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The city has diverse neighborhoods and land uses located close to one another. Within its borders are the prominent Hackensack University Medical Center, a trendy high-rise district about a mile long, classic suburban neighborhoods of single-family houses, stately older homes on acre-plus lots, older two-family neighborhoods, large garden apartment complexes, industrial areas, the Bergen County Jail, a tidal river, Hackensack River County Park, Borg's Woods Nature Preserve, various city parks, large office buildings, a major college campus, the Bergen County Court House, a vibrant small-city downtown district, and various small neighborhood business districts.
Hackensack, NJ 1896 map
The first inhabitants of the area were the Lenni Lenape, an Algonquian people who became known to settlers as 'the Delaware Indians.' They lived along a river they called 'Achinigeu-hach,' or "Ackingsah-sack", which translates to 'stony ground'--today this river is more commonly known by the name 'the Hackensack River.' A representation of Chief Oratam of the Achkinhenhcky appears on the Hackensack municipal seal.
The most common explanation is that the city was named for the Native American tribe, though other sources attribute it to a Native American word variously translated as meaning "hook mouth", "stream that unites with another on low ground", "on low ground" or "land of the big snake", while another version described as "more colorful than probable" attributes the name to an inn called the "Hock and Sack".
In 1675, the East Jersey Legislature established the administrative districts Bergen, Essex, Middlesex, and Monmouth. In 1683, Bergen (along with the three other counties) was officially recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly.The seal of Bergen County bearing this date includes an image of an agreement between the settlers and the natives.
In 1700, the village of Hackensack was little more than the area around Main Street from the Courthouse to around Anderson Street. New Barbadoes Township included what is now Maywood, Rochelle Park, Paramus and River Edge, along with those portions of Oradell that are west of the Hackensack River. These areas were all very sparsely populated and consisted of farm fields, woods and swamplands. The few roads that existed then included the streets now known as Kinderkamack Road, Paramus Road/Passaic Street and Essex Street. The southernmost portions of what is now Hackensack were not part of New Barbadoes Township at that time.
The neighborhood that came to be known as the village of Hackensack (today the area encompassing Bergen County's municipal buildings in Hackensack) was a part of Essex County until 1710, when Bergen County, by royal decree of Queen Anne of Great Britain, was enlarged and the Township of New Barbadoes was removed from Essex County and added to Bergen County.
In 1710, the village of Hackensack (in the newly formed Township of New Barbadoes) was designated as being more centrally located and more easily reached by the majority of the Bergen County's inhabitants, hence, was chosen as the county seat of Bergen County, as it remains today. The earliest records of the Bergen County Board of Chosen Freeholders date back to 1715, at which time agreement was made to build a courthouse and jail complex, which was completed in 1716.
The Hackensack Improvement Commission was incorporated by an Act of the state legislature approved on April 1, 1868, within New Barbadoes township and including the village of Hackensack, with authority to develop sewers and other improvements in Hackensack.
The New Jersey Legislature passed the Township School Act in 1894, under which each village, borough, town, or city in New Jersey was delegated responsibility for its own public schools through the office of the county superintendent. Hackensack established a local board of education in 1894, as required by the new law, which took over operation of schools located in the township and established Hackensack High School. The 1894 act allowed local residents, by petition, to change municipal boundaries at will, setting off fearsome political battles statewide.
Portions of the township had been taken to form Harrington Township (June 22, 1775), Lodi Township (March 1, 1826), Midland Township (March 7, 1871) and Little Ferry (September 20, 1894). After these departures, secessions, and de-annexations, all that was left of New Barbadoes Township was the village of Hackensack and its surrounding neighborhoods of Fairmount, Red Hill and Cherry Hill. In 1896, New Barbadoes acquired a portion of Lodi Township covering an area south of Essex Street from the bend of Essex Street to the Maywood border. That same year the Hackensack Improvement commission was abolished and the City of Hackensack and New Barbadoes Township became coterminous.
The final parcel lost by New Barbadoes Township was the northeastern corner of what is now Little Ferry, which was incorporated in September 1894.
An act of the State Legislature incorporated the Fairmount section of New Barbadoes with the Hackensack Improvement Commission, and eliminated New Barbadoes Township as a political entity. On November 21, 1921, based on the results of a referendum held on November 8, 1921, New Barbadoes Township received its charter to incorporate as a city and officially took on its name "Hackensack," a name derived from its original inhabitants, the Lenni Lenape, who named it "Ackingsah-sack".
In 1933, Hackensack adopted the Manager form of government under the terms of the 1923 Municipal Manager Law, with five Council persons all elected at-large and a mayor selected by the council from among its members.
The Sears location on Main Street, which opened on October 27, 1932, and was the last freestanding Sears in the state of New Jersey, closed on September 12, 2020.
View of Hackensack from a plane
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 4.35 square miles (11.27 km2), including 4.19 square miles (10.86 km2) of land and 0.16 square miles (0.41 km2) of water (3.63%).
There are many houses of historic value, and some of these were identified in the 1990 Master Plan. The city does not have any registered historic districts, or any restrictions on preserving the historic facade in any portions of the city. Areas considered suburban single-family residential neighborhoods account for about one third of the city's area, mostly along its western side.
As the initial destination for many immigrants to Bergen County from around the globe, Hackensack's ethnic composition has become exceptionally diverse. As of 2013, approximately 38.9% of the population was foreign-born. In addition, 2.5% were born in the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico or abroad to American parents. 51.7% of the population over the age of five speak only English in their household, while 32.5% of the population speaks Spanish at home. The South Asian and East Asian populations have increased most rapidly in Hackensack since 2000, with nearly 2,000 Indian Americans, over 1,000 Filipino Americans, and over 600 Korean Americans represented in the 2010 United States Census. Hackensack's Hispanic population has also risen rapidly, to over 15,000 in 2010;Ecuadoreans, Dominicans, and Colombians have become the top Hispanic groups in northern Hackensack. The Black population dropped as a percentage although minimally in absolute numbers between 2000 and 2010. The city lost approximately 10% of its White population between 2000 and 2010, which has stabilized and resumed growth since 2010 and has remained substantial, at over 20,000 in 2010. The city has also witnessed greatly increasing diversity in its non-Hispanic white segment, with large numbers of Eastern Europeans, Eurasians, Central Asians, and Arabic immigrants offsetting the loss in Hackensack's earlier established Italian American, Irish American, and German American populations.
Of the 18,142 households, 23.2% had children under the age of 18; 34.1% were married couples living together; 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present and 46.5% were non-families. Of all households, 39.3% were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 3.11.
18.7% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 34.6% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.5 years. For every 100 females, the population had 98.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 96.4 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $57,676 (with a margin of error of +/- $3,577) and the median family income was $66,911 (+/- $5,433). Males had a median income of $45,880 (+/- $4,012) versus $42,059 (+/- $1,681) for females. The per capita income for the city was $32,036 (+/- $1,809). About 8.9% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over.
There were 18,113 households, out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.8% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.3% were non-families. 39.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the city the population was spread out, with 18.2% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 38.4% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $49,316, and the median income for a family was $56,953. Males had a median income of $39,636 versus $32,911 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,856. About 6.8% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.1% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.
Hackensack operates under the 1923 Municipal Manager Law form of New Jersey municipal government. The city is one of seven municipalities (of the 565) statewide that use this form of government. The City Council is comprised of five members who are elected to four-year terms on a concurrent basis in a non-partisan election held every four years in May. This form of government separates policy making (the work of the mayor and city council) from the execution of policy (the work of the city manager). This maintains professional management and a Citywide perspective through: nonpartisan election, at-large representation, concentration of executive responsibility in the hands of a professional manager accountable to the Mayor and Council, concentration of policy making power in one body: a five-person Mayor and Council. In the several decades in which the City has used the Municipal Manager form of government, Hackensack has had only nine City Managers.
As of 2020[update], the mayor of the City of Hackensack is John P. Labrosse Jr., whose term of office as mayor ends June 30, 2021, along with those of all other councilmembers. Other members of the Hackensack City Council are Deputy Mayor Kathleen Canestrino, Deputy Mayor David Sims, Leonardo "Leo" Battaglia and Stephanie Von Rudenborg. The May 2017 election was won by the Labrosse Team, which include the mayor and three other incumbents, joined by one newcomer.
In April 2015, the city council selected Jason Some on an interim basis to fill the vacant seat of Rose Greenman, who had resigned the previous month citing claims that her council colleagues had discriminated against her. In the November 2015 general election, Deborah Keeling-Geddis was elected to serve the balance of the term of office, edging interim councilmember Jason Some by 24 votes in the final count, with four candidates running for the seat.
City Council candidate Joseph DeFalco, principal of Hackensack High School, died of a heart attack the day of the municipal election in 2005, but was elected despite his death. His running mates agreed to create a rotation under which each of the four surviving members of the New Visions for Hackensack slate would serve for a year as Mayor, creating a series of firsts for the City. Townes took office in 2005 as the city's first black mayor, and Sasso became the first female mayor in 2006. Meneses became Hackensack's first Hispanic mayor when he was sworn in on July 1, 2007, and Melfi took the reins as mayor in 2008. Four of the same five officials were re-elected in 2009 (Townes, Melfi, Sasso, Meneses), along with one opposition candidate, LaBrosse. The city council continued to rotate the mayor's seat, with the exception of Labrosse, and Melfi became mayor again in 2012.
Frank Zisa served as mayor from 1977 to 1981, Fred Cerbo from 1981 to 1989, and John F. "Jack" Zisa (son of Frank Zisa) from 1989 to 2005.
Former Assemblyman Charles "Ken" Zisa served as chief of the Hackensack Police Department from his 1995 appointment to replace John Aletta until May 2010 when he was suspended without pay on charges of official misconduct and insurance fraud. Tomas Padilla was appointed the acting police chief while the police department was being monitored by the Bergen County Prosecutors office. In May 2012, a judge ordered Zisa out of his position as police chief, a decision that cost him his police retirement benefits. In January 2013, Mike Mordaga was appointed the new civilian police director, which replaced the previous position of police chief.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 19,123 registered voters in Hackensack, of which 8,630 (45.1% vs. 31.7% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 1,993 (10.4% vs. 21.1%) were registered as Republicans and 8,492 (44.4% vs. 47.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 8 voters registered to other parties. Among the city's 2010 Census population, 44.5% (vs. 57.1% in Bergen County) were registered to vote, including 54.7% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 73.7% countywide).
In the 2016 presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton received 12,015 votes (76.0% vs. 54.2% countywide), ahead of Republican Donald Trump with 3,345 votes (21.2% vs. 41.1%) and other candidates with 380 votes (2.4% vs. 4.6%), among the 15,913 ballots cast by the city's 22,926 registered voters, for a turnout of 69.4% (vs. 72.5% in Bergen County). In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 11,335 votes (78.6% vs. 54.8% countywide), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 2,835 votes (19.6% vs. 43.5%) and other candidates with 113 votes (0.8% vs. 0.9%), among the 14,428 ballots cast by the city's 20,971 registered voters, for a turnout of 68.8% (vs. 70.4% in Bergen County). In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 11,711 votes (75.7% vs. 53.9% countywide), ahead of Republican John McCain with 3,498 votes (22.6% vs. 44.5%) and other candidates with 102 votes (0.7% vs. 0.8%), among the 15,461 ballots cast by the city's 20,616 registered voters, for a turnout of 75.0% (vs. 76.8% in Bergen County). In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 9,815 votes (71.0% vs. 51.7% countywide), ahead of Republican George W. Bush with 3,870 votes (28.0% vs. 47.2%) and other candidates with 88 votes (0.6% vs. 0.7%), among the 13,818 ballots cast by the city's 19,013 registered voters, for a turnout of 72.7% (vs. 76.9% in the whole county).
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 59.7% of the vote (4,268 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 39.0% (2,790 votes), and other candidates with 1.2% (89 votes), among the 7,327 ballots cast by the city's 19,506 registered voters (180 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 37.6%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 6,247 ballots cast (70.9% vs. 48.0% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 2,194 votes (24.9% vs. 45.8%), Independent Chris Daggett with 288 votes (3.3% vs. 4.7%) and other candidates with 31 votes (0.4% vs. 0.5%), among the 8,812 ballots cast by the city's 19,819 registered voters, yielding a 44.5% turnout (vs. 50.0% in the county).
The YCS George Washington School is a nonprofit private school for classified students ages 5-14 in grades K-8 who are experiencing behavioral and/or emotional difficulties. Its population consists of students who reside at the YCS Holley Child Care and Development Center in Hackensack and students within the surrounding communities whose needs cannot be adequately met in special education programs within their districts.
Padre Pio Academy is a defunct K-8 school that operated under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark until its closure at the end of the 2012-13 school year in the wake of declining enrollment and a deficit approaching $350,000. The school had been formed in 2009 by the diocese through the merger of St. Francis of Assisi School with Holy Trinity.
Bergen Community College has a location in Hackensack. The Philip Ciarco Jr. Learning Center, is located at 355 Main Street at the corner of Passaic Street.
Eastwick College is located at 250 Moore Street.
Hackensack Meridian Health Medical Center is the primary health care provider and hospital for the city of Hackensack. Its main hospital campus, which includes a children's hospital, an all women's hospital, and Heart and Vascular Hospital, is located on 30 Prospect Avenue. The other facility that the hospital has is the John Theurer Cancer Center, located on 2nd Street.
Hackensack University Medical Center has two medical offices located on Russell Place and Essex Center. It also has a career center located on 2nd Street nearby the John Theurer Cancer Center.
I-80 westbound at Route 17 in Hackensack
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the city had a total of 79.69 miles (128.25 km) of roadways, of which 62.10 miles (99.94 km) were maintained by the municipality, 15.10 miles (24.30 km) by Bergen County and 2.49 miles (4.01 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
Hackensack Fire Department responding to a house fire.
The City of Hackensack is protected by a force of 100 paid, professional firefighters of the city of Hackensack Fire Department (HFD). The Hackensack Fire Department was first established on April 1, 1871 as Bergen Hook & Ladder Co. 1. In 1911, the full-time fire department was organized. The Hackensack Fire Department responds to approximately 7,500 emergency calls annually.
The Hackensack Ford dealership fire on July 1, 1988, resulted in the deaths of five firefighters after a bowstring truss roof collapsed. A message issued a minute before the collapse ordering firefighters out was never received due to defective communications equipment and two firefighters who survived the initial collapse could not be rescued as their calls for help were not received.
Ten firefighters from Hackensack have died in the line of duty.
The Hackensack Fire Department currently operates out of four fire stations located throughout the city, under the command of a Deputy Chief / Tour Commander for each shift. The Hackensack Fire Department operates a fire apparatus fleet of four engines, one ladder, two rescues (Rescue 2 is part of the Metro USAR Collapse Rescue Strike Team), one Metro USAR (urban search and rescue) Collapse Rescue Shoring Unit, one Special Operations (flood rescue) Unit, one Air Cascade Unit, one fire alarm maintenance bucket truck, two spare engines, and one spare ladder, as well as several special and support units.
The department is part of the Metro USAR Strike Team, which consists of nine North Jersey fire departments and other emergency services divisions working to address major emergency rescue situations.
Rescue 1, Rescue 2 (Metro USAR Collapse Rescue Strike Team Unit), Air Cascade 1, Metro USAR (Urban Search And Rescue) Collapse Rescue Shoring Unit, (reserve/spare apparatus - Ladder 2, Engine 3, Engine 6)
Deputy Chief 1/Tour Commander
205 State Street
784 Main Street
The Hackensack Volunteer Ambulance Corps provides emergency medical services to Hackensack and other nearby towns through mutual aid agreements. The Corps operates nightly from 6pm to 6am, and 24 hours on Saturdays and Sundays. Daytime EMS is provided seven days a week by the Hackensack University Medical Center's ambulance service, overlapping volunteer coverage on weekends. Both the Hackensack University Medical Center and Hackensack Volunteer Ambulance Corps are dispatched by MICCOM, the Northern New Jersey Mobile Intensive Care Communications Network. MICCOM provides dispatch and emergency medical call taking with pre-arrival instructions and updates.
The city historian is Albert Dib. Walking tours are conducted of historic markers in downtown Hackensack, in and around The Green and lower Main Street, and a virtual historic walking tour is available as far north as the Pascack Valley Line crossing at Main Street.
The First Dutch Reformed Church ("Church on The Green") was built in 1696. In 1696 Major Berry donated land for the First Dutch Reformed Church, erected in that same year, which still stands in Hackensack today as the oldest church in Bergen County and the second oldest church in New Jersey. The following is list of notable people buried in the Church's adjoining cemetery:
Bergen County's largest newspaper, The Record, a publication of the North Jersey Media Group, had been headquartered in Hackensack until moving to Woodland Park. Its 19.7-acre (8.0 ha) campus is largely abandoned and has been sold to be redeveloped for a mixed-use commercial project that would include 500 residential apartments and a hotel, in association with the river walkway project.
The Hackensack Cultural Arts Center, located at 39 Broadway, is the city's leading theater arts institution and houses many local arts groups such as the Teaneck Theater Company and the Hackensack Theater Company. The facility also serves as the summer indoor location for the Hudson Shakespeare Company in case of rain. Otherwise, the group performs outdoors at Staib Park, with two "Shakespeare Wednesdays" per month for each month of the summer.
The Shops at Riverside (formerly known as Riverside Square Mall), is an upscale shopping center located at the intersection of Route 4 and Hackensack Avenue at the northern edge of the city along the Hackensack River near its border with River Edge to the north and with Teaneck across the river. The mall, which has undergone a significant expansion, is anchored by a number of high-end department stores and restaurants, including Bloomingdale's, Tiffany & Co., Pottery Barn and Barnes & Noble, offering a gross leasable area of 674,416 square feet (62,655.3 m2). The mall also added an AMC Theatres dine-in movie theater on September 13, 2017 which replaced the former Saks Fifth Avenue store . The mall is known for its marble floors, and attracts a great many upper income shoppers from Manhattan and Northern Bergen County.
Hackensack's Main Street is devoted to shopping and includes some of the city's iconic landmarks, including the United Jersey Bank headquarters building and the former Woolworth site that is now a housewares store. The only remaining major store on Hackensack's Main Street had been Sears Roebuck and Co., which was located on the corner of Main and Anderson Streets. In July 2020, Sears announced that it will close its store in Hackensack. The site is close to the Anderson Street train station, and has been open since the 1930s,
Bergen County Jail is a detention center for both sentenced and unsentenced prisoners. It is located on South River Street. The County is in the process of moving the County Police from the northern end of the city to a new site across from the Jail. The former site will be redeveloped as a "transit village" complex associated with the New Bridge Landing station in adjoining River Edge.
Ice House is a complex with four full-sized skating rinks that opened in 1996. It is home to the New Jersey Avalanche mainstreamed and special needs hockey teams and several high school hockey teams, in addition to being the home rink of gold medalists Sarah Hughes, Elena Bereznaia and Anton Sikharulidze. At the 2018 Winter Olympics, there were 11 Olympic figure skaters--from Israel, Switzerland, Slovakia, Canada, and Australia--who trained at the Ice House for the ladies' singles, men's singles, pairs and ice dance competitions.
Radio station WNYM at 970 AM, is licensed to Hackensack and has its transmitter in the city. The station is currently owned by Salem Communications with a conservative talk format. During the 1970s, it played a Top 40 music radio format for several years, competing (unsuccessfully) with Top 40 powerhouse 77 WABC (AM).
In popular culture
Hackensack has been mentioned in the lyrics of songs by several musical artists, many of whom have lived in New Jersey or New York City. The town was home to the original Van Gelder recording studio at 25 Prospect Avenue where the jazz musicians Sonny Rollins and Thelonious Monk recorded some of their landmark work. Monk recorded a tribute to Rudy Van Gelder entitled "Hackensack". Other notable examples of Hackensack in songs include:
The 1929 Billy Murray/Walter Scanlan recording of "Shut the Door" has the lines, "I live out in Hackensack in a place down by the sea. (Oh, you live out in Hackensack. Well, don't blame that on me!)" despite the fact that Hackensack is a dozen miles from the sea, and on the other side of the Hudson.
In the 1954 film Rear Window directed by Alfred Hitchcock, L.B. Jefferies' (Jimmy Stewart) maid, Stella (Thelma Ritter), muses that she had handled enough rhodium tri-eckonol pills to "put everybody in Hackensack to sleep for the winter." She makes the statement while she and Jefferies spy on his neighbors, one of which was laying out on a table a set of pills in an apparent contemplation of suicide.
The 1985 film Brewster's Millions starred Richard Pryor, who played a pitcher for the Hackensack Bulls, a fictional minor-league baseball team that plays in a stadium where a railroad track runs across the outfield.
In the 1998 film Bride of Chucky, Chucky's human body is said to be buried in a fictional Hackensack cemetery.
The 2013 film Don Jon starring and directed by Joseph Gordon-Levitt was filmed in Hackensack. The Church of St. Anthony of Padua, located on S. Main Street, can be seen in the movie.
In the 1997 film adaptation Private Parts, when Howard Stern leaves WCCC for WWWW, he is speaking to DJ Fred Norris from a vehicle parked in front of 299 Main Street. The camera pans out and stores are seen in the backdrop as Howard Stern drives off.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Hackensack include:
^ abRondinaro, Gene. "If You're Thinking Of Living In: Hackensack", The New York Times, March 18, 1984. Accessed December 13, 2011. "There are other signs of renewed health. New high-rise residential buildings with exceptional views of the Manhattan skyline have sprung up along Prospect Avenue in the Heights area to the west."
^Wright, Kevin W. The Indigenous Population of Bergen County, Bergen County Historical Society. Accessed June 30, 2011. "Achkinckeshacky or Acking-sack, (later Hackensack) is an approximation of Achsinnigeu-haki, meaning stony ground."
^MacLean, Maggie. "Sarah Kiersted", History of American Women, March 10, 2008. Accessed December 28, 2016. "Painting depicts Sarah Kiersted, a Dutch woman in New Netherlands who learned the Lenape language and served Chief Oratam as a translator in his negotiations with Dutch colonists. She was rewarded by him in 1666 with a gift of 2260 acres of land on the Hackensack River."
^Nottle, Diane. "Do You Know These Women?", The New York Times, March 1, 1998. Accessed December 8, 2013. "Even before the Elizabeths, a Dutch housewife named Sarah Kiersted was learning the language of the local Lenape Indians, possibly as early as the 1640s. She became a channel of communication between Dutch settlers and the Lenape Chief Oratam, and for her services the chief granted her almost 2,300 acres - comprising all of Ridgefield Park and sections of Teaneck and Bogota - in 1666."
^Brief History of Ridgefield, Ridgefield Online, backed up by the Internet Archive as of April 18, 2012. Accessed July 31, 2014. "In 1675, Ridgefield was known as the English Neighborhood, covering an area of about 10 square miles from the Hudson River on the east to the Hackensack River on the west, Englewood on the north and Hudson County on the south."
^Discovering History, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed Ocgtober 2, 2019. "The oldest records of the Bergen County Board of Freeholders and Justices are dated May 19, 1715. At that meeting, it was decided to build a combined courthouse and jail which was erected on Hackensack's historic Green in 1716."
^Wright, Kevin. "Punkin Duster Finds The Woodchuck Borough: A Centennial Review of Bergen County Borough Fever 1894-95", Bergen County Historical Society. Accessed December 13, 2011. "In February 1896, the Legislature annexed a portion of Lodi Township to New Barbadoes so as to place Polifly Road as far south as the Lodi Branch Railroad within the boundaries of the Hackensack Improvement Commission. Scuttlebutt had it that the 'chief purpose [of the annexation] is, as appears on the surface, to secure improvement of Polifly road.' By further act of the legislature, the Township of New Barbadoes became conterminous in boundaries with the city of Hackensack and the New Barbadoes Township Committee was abolished in favor of government by the Hackensack Improvement Board of Commissioners."
^Bergen County New Jersey Municipalities, Dutch Door Genealogy. Accessed December 13, 2011. "Little Ferry became a Bergen County, N.J. borough organized by referendum September 18, 1894 and incorporated September 20, 1894 from area taken from Lodi and New Barbardoes Townships."
^Historic Meeting Minutes, City of Hackensack. Accessed August 30, 2017. "The City's form of government was changed by referendum vote on May 23, 1933, to the Municipal Manager Plan. This called for the appointment of a professional manager and a five-person Council elected at large. The first new Council was elected June 20, 1933."
^ abAlbrizio, Lianna. "Hackensack Sears Poised To Be Next in New Jersey To Shutter", TAPinto Hackensack, July 2, 2020. Accessed December 27, 2020. "When Sears first opened in Hackensack on October 27, 1932 at 436 Main Street, what had become the city's landmark department store decades later was the largest of its kind in all of Bergen County, according to the county's historic site survey, and it's population was almost half of what it is today."
^Mayor and City Council, City of Hackensack. Accessed March 25, 2020. "The City operates under the New Jersey Municipal Manager Law of 1923. This form of government separates policy making (the work of the Mayor and City Council) from the execution of policy (the work of the City Manager)."
^Jerde, Sara. "Ticket of mostly incumbents wins Hackensack race", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 10, 2017. Accessed August 30, 2017. "After an intense campaign season, the Labrosse team swept in the municipal election Tuesday night in Hackensack, according to unofficial election results.... In Hackensack, the ticket with the most incumbents running, including Mayor John Labrosse, Deputy Mayor Kathleen Canestrino, Councilman Leo Battaglia and Councilman David Sims, won. Stephanie Von Rudenborg was also on the ticket."
^Vazquez, Jennifer. "Hackensack council appoints new member to fill vacancy left by resignation", Hackensack Chronicle, April 24, 2015, backed up by the Internet Archive as of April 19, 2016. Accessed August 30, 2017. "City officials appointed a young business owner to the seat left vacant after the resignation by former councilwoman Rose Greenman.... The vacancy was a result of Greenman's resignation last month, in which she claimed discrimination and retaliation."
^South, Todd. "Keeling-Geddis is confirmed winner in Hackensack council race", The Record, November 11, 2015, backed up by the Internet Archive as of March 19, 2016. Accessed August 30, 2017. "Keeling-Geddis emerged as the winner in last week's race for an unexpired council term after the votes were certified late Tuesday. She defeated incumbent Jason Some - who initially was in the lead - and two other candidates.... In numbers Keeling-Geddis said she received in a fax from the county elections board, she won in the field of four with 819 votes, followed by Jason Some with 785, Jason Nunnermacker with 758 and Richard Cerbo with 266."
^Staff. "Dead Candidate's Slate Wins Hackensack Election", The New York Times, May 11, 2005. Accessed August 30, 2017. "A candidate for the City Council in Hackensack, N.J., who died of a heart attack yesterday morning was elected last night as part of a five-person slate.Skip to next paragraphThe candidate, Joseph DeFalco, 61, who was the principal of Hackensack High School, collapsed at his home around 8 a.m. and was pronounced dead at Hackensack University Medical Center, according to his campaign staff."
^Sposito, Sean. "'Tag Team' of Pioneers; Hackensack Swears in Its First Hispanic Mayor", The Record, July 2, 2007, backed up by the Internet Archive as of January 12, 2016. Accessed August 30, 2017. "Members of the City Council have been rotating the mayoralty since running mate Joe DeFalco's fatal heart attack on Election Day 2005. Traditionally, in Hackensack a mayor is appointed after the council is elected. But DeFalco's sudden death left the New Visions for Hackensack ticket in disarray. Councilman Marlin Townes served until June 2006, becoming the city's first black mayor. He was followed by Karen Sasso, who became the city's first woman mayor. She handed over the reins to Meneses on Sunday.... Newly appointed Deputy Mayor Michael R. Melfi will take his turn as mayor next in what Sasso describes as a 'tag team' of politicians."
^"Fred CerboObituary", The Record, August 27, 2012. Accessed November 12, 2015. "He began his public service career with the Hackensack City Council and was elected and served as Mayor from 1981-1989."
^Biography, Congressman Josh Gottheimer. Accessed January 3, 2019. "Josh now lives in Wyckoff, New Jersey with Marla, his wife who was a federal prosecutor, and their two young children, Ellie and Ben."
^Hackensack Board of Education District Policy 0110 - Identification, Hackensack Public Schools. Accessed April 6, 2020. "Purpose: The Board of Education exists for the purpose of providing a thorough and efficient system of free public education in grades Pre-Kindergarten through twelve in the Hackensack School District. Composition: The Hackensack School District is comprised of all the area within the County of Bergen."
^Tarrazi, Alexis. "Agreement reached between Maywood, Hackensack"Archived 2013-12-13 at the Wayback Machine, Hackensack Chronicle, March 9, 2012. Accessed November 5, 2013. "The Maywood school district has been sending its students to Hackensack High School for decades and currently sends 250 students. The high school also serves about 120 students from Rochelle Park and 80 students from South Hackensack, according to The Record."
^Stoltz, Marsha A. "Here's why Maywood will send its students to Becton instead of Hackensack High School", The Record, March 9, 2020. Accessed April 6, 2020. "Maywood high school students will have four years to phase out of Hackensack High School and into Henry P. Becton Regional High School in East Rutherford. The process will begin in September, when current Maywood eighth-graders will be the first to attend Becton as freshmen, according to a March 7 joint announcement by the superintendents of the two districts."
^New Application, iLearn Schools. Accessed August 30, 2017. "Bergen Arts and Science Charter School (Bergen-ASCS): Garfield, Lodi and Hackensack"
^About The School, YCS George Washington School. Accessed November 29, 2014. "The YCS George Washington School is a NJ Department of Education approved private school for classified students with behavioral, emotional and social challenges. We have been successfully educating students ages 5 - 14, grades K - 8, for over 30 years."
^Adely, Hannan. "Archdiocese plans to close Hackensack Catholic school"Archived 2014-12-05 at the Wayback Machine, The Record, February 12, 2013. Accessed November 29, 2014. "The Padre Pio Academy, a Catholic elementary school, will close for good at the end of the school year, an archdiocese spokesman said Tuesday.... 'Very clearly, this is a case where there are fewer and fewer students each year to be educated and the deficit that the school has been running has been consistently high -- at least $200,000 a year,' Goodness said. This year, the school was expected to operate with a $347,000 deficit, he said."
^Hughes, Jennifer V. "Catholic Plan to Shut Schools Draws Protests", The New York Times, March 5, 2009. Accessed November 29, 2014. "The other schools in the Newark Archdiocese, all kindergarten to eighth grade, that will be affected include Holy Trinity and St. Francis of Assisi, both in Hackensack, which will merge to become Padre Pio Academy at the St. Francis site on South Main Street."
^Adely, Hanna. "(Archive) The Hackensack tragedy that changed how fires are fought", The Record, June 30, 2013, reprinted August 31, 2017. Accessed March 25, 2020. "That fateful day, July 1, 1988, the firemen rushed inside to knock down a fire they thought to be like any other they'd faced. After 35 minutes, the dealership's 60-ton bow-truss roof collapsed, killing three firefighters. Two others were trapped inside, radioing for help, but they could not be rescued before their air ran out."
^Apparatus, City of Hackensack. Accessed May 13, 2016.
^Nobile, Tom. "Charges upgraded for five suspects in USS Ling vandalism", The Record, July 23, 2019. Accessed October 2, 2019. "Authorities have upped charges against five people accused of burglarizing the USS Ling in Hackensack, who are now charged with flooding the historic submarine during two break-ins last summer, allegedly causing damage in the hundreds of thousands, according to the submarine's trustees. An eight-count indictment from July 9 added counts of conspiracy and knowingly causing a flood, both second-degree crimes, to the burglary and criminal mischief charges the five so-called urban explorers faced for allegedly stealing artifacts from the WWII-era vessel."
^Burrow, Megan. "Vision for Kinderkamack Road corridor taking shape", Town News, May 3, 2011. Accessed November 8, 2011. "Transit Village, a proposed joint project between River Edge and New Jersey Transit, has received interest from six developers. The project would consist of mixed-use buildings housing residential units, retail and office space, and a parking garage near the New Bridge Landing train station."
^Shkolnikova, Svetlana. "Winter Olympics: Who are the Ice House Olympians?", The Record, January 26, 2018. Accessed October 2, 2019. "The 11 athletes heading to Pyeongchang from the Ice House in Hackensack will represent five countries -- Israel, Switzerland, Slovakia, Canada and Australia -- in the ladies' singles, men's singles, pairs and ice dance competitions at the 2018 Winter Olympics."
^Borg, Stephen A. "An Armenian story: Charles Agemian", (201) magazine, backed up by the Internet Archive as of March 3, 2016. Accessed November 2, 2019. "In the 1978 movie, Superman, Lex Luthor (Gene Hackman) boasts to Superman (Christopher Reeve) that Hackensack is the target of one of two missiles he has fired to reap destruction on planet Earth."
^Blowen, Michael. "Pryor Steals 'Brewster's Millions'", The Boston Globe, May 22, 1985. Accessed May 5, 2008. "Pitcher Montgomery Brewster (Richard Pryor), a dead ringer for Satchel Paige until he throws the ball, plays for the Hackensack Bulls in the mythical Jersey League."
^Van Gelder, Lawrence. "Film Review; Carrying a Torch for a Malevolent Doll", The New York Times, October 17, 1998. Accessed August 26, 2018. "Bride of Chucky, directed this time by Ronny Yu, splatters blood, piles up corpses and puts two star-crossed young lovers in peril before it reaches the inevitable conclusion (in a Hackensack, N.J. graveyard) that suggests that the family of Chucky films that began in 1988 with Child's Play is prepared to grow yet again."
^Gerace, Joseph M. "Upcoming Don Jon Filmed on Location in Bergen County", Teaneck Patch, September 20, 2013. Accessed August 26, 2018. "While you never know what's going to make it into a final cut, multiple sources reported last year that the film--starring, directed and written by Joseph Gordon-Levitt--shot on location in Hackensack."
^Gwaltney, Francis Irby. "A Survey of Historic Washington, Arkansas", Arkansas Historical Quarterly; Volume 17, Winter 1955, p. 339. Accessed October 26, 2013. "But the principal character in the story of the Bowie Knife is not James Bowie of Vadalia, Memphis, and the Alamo. It is James Black of Washington, Arkansas.... James Black was born in Hackensack, New Jersey, May 1, 1800."
^Boroson, Warren. "The case for consulting the Value Line Investment Survey"Archived 2012-12-13 at the Wayback Machine, NewJerseyNewsroom.com, August 31, 2009. Accessed April 4, 2012. "Yes, a subscription to either publication is very expensive, but you can always patronize that horrible socialist institution, a public library, to read them. In Hackensack, where I live, when you ask for permission to examine Value Line, the librarians insist that you leave your driver's license with them - lest you drive off with Value Line to parts unknown."
^Lei, Richard. "The Reliable Source", The Washington Post, August 1, 2004. Accessed November 25, 2017. "David Brock... Born: July 23, 1962, in Hackensack, N.J.; grew up on Windsor Street and Sussex Road in Wood-Ridge, N.J."
^Staff. "Hackensack native joins 'Big Brother' cast", The Record, June 20, 2014. Accessed December 17, 2014. "Cody Calafiore of Hackensack is among the 16 'Houseguests' competing on the new season of Big Brother, which premieres 8 p.m. Wednesday and Thursday on CBS. Calafiore, 23, is a sales account executive who currently lives in Howell."
^Dave Davis, Professional Bowlers Association. Accessed April 10, 2011. "Through all his years of Tour competition dating back to 1963, Davis, a tall, slim lefty from Hackensack, N.J., won 18 career Tour titles, amassed official earnings of $912,765, and also found time to serve on the PBA's various committees, including the all-important Tournament Committee and Executive Board."
^Fields, Walter. "Opinion: Harold Dow: He never forgot his roots", The Record, August 24, 2010. Accessed April 4, 2012. "When someone who is still relatively young dies suddenly, it is cliché to suggest that it was 'too soon.' In the case of CBS News correspondent Harold Dow, the cliché is appropriate. Dow, a product of Hackensack and a source of pride in the community, still had much to give a profession that is in dire need of the character and purpose this award-winning journalist brought to his craft."
^Fenn, John. "John B. Fenn - Biographical", Nobel Prize. Accessed October 26, 2013. "Our home was in Hackensack, N.J., next door to Lodi and County Seat of Bergen County. I was born in New York City in 1917 and three plus years later my brother Norman arrived in Paterson, N.J. where two of mother's brothers were surgeons."
^Ellis, Robert. "F. Scott Fitzgerald's Hackensack days", The Record, January 5, 2004. Accessed November 11, 2015. "He had come to Jersey City from Hackensack. Before Scott Fitzgerald, young, unpublished, unknown, became Scott Fitzgerald, chronicler of the Jazz Age whose gin, bootleggers, speakeasies, and morning-after squint he illuminated, before Scott and his wife Zelda caroused in the fountain at The Plaza Hotel, before all the novels that would eventually make him the quintessentially American novelist of his generation, there was only Scott and Hackensack, his true lost city."
^Staff. "Raiders, 49ers Await Decision", Contra Costa Times, September 12, 2001. Accessed April 4, 2012. "Tuesday also was the regular day off for the 49ers, though a few players did briefly show up at the team's Santa Clara headquarters, including safety Lance Schulters and right guard Dave Fiore, who grew up in Brooklyn, NY, and Hackensack, NJ, respectively."
^Staff. "Chet Forte, 60, Is Dead; An Innovative TV Director", The New York Times, May 20, 1996. Accessed October 26, 2013. "Fulvio Chester Forte Jr. was born Aug. 7, 1935, in Hackensack, N.J., the only child of a sports-loving mother and a physician. The class president at Hackensack High School, he became an all-America player at Columbia despite being 5 feet 7 inches and 145 pounds."
^Iorfida, Chris. "Rochette 3rd behind Kim, Asada", CBC Sports, February 24, 2010. Accessed April 10, 2011. "Gedevanishvili lives in Hackensack, N.J., training under former skater Robin Wagner, who coached 2002 gold medallist Sarah Hughes."
^Borden, Sam. "Giambi one of many questions as Bombers return in 2005", New York Daily News, February 13, 2005. Accessed April 10, 2011. "The biggest competition this spring will be for the backup outfield spot, with incumbent Bubba Crosby trying to keep his job against several other candidates including Hackensack product Doug Glanville or the group of relievers (oft-injured Steve Karsay, among them) vying for a less visible role in the bullpen."
^"Hackensack appoints city's first African American public defender", Community News, September 20, 2013, backed up by the Internet Archive as of August 8, 2016. Accessed January 30, 2018. "Without realizing it, Navarro Gray made history when he was named the city's public defender -- becoming the first African-American to hold this position in Hackensack. Before graduating from Hampton University Cum Laude and Hofstra University School of Law, Gray attended Fairmont Elementary School and Hackensack High School -- having graduated from the latter in 1997."
^Cherpak, Evelyn M., ed. The Memoirs of Admiral H. Kent Hewitt, p. 15. Naval War College Press, 2004. ISBN1-884733-20-4. Accessed September 13, 2015. "I was born on February 11, 1887, in my maternal grandfather's house on what was then known as Kent place on Polifly Road (or Terrace Avenue), about a tenth of a mile south of Essex Street in the southern outskirts of Hackensack, New Jersey."
^Malone, Noreen. "Jersey Housewife Nabbed Red-Handed; Yippy dogs, sticky fingers.", New York (magazine), April 1, 2012. Accessed May 12, 2016. "Make of it what you will that the woman crowned the 'Queen of Hackensack' was a petty thief with high-flying social aspirations and a taste for small yippy dogs who was eventually brought down by her gaudy taste in jewelry. It was in the 1860s, long before The Real Housewives of New Jersey, that Lena Kleinschmidt acquired her title."
^"Obituaries", Columbia College Today, Winter 2017-18. Accessed June 30, 2020. "Harvey M. Krueger, attorney, financial executive, New York City, on April 23, 2017. Raised in Hackensack, N.J., Krueger was legendary in Israeli business circles and was the first banker to bring Israel to the international capital markets."
^Naanes, Marlene; and Koloff, Abbott. "Bergen County native leading investigation of Colorado theater massacre", The Record, July 23, 2012, backed up by the Internet Archive as of December 13, 2013. Accessed November 25, 2017. "Daniel Oates, who, as the chief of police in Aurora, Colo., is in charge of investigating the most extensive mass shooting in the nation's history, grew up in Midland Park.... Oates was born in Hackensack and lived in Oradell before his family moved to Midland Park, his parents said.... He graduated from St. Joseph's Regional High School in 1973 and attended college at Bucknell University in Pennsylvania, where he majored in English."
^Staff. Fitzgerald's Legislative Manual, 1984, p. 233. Accessed August 12, 2019. "John B. Paolella, Rep., Hackensack - Senator Paolella was born in Hackensack Feb. 14, 1949. He attended Bergen Catholic High School in Oradell, and studied psychology at Harvard University, where he was graduated with honors in 1971."
^Official Congressional Directory, Volume 65, p. 65. United States Congress. Accessed May 12, 2016. "John Rathbone Ramsey, Republican, of Hackensack, was born at Wyckoff, N. J., April 25, 1862, the son of John F. and Martha (Rathbone) Ramsey, and spent much of his early life with his maternal grandfather John V. Rathbone in Parkersburg, W. Va. where he received a private-school education."
^Frank, Steve. "Goodbye to 'The New Yorker'", The Jerusalem Post, April 30, 2012. Accessed May 12, 2016. "One can only surmise that Remnick is working out his own conflicted identity issues (Remnick was born of Jewish parents in Hackensack, New Jersey) on the company dime."
^"Alfred D. Schiaffo, 68, Judge and Politician", The New York Times, November 8, 1988. Accessed May 17, 2020. "Alfred D. Schiaffo, a judge in New Jersey Superior Court and a former Republican majority leader of the State Senate, died Saturday at Englewood (N.J.) Hospital after a brief illness. He was 68 years old and lived in Hackensack."
^About Wally, WallySchirra.com. Accessed May 18, 2016. "Born March 12, 1923, in Hackensack, New Jersey."
^Phelan, J. Greg. "He Helped Put the Blue in Blue Note", The New York Times, May 22, 2005. Accessed April 4, 2012. "He opened it in 1959, after spending most of the 1950s recording people like Thelonious Monk, Miles Davis and Cannonball Adderley in his parents' living room in Hackensack and refining the sound of recorded jazz working with Alfred Lion of Blue Note Records and other producers."
^Beckerman, Jim. "Mountain's Leslie West releases new solo album", The Record, October 30, 2013. Accessed May 17, 2016. "'To me, 1969 was the beginning of all this,' says Mountain's ('Mississippi Queen,' 'Nantucket Sleighride') ace guitar-slinger, Leslie West, who partly grew up in Hackensack."