Hainanese
Get Hainanese essential facts below. View Videos or join the Hainanese discussion. Add Hainanese to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Hainanese
Hainanese
Qiong wen
, Hái-nâm-oe
Pronunciation[hai nam ue] (Haikou dialect)
Native toChina
RegionHainan
EthnicityHainanese
Native speakers
Around 5 million in China (2002)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Dialects
Chinese characters[]
Hainan Romanized
Language codes
None (mis)
Glottologhain1238[2]
Linguasphere79-AAA-k
Min dialect map.svg
  Hainanese
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Bible in Hainan Romanised (Genesis), published by the Bible Society of Great Britain.

Hainanese (Hainan Romanised: Hái-nâm-oe, simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: H?inánhuà), also known as Qióngwén (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ) or Qióngy? (; ),[3] is a group of Min Chinese varieties spoken in the southern Chinese island province of Hainan. In the classification of Yuan Jiahua, it was included in the Southern Min group, although it is mutually unintelligible with Southern Min varieties such as Hokkien-Taiwanese and Teochew.[4] In the classification of Li Rong, used by the Language Atlas of China, it was treated as a separate Min subgroup.[5] Hou Jingyi combined it with Leizhou Min, spoken on the neighboring mainland Leizhou Peninsula, in a Qiong-Lei group.[6] "Hainanese" is also used for the language of the Li people living in Hainan, but generally refers to Min varieties spoken in Hainan.

Phonology

Hainanese has seven phonemic vowels[].

Front Central Back
Close /i/ /u/
Close-mid /e/ /o/
Open-mid /?/ /?/
Open /a/

Hainanese notably has a series of implosive consonants, which it acquired through contact with surrounding languages, probably Hlai.

Labial Dental Alveolo Velar Glottal
Nasal
?
mak

?
niam

?
ngak
Plosive voiceless
?
pa

?
toi

?
kong

?
a
Aspirated
?
pho

?
khu
voiced/implosive
?ak
?

?
?ei
Affricate
?
tsia

?
Jit
Fricative voiceless
?
fi

?
sei

?
xu

?
hai
voiced
?
vun

?
zok
Approximant
?
wat

?
lao

?
yok

The phonological system of Hainanese corresponds well with that of Hokkien, but it has had some restructuring. In particular, etymological *anterior plain stops have undergone implosivization (*p > [?], *t > [?], etymological *aspirated stops have spirantized (*p? > [f], *t? > [h], *c? > [?] *k? > [x]), and etymological *s have hardened into stops (*s > [t]), and *h > [?]. Additionally, some dialects have , and [?] is allophonic with /j/.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hou, Jingyi (2002). Xiàndài hàny? f?ngyán gàilùn [An Introduction to Modern Chinese Dialects]. Shanghai Educational Press ?. pp. 207-208.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hainan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ """?----". Hainan.gov (in Chinese). . Retrieved 2020. ?,,
  4. ^ Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2017). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (20th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Chinese, Min Nan.
  5. ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects". Walter de Gruyter. pp. 54-55, 86. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2.
  6. ^ Hou, Jingyi (2002). Xiàndài hàny? f?ngyán gàilùn [An Introduction to Modern Chinese Dialects]. Shanghai Educational Press ?. p. 238.

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Hainanese
 



 



 
Music Scenes