Gy%C5%91r
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Gy%C5%91r
Gy?r
Ara Bona / Arrabona (in ancient Latin)
Jaurinum (in medieval Latin)
Raab (in German)
Ráb (in Slovak)
Jura / Vjura (in Croatian)
?er / ?ur / Janok (in Serbian)
Jawaryn (in Polish)
? / Raab (in Yiddish)
City with county rights
Gy?r Megyei Jogú Város
Flag of Gy?r
Flag
Coat of arms of Gy?r
Coat of arms
Gy?r is located in Hungary
Gy?r
Gy?r
Location of Gy?r
Gy?r is located in Europe
Gy?r
Gy?r
Gy?r (Europe)
Coordinates: 47°41?03?N 17°38?04?E / 47.6842°N 17.6344°E / 47.6842; 17.6344Coordinates: 47°41?03?N 17°38?04?E / 47.6842°N 17.6344°E / 47.6842; 17.6344
Government
 o Mayor Zsolt Borkai (Fidesz)
 o Deputy Mayor Dr Tivadar Somogyi (Fidesz-KDNP)
Dr Dávid Fekete (Fidesz-KDNP)
Ákos Radnóti (Fidesz-KDNP)
 o Town Notary Dr Szilárd Lipovits
Petra Tibold
Area[2]
 o City with county rights 174.62 km2 (67.42 sq mi)
Elevation 108 m (354 ft)
Population (1 January 2017)[2]
 o City with county rights 129,301[1]
 o Urban 246,159 (7th)[3]
Population by ethnicity[4]
 o Hungarians 91%
 o Germans 6.5%
 o Gypsies 0.8%
 o Romanians 0.2%
 o Croats 0.2%
 o Slovaks 0.2%
 o Bulgarians 0.1%
 o Polish 0.1%
 o Others 0.9%
Population by religion[5]
 o Roman Catholic 34.9%
 o Greek Catholic 2.3%
 o Evangelicals 11.3%
 o Calvinists 45.5%
 o Jews 2%
 o Other 0.0%
 o Non-religious 4%
Area code(s) (+36) 96
Motorways M1, M19, M85
NUTS 3 code HU221
Distance from Budapest 121 km (75 mi) East
International Airport Gy?r (QGY)
MP Róbert Balázs Simon (Fidesz)
Ákos Kara (Fidesz)
Website /www.gyor.hu/

Gy?r (Hungarian pronunciation: ['?ø:r]; German: Raab, Slovak: Ráb, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Gy?r-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and--halfway between Budapest and Vienna--situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe. The city is the sixth-largest in Hungary, and one of the seven main regional centres of the country.

History

The area along the Danube River has been inhabited by varying cultures since ancient times. The first large settlement dates back to the 5th century BCE; the inhabitants were Celts. They called the town Ara Bona "Good altar", later contracted to Arrabona, a name which was used until the eighth century. Its shortened form is still used as the German (Raab) and Slovak (Ráb) names of the city.

Roman merchants moved to Arrabona during the 1st century BCE. Around 10 CE, the Roman army occupied the northern part of Western Hungary, which they called Pannonia. Although the Roman Empire abandoned the area in the 4th century due to constant attacks by the tribes living to the east, the town remained inhabited.

Around 500 the territory was settled by Slavs, in 547 by the Lombards, and in 568-c. 800 by the Avars, at that time under Frankish and Slavic influence. During this time it was called Rabba and later Raab. Between 880 and 894, it was part of Great Moravia, and then briefly under East Frankish dominance.

Town Hall
Széchenyi Square
Rába at Gy?r
Gy?r 1939
Gy?r 1939

The Magyars occupied the town around 900 and fortified the abandoned Roman fortress. Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, founded an episcopate there. The town received its Hungarian name Gy?r. The Hungarians lived in tents, later in cottages, in what is now the southeastern part of the city centre. The town was affected by all the trials and tribulations of the history of Hungary: it was occupied by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Hungary (1241-1242) and then was destroyed by the Czech army in 1271.

After the disastrous battle of Mohács, Baron Tamás Nádasdy and Count György Cseszneky occupied the town for King Ferdinand I while John Zápolya also was attempting to annex it. During the Ottoman occupation of present-day central and eastern Hungary[6] (1541 - late 17th century), Gy?r's commander Kristóf Lamberg thought it would be futile to try to defend the town from the Turkish army. He burned down the town and the Turkish forces found nothing but blackened ruins, hence the Turkish name for Gy?r, Yan?k kale ("burnt castle").

During rebuilding, the town was surrounded with a castle and a city wall designed by the leading Italian builders of the era. The town changed in character during these years, with many new buildings built in Renaissance style, but the main square and the grid of streets remained.

In 1594, after the death of Count János Cseszneky, captain of Hungarian footsoldiers, the Ottoman army occupied the castle and the town. In 1598 the Hungarian and Austrian army took control of it again and occupied it.[7] During the Turkish occupation the city was called Yan?k Kala (burned place, as a reference to the enormous damages caused by the siege).[8]

In 1683, the Turks returned briefly, only to leave after being defeated in the Battle of Vienna.

During the following centuries, the town became prosperous. In 1743 Gy?r was elevated to free royal town status by Maria Theresa. The religious orders of Jesuits and Carmelites settled there, building schools, churches, a hospital, and a monastery.

In June 14, 1809, during the War of the Fifth Coalition this was the site of the Battle of Gy?r (Battle of Raab), where the army of Eugène de Beauharnais defeated the Hungarian "noble insurrection" (militia) and an Austrian corps under the Archdukes Joseph and Johann. Napoleon's forces occupied the castle and had some of its walls blown up. The leaders of the town soon realized that the old ramparts were not useful any more. Most of the ramparts were destroyed, allowing the town to expand.

In the mid-19th century, Gy?r's role in trade grew as steamship traffic on the River Danube began. The town lost its importance in trade when the railway line between Budapest and Kanizsa superseded river traffic after 1861. The town leaders compensated for this loss with industrialisation. The town prospered till World War II but, during the war, several buildings were destroyed. Some large-scale terror-bombings devastated the industrial and some residental areas and the airport, because the Rába factory was a main tank (Turán) and airplane (Bf-109) producer. One of these raids destroyed some parts of the maternity hospital.[9]

Bombing raid against Gy?pr, Late 1944
Significant minority groups
Nationality Population (2011)
 Germany 693
 Croatia 187
 Slovakia 184
 Romania 159
 Poland 70

The 1950s and '60s brought more change: only big blocks of flats were built, and the old historical buildings were not given care or attention. In the 1970s the reconstruction of the city centre began; old buildings were restored and reconstructed. In 1989 Gy?r won the European award for the protection of monuments.[]

A 100-year-old Raba factory on the River Danube close to the historical centre is to be replaced by a new community called Városrét. The mixed-use community will have residential and commercial space as well as schools, clinics and parks.

The city's main theatre is the National Theatre of Gy?r, finished in 1978. It features large ceramic ornaments made by Victor Vasarely.

The city has several historical buildings, for example the castle, and the Lutheran Evangelic church.

Climate

Climate data for Gy?r (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
5.3
(41.5)
10.7
(51.3)
16.0
(60.8)
21.5
(70.7)
24.3
(75.7)
26.6
(79.9)
26.3
(79.3)
21.5
(70.7)
15.6
(60.1)
8.0
(46.4)
3.9
(39)
15.2
(59.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) -0.5
(31.1)
1.3
(34.3)
5.5
(41.9)
10.4
(50.7)
15.7
(60.3)
18.6
(65.5)
20.4
(68.7)
19.9
(67.8)
15.5
(59.9)
10.2
(50.4)
4.6
(40.3)
1.1
(34)
10.2
(50.4)
Average low °C (°F) -3.3
(26.1)
-1.9
(28.6)
1.6
(34.9)
5.4
(41.7)
10.1
(50.2)
13.1
(55.6)
14.7
(58.5)
14.4
(57.9)
10.8
(51.4)
6.0
(42.8)
1.6
(34.9)
-1.4
(29.5)
5.9
(42.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32
(1.26)
33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
38
(1.5)
55
(2.17)
64
(2.52)
53
(2.09)
65
(2.56)
38
(1.5)
35
(1.38)
53
(2.09)
38
(1.5)
532
(20.97)
Average precipitation days 7 6 7 7 8 9 7 7 6 5 8 7 84
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60 97 138 189 247 250 268 259 188 143 73 51 1,963
Source #1: Meteorological Service of Hungary[10]
Source #2: HKO (precipitation, 1961-1990)

Main sights

The ancient core of the city is Káptalan Hill at the confluence of three rivers: the Danube, Rába, and Rábca. Püspökvár, the residence of Gy?r's bishops, can be easily recognized by its incomplete tower. Gy?r's oldest buildings are the 13th-century dwelling tower and the 15th-century Gothic Dóczy Chapel. The Cathedral, originally in Romanesque style, was rebuilt in Gothic and Baroque style.

Other sights include:

  • Town Hall
  • Benedictine church of St. Ignatius of Loyola
  • Carmelite church
  • Museum of Roman Archaeology

The Pannonhalma Archabbey is located some 20 km (12 miles) outside the town.

Renovation

The new Dunakapu Tér

After the year 2000 the city started many big construction and renovation projects.

The bigger changes include:

  • The Nádor-underpass, which relieved the Downtown's traffic infrastructure, and made the renovation of the Baross-Bridge possible.
  • Renovation of the Baross-Bridge.
  • Renovation of the old Soviet barracks and Bus Station by the company Leier.
  • Development of the Széchenyi István University, which is in close connection with AUDI Hungária ZRT.
  • Newly built Parking Houses which take off the high traffic load of the Downtown area. (e.g. József Attila and Dunakapu garage)
  • Renovation of the inner-downtown district. Széchenyi-square, Dunakapu-square, the territory next to the Moson-Danube and Rába.
  • Free City Bus which can used by everyone to get anywhere in the Downtown Area.
  • The Gy?r Arcade at Városliget.
  • The Kálóczy Square near the Széchenyi István University.
  • The Jedlik Bridge, which enabled traffic & transport between Sziget and Révfalu district.
  • The Rába Quelle thermal spa

Economy

Audi AG subsidiary company Audi Hungaria Motor Kft. has a large factory in Gy?r, where the Audi TT sports car, the A3 Cabriolet,[11]A3 Limousine,[12] and many engines (1,913,053 engines in 2007) are built. The factory opened in 1994, at first producing inline-four engines for the Audi marque. Business then grew to assembling the Audi TT Coupé and TT Roadster. Eventually, V6 and V8 engines were also included, and after the acquisition of Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A., Audi then began to build V10 engines. The V10s for Audi vehicles are fully assembled here, but only the cylinder blocks for the Lamborghini V10.[13] Engines are also supplied to other Volkswagen Group marques, but over 90% of Audi vehicle engines are made here.[14]

Notable people

Sports

Gy?r is the home of the Gy?ri ETO Sport Club, which has many sport divisions. The most popular sport in the city is handball, with the Gy?ri ETO KC being the city's main team. Gy?ri ETO FC is a football team.

Twin towns -- sister cities

Gy?r is twinned with:[15][16]

References

Notes

  1. ^ KSH, Gy?r, 2017
  2. ^ a b "Gazetteer of Hungary, 1 January 2017" (PDF) (in English and Hungarian). Hungarian Central Statistical Office. 2017-10-05. p. 52. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Eurostat, 2016
  4. ^ KSH - Gy?r, 2011
  5. ^ KSH - Gy?r, 2011
  6. ^ "Royal Hungary (historical region, Hungary) -". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Sugar, Peter F.; Hanák, Péter; Frank, Tibor, eds. (1990). A History of Hungary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 97.
  8. ^ "Gy?r ostroma. | Borovszky Samu: Magyarország vármegyéi és városai | Kézikönyvtár". www.arcanum.hu (in Hungarian). Retrieved .
  9. ^ Endre, Kozma. "Az 1944. április 13-i gy?ri terrorbombázás - Régi Gy?r". regigyor.hu (in Hungarian). Retrieved .
  10. ^ "Gy?r éghajlati jellemz?i" (in Hungarian). Meteorological Service of Hungary. Retrieved 2015.
  11. ^ "Start of production and world premiere for the Audi A3 Cabriolet in Hungary". Volkswagen AG. 30 November 2007. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  12. ^ "World Industrial Reporter - Audi Hungaria Celebrates Start of Production of A3 Limousine". © 2013 Thomas Publishing Company. 2013-06-13. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "Lamborghini Cars full specifications - First spyshots of the Lamborghini L140 model". LamboCars.com. Archived from the original on 2005-04-18. Retrieved 2009.
  14. ^ "Audi ups Hungarian output". BBJ.hu. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2012.
  15. ^ "www.gyor.hu - Twincities of Gy?r" (PDF). Admin.gyor.hu. Retrieved .
  16. ^ ? ? (in Russian). Admin.bryansk.ru. Archived from the original on February 14, 2008. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "Pozna? - Miasta partnerskie". 1998-2013 Urz?d Miasta Poznania (in Polish). City of Pozna?. Archived from the original on 2013-09-23. Retrieved .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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