Pasha 9 April 1598 6 January 1599 Unknown origin[31] Dev?irme (Cerrah = Surgeon)
44 Damat Ibrahim Pasha (3rd time) 6 January 1599 10 July 1601 Serbian (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
48 Yemi?çi Hasan Pasha 22 July 1601 4 October 1603 Albanian[31] (Yemi?çi = Fruit-vendor; in reference to his previous profession)
49 Yavuz Ali Pasha 16 October 1603 26 July 1604 Serbian Dani?mend (1971), p. 28. (in Turkish)</ref> (Malkoço?lu/Malkoti? family)
50 Sokolluzade Lala Mehmed Pasha 5 August 1604 21 June 1606 Serbian (Lala = Tutor to a Sultan). Sokollu Mehmed Pasha's nephew. He was probably from Rudo or Sarajevo.
51 Dervi? Mehmed Pasha 21 June 1606 9 December 1606 well known Serbian that also served as the sanjak-bey of the Sanjak of Herzegovina.
52 Kuyucu Murad Pasha 11 December 1606 5 August 1611 Serbian possibly from central Bosnia (Kuyucu = The well-digger; name given since he had the habit of burying his enemies in wells)
53 Gümülcineli Damat Nasuh Pasha 5 August 1611 17 October 1614 Albanian,[32] from Gümülcine. (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty). One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ay?e Sultan.
54 Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 17 October 1614 17 November 1616 Turk,[32] from Istanbul (Öküz = Ox; literally Mehmed Pasha the Ox; name given since he was heavily built)
55 Damat Halil Pasha (1st time) 17 November 1616 18 January 1619 Armenian,[33] from Zeytun (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
56 Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 18 January 1619 23 December 1619 Turk,[33] from Istanbul
57 Güzelce Ali Pasha 23 December 1619 9 March 1621 Greek from Istanköy (today Kos)[33] (Güzelce = Handsome)
58 Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha 9 March 1621 17 September 1621 Albanian,[34] from Ohri
59 Dilaver Pasha 17 September 1621 20 May 1622 Serbian from the Bosnia Eyalet.
60 Kara Davud Pasha 20 May 1622 13 June 1622 Serbian from the Bosnia Eyalet. Nicknamed "traitor" due to being responsible for the death of Sultan Osman II.
61 Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1st time) 13 June 1622 8 July 1622 Albanian[34] ("Mere!" = "Take it!" in Albanian; purportedly the only grand vizier who did not speak Turkish, named after the oft-repeated order he gave on the subject of opponents' heads)
62 Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha 8 July 1622 21 September 1622 Turk,[35] from former Lefke, today Orhaneli
63 Hadim Mehmed Pasha (Had?m -'Eunuch'- Mehmed Pasha) 21 September 1622 5 February 1623 Georgian[35] (Gürcü = Georgian)
64 Mere Hüseyin Pasha (2nd time) 5 February 1623 30 August 1623 Albanian[35]
65 Kemanke? Kara Ali Pasha 30 August 1623 3 April 1624 Turk[35] (Kemanke? = Archer)
66 Çerkes Mehmed Pasha 3 April 1624 28 January 1625 Circassian[36] (Çerkes = Circassian)
67 Haf?z Ahmed Pasha (1st time) 8 February 1625 1 December 1626 Pomak (Bulgarian Muslim),[36] from Filibe. One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ay?e Sultan.
68 Damat Halil Pasha (2nd time) 1 December 1626 6 April 1628 Armenian,[36] from Zeytun (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
69 Gazi Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha 6 April 1628 25 October 1631 Serbian from Pavlovi? Bosnian nobility
70 Haf?z Ahmed Pasha (2nd time) 25 October 1631 10 February 1632 Pomak[37] from Filibe.
71 Topal Recep Pasha 10 February 1632 18 May 1632 Serbian from the Bosnia Eyalet. He was the bridegroom of the House of Osman.
72 Taban?yassi Mehmed Pasha 18 May 1632 2 February 1637 Albanian[37] (from Drama)(Taban?yass? = Flat-footed)
73 Bayram Pasha 2 February 1637 26 August 1638 Turk,[38] from Constantinople (Today Istanbul)
74 Tayyar Mehmed Pasha 27 August 1638 24 December 1638 Turk from the town of Ladik, Sivas Eyalet.[38]
75 Kemanke? Kara Mustafa Pasha 23 December 1638 31 January 1644 Albanian[39] (Kemanke? = Archer)
76 Sultanzade Mehmet Pasha (Civan Kapucuba Sultanzade Mehmed Pasha) 31 January 1644 17 December 1645 Turkish-Albanian[39] (Sultanzade = Son of a female member of the Ottoman dynasty; great-grandson of Mihrimah Sultan, descendant of Suleiman the Magnificent and Hurrem Sultan)
77 Nevesinli Salih Pasha 17 December 1645 16 September 1647 Serb from the Herzegovinian town of Nevesinje,[40]Bosnia Eyalet.[41]
78 Kara Musa Pasha 16 September 1647 21 September 1647 Serbian from the Bosnia Eyalet. Died 5 days after being appointed Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
79 Hezarpare Ahmet Pasha 21 September 1647 8 August 1648 Greek (possibly),[41] from Istanbul. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier upon Kara Musa Pasha's death. (Hezarpare = Thousand pieces; literally Ahmed Pasha the Thousand Pieces; name given by chroniclers since he was lynched by the mob)
80 Sofu Mehmed Pasha (or Mevlevi Mehmed Pasha) 8 August 1648 21 May 1649 Unknown origin[42] (Sofu = Devout and see Mevlevi)
81 Kara Murat Pasha (Kara Dev Murat Pasha) 21 May 1649 5 August 1651 Albanian[42] (Dev = Giant)
82 Melek Ahmed Pasha 5 August 1651 21 August 1651 Abazin[42] (Melek = Angel)
83 Abaza Siyavu? Pasha I (1st time) 21 August 1651 27 September 1651 Abazin[43]
84 Gürcü Mehmed Pasha 27 September 1651 20 June 1652 Georgian[43] (Gürcü - Georgian)
85 Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha 20 June 1652 21 March 1653 Albanian[43] (Tarhoncu, more seldom transcribed as Tarhoncu = 'Tarragon vendor'; in reference to his former profession)
86 Koca Dervish Mehmed Pasha 21 March 1653 28 October 1654 Circassian[43]
87 ?p?iri Mustafa Pasha 28 October 1654 11 May 1655 Abazin.[44] One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ay?e Sultan. (?p?iri means "Bearer of good news")
88 Kara Murat Pasha (2nd time) 11 May 1655 19 August 1655 Albanian[44]
89 Ermeni Suleyman Pasha 19 August 1655 28 February 1656 Armenian,[44] from Malatya. (Ermeni means "Armenian")
90 Deli Gazi Hüseyin Pasha, also called Deli Hüseyin Pasha 28 February 1656 5 March 1656 Turk,[45] from Yeni?ehir. Not included in some lists. The imperial seal was sent to him by way of sea to Crete where he was in campaign, but the ships were called back because of Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha's lobbying, who had been appointed in-attorney in between but wanted the full title for him. (Deli = Mad; due to his daring and courage in the battlefield)
91 Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha (held office for 4 hours) 5 March 1656 5 March 1656 Albanian[45] (Zurnazen = Clarinettist). Not included in some lists. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier due to the influence he exerted on the sultan for Gazi Hüseyin Pasha's dismissal from the office. His appointment caused an uprising in Istanbul and he was exiled after having held the seal for four hours.
92 Abaza Siyavu? Pasha I (2nd time) 5 March 1656 25 April 1656 Abazin[45]
93 Boynuyaral? Mehmed Pasha 26 April 1656 15 September 1656 Turk,[46] from Samsun. (boynu yaral? means "wounded neck")
94 Köprülü Mehmed Pasha 15 September 1656 31 October 1661 Albanian[3] Dev?irme, from Rudnik in the Sanjak of Berat (now Albania).[47] (see Köprülü family)
95 Köprülü Faz?l Ahmed Pasha 31 October 1661 19 October 1676 Albanian[46] (see Köprülü family)
96 Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha 19 October 1676 25 December 1683 From Merzifon (adopted into the Köprülü family)[48]
97 Kara ?brahim Pasha 15 December 1683 18 November 1685 Turk[49]
98 Sar? Süleyman Pasha 18 November 1685 18 September 1687 Serb from Ta?l?ca (today Pljevlja in Montenegro) (Sar? = Blond)
99 Abaza Siyavu? Pasha 18 September 1687 23 February 1688 Abazin[32]
100 Aya?l? ?smail Pasha 23 February 1688 2 May 1688 Turk,[50] from Aya?
101 Bekri Mustafa Pasha 30 May 1688 7 November 1689 Turk,[50] from Tekirda?.
102 Köprülü Faz?l Mustafa Pasha 10 November 1689. 19 August 1691 Albanian[50] (Köprülü family)
103 Arabac? Ali Pasha 24 August 1691 21 March 1692 Albanian[51] (Arabac? = Coachman; in reference to his background)
104 Merfizonlu Hac? Ali Pasha 23 March 1692 17 March 1693 Turk,[51] from Merzifon.
105 Bozoklu Mustafa Pasha 17 March 1693 March 1694 Turk,[52] from Bozok (Yozgat today).
106 Sürmeli Ali Pasha 13 March 1694 22 April 1695 (origin unknown)[52] Greek[] (from Dimetoka) (Sürmeli = One who has eyes tinged with kohl)
107 Elmas Mehmed Pasha 3 May 1695 11 September 1697 Turk[53] (Elmas = Diamond)
108 Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha 17 September 1697 4 September 1702 Albanian[53] (Köprülü family).
109 Daltaban Mustafa Pasha 4 September 1702 24 January 1703 Serbian[54] according to Joseph von Hammer, Bosniak descent according to other sources, from Manast?r (Daltaban = Barefoot)
110 Rami Mehmed Pasha 25 January 1703 22 August 1703 Turk (possibly),[54] from Istanbul
111 Kavanoz Ahmed Pasha 22 August 1703 16 November 1703 Russian[55] (Kavanoz = A jar; named as such because purportedly very short and fat)
112 Damat Hasan Pasha 18 November 1703 28 September 1704 Greek[55][56][57] Ottoman, from Morea, Greece (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
113 Kalayl?koz Hac? Ahmed Pasha October 1704 25 December 1704 Turk[55] (Kalayl?koz = Varnished; a reference on his fondness for make-up, ornaments and dresses)
114 Teberdar/Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 25 December 1704 3 May 1706 Turk,[58] from Osmanc?k.
115 Çorlulu Damat Ali Pasha 3 May 1706 15 June 1710 Turk (possibly),[58] from Çorlu (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
116 Köprülü Numan Pasha 16 June 1710 17 August 1710 Albanian[58] (Köprülü family).
117 Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 18 August 1710 20 November 1711 Turk,[58] from Osmanc?k.
118 A?a Yusuf Pasha 20 November 1711 11 November 1712 Georgian[59]
119 Ni?anc? Süleyman Pasha 12 November 1712 6 April 1713 Abazin[59]
120 Hoca Ibrahim Pasha 6 April 1713 7 April 1713 Turk,[59] from Serez (Serres)
121 Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha 27 April 1713 5 August 1716 Turk[60] from ?znik (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
122 Hac? Halil Pasha 21 August 1716 October 1717 Albanian[60]
123 Ni?anc? Mehmed Pasha October 1717 9 May 1718 Turk (possibly),[60] from Kayseri
124 Nev?ehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha 9 May 1718 16 October 1730 Turk,[60] from Nev?ehir. (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
125 Silahdar Damat Mehmed Pasha 16 October 1730 23 January 1731 Turk (possibly),[61] from Istanbul (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
126 Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha 23 January 1731 11 September 1731 Serbian (maybe Turk) from the town of ?ebinkarahisar (Kabakulak = Someone with mumps)
127 Topal Osman Pasha 21 September 1731 12 March 1732 Turk[62] (Topal = Lame)
128 Hekimbazâde/Hekimo?lu Ali Pasha (1st time) 12 March 1732 14 July 1735 Italian/Venetian[62] (son of Venetian convert Hekimba Nuh Efendi)
129 Gürcü ?smail Pasha 14 July 1735 25 December 1735 Georgian[62] (Gürcü = Georgian)
130 Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha [tr] 10 January 1736 5 August 1737 Turk (possibly),[63] from Dimetoka
131 Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha 22 August 1737 19 December 1737 Arab (possibly),[63] from Aleppo
132 Ye?en Mehmed Pasha 3 December 1737 23 March 1739 Turk[63] (Ye?en = Nephew, of the Sultan in his case)
133 ?vaz Mehmed Pasha 17 March 1739 23 June 1740 Albanian[64]
134 Ni?anc? Hac? Ahmed Pasha 22 July 1740 7 April 1742 Turk,[64] from Alanya
135 Hekimo?lu Ali Pasha (2nd time) 21 April 1742 4 October 1742 Italian/Venetian[64] (son of Venetian convert Hekimba Nuh Efendi)
136 Seyyid Hasan Pasha 4 October 1742 10 August 1746 Arab (possibly),[65] or Turk,[64] from Karahisar (?ebinkarahisar today)
137 Tiryaki Hac? Mehmed Pasha 11 August 1746 24 August 1747 Possibly a Turk from Istanbul, maybe Serbian or Albanian (Tiryaki means "someone who has an addiction, to tobacco, opium, alcohol etc.")
138 Seyyid Abdullah Pasha 24 August 1747 2 January 1750 Arab (possibly),[65] or Turk,[64] from Kerkük
139 Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha 9 January 1750 1 July 1752 Unknown origin,[65] from Istanbul
140 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1st time) 1 July 1752 16 February 1755 Turk (possibly),[65] from Çorlu (köse means "a bowl, beardless")
141 Hekimo?lu Ali Pasha (3rd time) 16 February 1755 19 May 1755 From Istanbul, Venetian convert father and Turk mother.
142 Naili Abdullah Pasha 19 May 1755 24 August 1755 Turk,[66] from Istanbul
143 Silahdar B?y?kl? Ali Pasha, aka Ni?anc? Ali Pasha 24 August 1755 23 October 1755 Turk (possibly)[66]
144 Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha 25 October 1755 1 April 1756 Georgian,[66] from Edirne (Yirmisekiz means "twenty-eight"; named as such after his father who had served in the 28th Janissary corps battalion)
145 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (2nd time) 30 April 1756 3 December 1756 Turk,[67] from Çorlu (köse means "a bowl, beardless")
146 Koca Rag?p Pasha 12 January 1757 8 April 1763 Turk,[67] from Istanbul
147 Tevkii Hamza Hamid Pasha 11 April 1763 29 September 1763 Turk,[68] from Develi
148 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (3rd time) 29 September 1763 30 March 1765 Turk (possibly),[68] from Çorlu
149 Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 30 March 1765 7 August 1768 Arab (possibly),[68] son of Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha
150 Silahdar Hamza Mahir Pasha 7 August 1768 20 October 1768 Turk,[68] from Develi
151 Ya?l?kç?zade Mehmed Emin Pasha October 1768 12 August 1769 Turk,[69] from Istanbul
152 Moldovanc? Ali Pasha 12 August 1769 12 December 1769 Turk,[69] from Daday
153 Ivazzade Halil Pasha 13 December 1769 25 December 1770 Albanian[70] (1971) Son of ?vaz Mehmed Pasha, grandson of Nasrullah from Jagodina (in Serbia).[71]
154 Silahdar Mehmed Pasha 25 December 1770 11 December 1771 Turk (possibly),[72] from Istanbul
155 Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) December 1771 6 August 1774 Arab (possibly)[72]
156 Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 11 August 1774 7 July 1775 [73]
157 Moral? Dervish Mehmed Pasha 7 July 1775 5 January 1777 Turk[72] (Mora = "Morea")
158 Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha 5 January 1777 1 September 1778 Turk,[74] from Darende.
159 Kalafat Mehmed Pasha 1 September 1778 22 August 1779 Bulgarian,[74] from Sofia (Kalafat = Caulker).
160 Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha [tr] August 1779 20 February 1781 Turk,[74] from Arabsun near K?r?ehir
161 Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 20 February 1781 25 August 1782 [73]
162 Ye?en Hac? Mehmed Pasha 25 August 1782 31 December 1782 Turk[75] (Ye?en = Nephew, to the Ottoman sultan in his case).
163 Halil Hamid Pasha 31 December 1782 30 April 1785 Turk,[75] from Isparta. Great-grandfather of Kemal Dervi?, current administrator of the UNDP.
164 ?ahin Ali Pasha 30 April 1785 25 January 1786 Georgian[75]
165 Koca Yusuf Pasha (1st time) 25 January 1786 28 May 1789 Georgian[75]
166 Cenaze Hasan Pasha or Meyyit Hasan Pasha 28 May 1789 2 January 1790 Circassian[76] ("Cenaze" or "Meyyit" = A funeral, a corpse; literally "Hasan Pasha the Funeral" or "Hasan Pasha the Corpse"; named as such because he was in his deathbed, seriously ill, throughout his term)
167 Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha 2 January 1790 30 March 1790 Unknown origin[76] (Cezayirli means "from Algiers" since he had been a corsair there).
168 Çelebizade ?erif Hasan Pasha 16 April 1790 12 February 1791 origin unknown,[76] from Rusçuk.
169 Koca Yusuf Pasha (2nd time) 12 February 1791 1792 Georgian[77]
170 Damat Melek Mehmed Pasha 1792 21 October 1794 Turk[77] (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
171 Safranbolulu Izzet Mehmet Pasha 21 October 1794 23 October 1798 Turk,[77] from Safranbolu.[78]
172 Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1st time) 23 October 1798 24 June 1805 Georgian[79] (Kör = Blind)
173 Bostanc?ba Haf?z ?smail Pasha 24 September 1805 13 October 1806 Unknown origin[79]
174 Keçiboynuzu ?brahim Hilmi Pasha 13 October 1806 3 June 1807 Turk (possibly)[79] (Keçiboynuzu = Carob fruit, named as such because purportedly an extremely puny person)
175 Çelebi Mustafa Pasha 3 June 1807 29 July 1808 Unknown origin[80] (Çelebi = A refined gentleman with good manners)
176 Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, also called (Bayrakdar Mustafa Pasha) 29 July 1808 15 November 1808 Albanian,[34] from Rusçuk (possibly). (Alemdar or Bayraktar = standard bearer, same rank with two different names among the Janissaries)
177 Çavu?ba Memi? Pasha 16 November 1808 December 1808 Albanian[80] (Çavu?ba = Head sergeant)
178 Çarhac? Ali Pasha[] December 1808 March 1809 Turk[] (Çarhac? = Skirmisher)
179 Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (2nd time) March 1809 February 1811 Georgian[81]
180 Laz Ahmed Pasha February 1811 July 1812 Turk (possibly),[81]Laz[]
181 Hur?it Ahmed Pasha July 1812 30 March 1815 Georgian,[81] the only grand vizier who committed suicide (while in office)
182 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1st time) 30 March 1815 6 January 1818 Turk[81]
183 Burdurlu Dervish Mehmed Pasha 6 January 1818 5 January 1820 origin unknown,[82] from Burdur
184 Seyyid Ali Pasha 5 January 1820 21 April 1821 Turk[82]
185 Benderli Ali Pasha 21 April 1821 30 April 1821 origin unknown,[82] from Bender (Moldavia today). The last grand vizier who was executed upon an order clearly given by the sultan (because of the Greek War of Independence).
186 Izmirli Hac? Salih Pasha [tr] 30 April 1821 11 November 1822 Donmeh (possibly)[82]
187 Bostanc?ba Deli Abdullah Pasha 11 November 1822 4 March 1823 Turk[83] (Deli = Mad, literally Abdullah Pasha the Mad)
188 Turnac?zade Silahdar Ali Pasha 4 March 1823 13 December 1823 origin unknown[83]
189 Mehmed Said Galip Pasha 13 December 1823 15 September 1824 Turk[83]
190 "Benderli" Mehmed Selim Pasha 15 September 1824 26 October 1828 origin unknown,[83] from Bender (Moldavia today)
191 Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 26 October 1828 28 January 1829 Turk,[84] from Darende.
192 Re?id Mehmed Pasha January 1829 17 February 1833 Georgian or Greek[84]
193 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (2nd time) 17 February 1833 8 July 1839 Turk[84]
194 Husrev Pasha 8 July 1839 29 May 1841 Abazin[85]
195 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (3rd time) 29 May 1841 7 October 1841 Turk[85]
196 Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 7 October 1841 3 September 1842 Turk[86] from Darende
197 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (4th time) 3 September 1842 31 July 1846 Turk[86]
198 Koca Mustafa Re?id Pasha (1st time) 31 July 1846 28 April 1848 Turk[86]
199 ?brahim Sarim Pasha 28 April 1848 13 August 1848 Turk[87]
200 Koca Mustafa Re?id Pasha (2nd time) 13 August 1848 27 January 1852 Turk[87]
201 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (5th time) 27 January 1852 7 March 1852 Turk[87]
202 Koca Mustafa Re?it Pasha (3rd time) 7 March 1852 7 August 1852 Turk[88]
203 Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1st time) 7 August 1852 4 October 1852 Turk[88]
204 Damat Mehmed Ali Pasha 4 October 1852 14 May 1853 Hamsheni [89](Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman Dynasty).
205 Mustafa Naili Pasha (1st time) 14 May 1853 30 May 1854 Albanian[90] from Egypt, called Giritli=Cretan because he had served as governor in that island for a long time.
206 K?br?sl? Mehmed Emin Pasha (1st time) 30 May 1854 24 November 1854 Turk,[91] from Cyprus
207 Koca Mustafa Re?id Pasha (4th time) 24 November 1854 4 May 1855 Turk[91]
208 Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (2nd time) 4 May 1855 1 December 1856 Turk[92]
209 Koca Mustafa Re?id Pasha (5th time) 1 December 1856 2 August 1857 Turk[92]
210 Mustafa Naili Pasha (2nd time) 2 August 1857 23 October 1857 Albanian[92]
211 Koca Mustafa Re?id Pasha (6th time) 23 October 1857 7 January 1858 Turk[92]
212 Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (3rd time) 11 January 1858 8 October 1859 Turk[93]
213 K?br?sl? Mehmed Emin Pasha (2nd time) 8 October 1859 24 December 1859 Turk,[93] from Cyprus
214 Mütercim Mehmed Rü?di Pasha (1st time) 24 December 1859 27 May 1860 Turk[93] (Mütercim = A translator, an interpreter)
215 K?br?sl? Mehmed Emin Pasha (3rd time) 27 May 1860 6 August 1861 Turk,[94] from Cyprus
216 Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (4th time) 6 August 1861 22 November 1861 Turk[94]
217 Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1st time) 22 November 1861 6 January 1863 Turk,[94] from Konya (Keçecizade family).
218 Yusuf Kamil Pasha 6 January 1863 3 June 1863 Turk[95]
219 Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (2nd time) 3 June 1863 5 June 1866 Turk[95]
220 Mütercim Mehmed Rü?di Pasha (2nd time) 5 June 1866 11 February 1867 Turk[96]
221 Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (5th time) 11 February 1867 7 September 1871 Turk[96]
222 Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1st time) September 1871 31 July 1872 Georgian,[96] was often called Nedimoff due to his Russophile policies
223 Ahmed ?efik Midhat Pasha (1st time) 31 July 1872 19 October 1872 Turk (possibly),[97] family from Rusçuk, born in Istanbul.
224 Mütercim Mehmed Rü?di Pasha (3rd time) 19 October 1872 February 1873 Turk[97]
225 Sak?zl? Ahmed Esat Pasha (1st time) 15 February 1873 15 April 1873 Turk,[97] from Sak?z/Chios
226 ?irvanl? Mehmed Rü?di Pasha 15 April 1873 14 February 1874 Turk[97]
227 Hüseyin Avni Pasha 14 February 1874 25 April 1875 Turk[98]
228 Sak?zl? Ahmed Esat Pasha (2nd time) April 1875 August 1875 Turk,[98] from Sak?z (Chios)
229 Mahmud Nedim Pasha (2nd time) 21 August 1875 11 May 1876 Georgian[98]
230 Mütercim Mehmed Rü?di Pasha (4th time) 12 May 1876 19 December 1876 Turk[98]
231 Ahmed ?efik Midhat Pasha (2nd time) 19 December 1876 5 February 1877 Turk (possibly)[99] The last grand vizier who was executed -while in exile in Taif-. Whether or not there was a direct order from the Sultan Abdulhamid II remains subject of discussion to this day.)
232 ?brahim Edhem Pasha 5 February 1877 11 January 1878 Greek,[99] from Chios/Sak?z; sold as a slave in childhood to -later- Grand Vizier Husrev Pasha during the 1822 events in that island)
233 Ahmed Hamdi Pasha 11 January 1878 4 February 1878 Abazin[100]
234 Ahmed Vefik Pasha 4 February 1878 18 April 1878 Turk,[100] from Istanbul.
235 Mehmed Sad?k Pasha 18 April 1878 28 May 1878 Turk[101]
236 Mütercim Mehmed Rü?di Pasha (5th time) 28 May 1878 4 June 1878 Turk[101]
237 Saffet Pasha 4 June 1878 October 1878 Turk[102]
238 Tunuslu Hayreddin Pasha October 1878 28 July 1879 Abazin[102]
239 Ahmed Arifi Pasha 28 July 1879 September 1879 Turk[102]
240 Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time) 18 October 1879 9 June 1880 Turk[103]
241 Kadri Pasha 9 June 1880 12 September 1880 Turk,[103] from Antep
242 Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time) 12 September 1880 2 May 1882 Turk[104]
243 Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha 2 May 1882 12 July 1882 Turk,[104] from Kütahya (Germiyanid family)
244 Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time) 12 July 1882 30 November 1882 Turk[105]
245 Ahmed Vefik Pasha (2nd time) 1 December 1882 3 December 1882 Turk[105]
246 Mehmed Said Pasha (4th time) 3 December 1882 24 September 1885 Turk[105]
247 Kâmil Pasha (1st time) 25 September 1885 4 September 1891 Turk,[106] from Cyprus.
248 Ahmed Cevat ?akir Pasha 4 September 1891 8 June 1895 Turk,[106] from Kabaa?aç in Afyonkarahisar (?akirpa?azade family)
249 Mehmed Said Pasha (5th time) 9 June 1895 3 October 1895 Turk[106]
250 Kâmil Pasha (2nd time) 3 October 1895 7 November 1895 Turk,[107] from Cyprus.
251 Halil Rifat Pasha 7 November 1895 9 November 1901 Turk (possibly),[107] from Serez
252 Mehmed Said Pasha (6th time) 13 November 1901 15 January 1903 Turk[107]
253 Avlonyal? Mehmed Ferid Pasha 15 January 1903 22 July 1908 Albanian,[108][109] from Avlonya (Vlorë)
254 Mehmed Said Pasha (7th time) 22 July 1908 6 August 1908 Turk[108]
255 Kâmil Pasha (3rd time) 5 August 1908 14 February 1909 Turk,[108] from Cyprus
256 Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1st time) 14 February 1909 14 April 1909 Greek[110] or Turk[111] from Cyprus
257 Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (1st time) 14 April 1909 5 May 1909 Crimean Tatar[111]
258 Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (2nd time) 5 May 1909 12 January 1910 Greek or Turk, from Midilli
259 ?brahim Hakk? Pasha 12 January 1910 30 September 1911 Turk (possibly)[112]
260 Mehmed Said Pasha (8th time) 30 September 1911 22 July 1912 Turk[112]
261 Ahmed Muhtar Pasha 22 July 1912 29 October 1912 Turk,[113] from Bursa
262 Kâmil Pasha (4th time) 29 October 1912 23 January 1913 Turk,[114] from Cyprus
263 Mahmud Shevket Pasha 23 January 1913 11 June 1913 Chechen[114][115][116][117]
264 Said Halim Pasha 12 June 1913 4 February 1917 Albanian[70]
265 Mehmed Talaat Pasha 4 February 1917 14 October 1918 origin unknown,[70] from Edirne
266 Ahmed Izzet Pasha 14 October 1918 11 November 1918 Albanian[118][119] Ottoman, from Istanbul
267 Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (2nd time) 11 November 1918 4 March 1919 Crimean Tatar[120]
268 Damat Ferid Pasha (1st time) 4 March 1919 2 October 1919 Serbian from the region of Sand?ak , origins from Potoci born in Istanbul (Damat, bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
269 Ali R?za Pasha 2 October 1919 8 March 1920 Turk (possibly),[121] from Istanbul
270 Salih Hulusi Pasha 8 March 1920 5 April 1920 Circassian,[121] from Istanbul
271 Damat Ferid Pasha (2nd time) 5 April 1920 21 October 1920 Serbian from the region of Sand?ak in today Serbia, origins from Potoci born in Istanbul (Damat, bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
272 Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (3rd time) 21 October 1920 4 November 1922 Turk,[122] last grand vizier

See also

References

  1. ^ Archivum Ottomanicum, p. 240, at Google Books
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, p. 235, at Google Books
  3. ^ a b Dâni?mend 1971, p. 7.
  4. ^ Yücel 1991, p. 310.
  5. ^ a b c Dâni?mend 1971, p. 8.
  6. ^ a b c d e Dani?mend (1971), p. 9. (in Turkish)
  7. ^ Stavrides 2001, p. 55.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Dani?mend (1971), p. 10. (in Turkish)
  9. ^ a b Faveyrial, Jean-Claude (1888). Histoire de l'Albanie (in French). archives of the House of the Lazarite Missionaries in Paris. p. 215."Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-23. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)[better source needed]
  10. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 11. (in Turkish)
  11. ^ Theoharis Stavrides (2001). The Sultan of Vezirs: The Life and Times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelovic (1453-1474). Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-12106-5.
  12. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 12. (in Turkish)
  13. ^ Inalcik, Halil (1991). "Mes Pasha". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VI: Mahk-Mid. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 1025-1026. ISBN 90-04-08112-7.
  14. ^ Türkçülük ve Türkçülük mücadeleleri tarihi. 1969. p. 53. 11 - Koca Mustafa Pa?a (Rum)
  15. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 13. (in Turkish)
  16. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 14. (in Turkish)
  17. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 15. (in Turkish)
  18. ^ Alper, Omer Mahir, "Yunus Pa?a", (1999) Ya?amlar? ve Yap?tlar?yla Osmanl?lar Ansiklopedisi, ?stanbul:Yap? Kredi Kültür Sanat Yay?nc?l?k A.?. C.2 s.678 ISBN 975-08-0072-9
  19. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 16. (in Turkish)
  20. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 17. (in Turkish)
  21. ^ A military history of modern Egypt: from the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War by Andrew James McGregor p.30 [1]
  22. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 18. (in Turkish)
  23. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 25. (in Turkish)
  24. ^ Kim Mehmeti. Fara e bimes se keqe. p. 65. Nëna e tij, Aishe Humashah, ishte mbesa e Sulltan Sylejmanit.[better source needed]
  25. ^ Kim Mehmeti. Fara e bimes se keqe. p. 64. Nëna e Shemsi Ahmed Pashait, thuhet se ishte me origjinë familjare një pasardhës i drejtpërdrejtë i Halid Ibni Velidit, komandantit të famshëm të ushtrisë islame, i cili pushtoi Sirinë në kohën e profetit Muhamed, në shekullin e 7-të.[better source needed]
  26. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 21. (in Turkish)
  27. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 22. (in Turkish)
  28. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 23. (in Turkish)
  29. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 24. (in Turkish)
  30. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 26. (in Turkish)
  31. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 27. (in Turkish)
  32. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 29. (in Turkish)
  33. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 30. (in Turkish)
  34. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 31. (in Turkish)
  35. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 32. (in Turkish)
  36. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 33. (in Turkish)
  37. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 34. (in Turkish)
  38. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 35. (in Turkish)
  39. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 36. (in Turkish)
  40. ^ Uzunçarl? & Karal 1954, p. 393.
  41. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 37. (in Turkish)
  42. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 38. (in Turkish)
  43. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 39. (in Turkish)
  44. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 40. (in Turkish)
  45. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 41. (in Turkish)
  46. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 42. (in Turkish)
  47. ^ Server Rifat ?skit (1960). Resemli-harital? mufassal Osmanl? tarihi. 4. ?skit Yay?n?. p. 2067.
  48. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 33. (Turkish)
  49. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 44. (in Turkish)
  50. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 46. (in Turkish)
  51. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 47. (in Turkish)
  52. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 48. (in Turkish)
  53. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 49. (in Turkish)
  54. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 50. (in Turkish)
  55. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 51. (in Turkish)
  56. ^ Evg Radushev, Svetlana Ivanova, Rumen Kovachev - Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodi?. Orientalski otdel, International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (2003). Inventory of Ottoman Turkish documents about Waqf preserved in the Oriental Department at the St. St. Cyril and Methodius National Library. Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodi?. p. 224. ISBN 954-523-072-X. Hasan Pasa (Damad-i- Padisahi), Greek convert from Morea. He began his career as imperial armourer and rose to the post of Grand Vezir (1703). He married the daughter of Sultan Mehmed IV, Hatice Sultan, fell into disgrace and was exiled with his wife to izmit.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  57. ^ Catharine Theimer Nepomnyashchy; Nicole Svobodny; Ludmilla A. Trigos (2006). Under the sky of my Africa: Alexander Pushkin and blackness. Northwestern University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8101-1971-4. Shortly afterward a new grand vizier, Hasan, came to take the place of the old one, and he held his post during the period we are interested in: from November 16, 1703, to September 28, 1704. He was the new sultan's son-in-law... "he was a very honest and comparatively humane pasha of Greek origin and cannot be suspected of selling the sultan's pages to a foreigner."
  58. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 52. (in Turkish)
  59. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 53. (in Turkish)
  60. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 54. (in Turkish)
  61. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 55. (in Turkish)
  62. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 56. (in Turkish)
  63. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 57. (in Turkish)
  64. ^ a b c d e Dani?mend (1971), p. 58. (in Turkish)
  65. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 59. (in Turkish)
  66. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 60. (in Turkish)
  67. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 61. (in Turkish)
  68. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 62. (in Turkish)
  69. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 63. (in Turkish)
  70. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 102. (in Turkish)
  71. ^ Mehmed Süreyya (haz. Nuri Akbayar) (1996), Sicill-i Osmani, ?stanbul:Tarih Vakf? Yurt Yay?nlar? ISBN 975-333-0383 C.III s.607-608 [2]
  72. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 64. (in Turkish)
  73. ^ a b Mehmet Süreyya (1996) [1890], Nuri Akbayar; Seyit A. Kahraman (eds.), Sicill-i Osmanî (in Turkish), Be?ikta?, Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanl and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakf?, pp. 848-849
  74. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 65. (in Turkish)
  75. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 66. (in Turkish)
  76. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 67. (in Turkish)
  77. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 68. (in Turkish)
  78. ^ Mehmet Süreyya (1996) [1890], Nuri Akbayar; Seyit A. Kahraman (eds.), Sicill-i Osmanî (in Turkish), Be?ikta?, Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanl and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakf?, p. 849
  79. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 69. (in Turkish)
  80. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 70. (in Turkish)
  81. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 71. (in Turkish)
  82. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 72. (in Turkish)
  83. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 73. (in Turkish)
  84. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 74. (in Turkish)
  85. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 75. (in Turkish)
  86. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 76. (in Turkish)
  87. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 77. (in Turkish)
  88. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 78. (in Turkish)
  89. ^ History and identity among the Hemshin -HOVANN H. SIMONIAN -172
  90. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 79. (in Turkish)
  91. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 80. (in Turkish)
  92. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 81. (in Turkish)
  93. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 82. (in Turkish)
  94. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 83. (in Turkish)
  95. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 84. (in Turkish)
  96. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 85. (in Turkish)
  97. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 86. (in Turkish)
  98. ^ a b c d Dani?mend (1971), p. 87. (in Turkish)
  99. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 88. (in Turkish)
  100. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 89. (in Turkish)
  101. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 90. (in Turkish)
  102. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 91. (in Turkish)
  103. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 92. (in Turkish)
  104. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 93. (in Turkish)
  105. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 94. (in Turkish)
  106. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 95. (in Turkish)
  107. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 96. (in Turkish)
  108. ^ a b c Dani?mend (1971), p. 97. (in Turkish)
  109. ^ Gawrych, George (2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913. London: IB Tauris. pp. 23, 26, 132, 153. ISBN 9781845112875.
  110. ^ Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p. 45. OCLC 4694680. Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner.
  111. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 98. (in Turkish)
  112. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 99. (in Turkish)
  113. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 100. (in Turkish)
  114. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 101. (in Turkish)
  115. ^ Finkel, Caroline. (2007). Osman's dream : the history of the ottoman empire. New York: Basic Books. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-465-00850-6. OCLC 756484323.
  116. ^ Mango, Andrew. (1999). Atatürk. London: John Murray. p. 549. ISBN 0-7195-5612-0. OCLC 41547097.
  117. ^ " -?". (in Russian). Retrieved .
  118. ^ Nâz?m Tekta?, Sadrazamlar: Osmanl?'da ikinci adam saltanat?, Çat? Kitaplar?, 2002, p. .
  119. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 103. (in Turkish)
  120. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 104. (in Turkish)
  121. ^ a b Dani?mend (1971), p. 105. (in Turkish)
  122. ^ Dani?mend (1971), p. 106. (in Turkish)

Sources


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