Hajong Language
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Hajong Language

Hajong
?
Pronunciation[ha.d]
Native toIndia and Bangladesh
RegionMeghalaya, Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal in India Mymensingh, Sherpur and Sunamganj in Bangladesh
EthnicityHajong
Native speakers
71,800 (2011)[1]
8,000 in Bangladesh (no date)[1]
Dialects
  • Doskina'
  • Korebari
  • Susung'ya'
  • Barohajarya'
  • Mespa'rya'
Bengali-Assamese script (Assamese alphabet in Assam, Bengali alphabet in Bangladesh), Latin script[2]
Language codes
haj
Glottologhajo1238[3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Hajong, originally a Tibeto-Burman language,[4] is now considered an Indo-Aryan language [5] with Tibeto-Burman roots. It is spoken by approximately 80,000 ethnic Hajongs across the northeast of the Indian subcontinent, specifically in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and West Bengal in present-day India, and the divisions of Mymensingh and Sylhet in present-day Bangladesh. It is written in the Bengali and the Latin script.[2] It has many Sanskrit loanwords. The Hajongs originally spoke a Tibeto-Burman language, but it later mixed with Kamrupi and KRNB dialects.[6]

Old Hajong

The language now spoken by the Hajong people may be considered an Indo-Aryan language, due to language shift from a Tibeto-Burman language.[] Old Hajong or Khati Hajong may have been related to Garo or Bodo languages, i.e. - of Tibeto-Burman origin. Words in Hajong like Mao/A'ya'(mother), Bap/Baba (father), Abu (grandmother), Ajo (grandfather), dada (elder brother), ba'i (elder sister), nunu (younger siblings), bunu (brother-in-law), bhuji (sister-in-law), gang (river), gap (colour), dang'o (big),buwai (to plough), khar (soda), dyao (Spirit or deity), jiu (Spirit or life), bato (parrot), etc. are of Tibeto-Burman origin.

Variations

The Hajong Language varies within the clans because of regional variations. There are five notable clans of the Hajong people.

  • Doskine'
  • Korebari
  • Susung'ye'
  • Barohajarye'
  • Miespe'rye'

Writing system

The Hajong language is written using both the Latin and the Assamese scripts.[7] Although both of these scripts are in use in India, the Hajongs in Bangladesh expect to use the Bengali script since most education is in Bengali medium.[8] Often, for writing Hajong, the Assamese script is used. In each script, there is one added unique symbol for the close, back, unrounded vowel /?/. In Latin script, it is written with "â" or simply a' or e'. In Eastern Nagari script with "" when it is syllable final.[9]

Phonology

Hajong has 23 consonant phonemes, 8 vowel phonemes, and 2 approximants which have some characteristics of consonants namely /w/ and /j/ which act as diphthongs. The vowel phonemes are /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /?/, /o/, /?/ and /?/ (close, back, unrounded). Unlike other Indo-Aryan languages, Hajong language has only one 'i' and 'u'. It is somewhat t ambiguous whether the final vowel is a phoneme or an allophone of [a] in the environment of other close vowels.[9] The extra vowel /?/ is not present in other Indo-Aryan languages, but is typical for the Tibeto-Burman family.[10]Codas j and ch in the final position of a syllable turns into an s sound. The phonology of Hajong includes some vowel harmony and the devoicing of final consonants.[9] For separating syllables the apostrophe sign (') or hyphen (-) is used.

Consonant phonemes

Consonants Example Meaning
Velar
k kan ear
kh khawa food
g gang river
gh ghor house
ng gang river
Dental
t tula your
th tho keep
d dang'o big
dh dhor hold
n nak nose
l tel oil
s sor move
r rang'a red
Palatal
ch cha tea
j jor fever
jh jhala spicy
sh shongko conch
Bilabial
p pukhi bird
ph phol fruit
b bak tiger
bh bhou'i field
m mao mother
Glottal
h hilde' yellow

Vowel phonemes

IPA Latin Assamese Pronunciation
/a/ a ? a of car
/i/ i ? i of kill
/u/ u ? u of put
/?/ e ? a of thank
/e/ ei ? ay of say
/o/ ou ? o of old
/?/ o ? eo of George
/?/ e' i of girl

Vowels play an important role in changing the meaning of words and the grammatical structure of sentences. Unlike other Indo-Aryan languages like Assamese and Bengali, there is no distinction between longer and shorter /i/ and /u/. The Assamese script lacks some vowels unique to Hajong phonology, which is gradually leading to a vowel shift. And since vowels play an important role in the grammar of this language, the grammatical structure of the language is also changing.

Diphthongs

Hajong phonology has diphthongs which are iotized vowels with j(y) and w. Diphthongs are usually combinations of i or u with other vowel phonemes. Common examples of diphthongs are ya, as in Dyao which is the combined form of i and a; wa, as in khawa which is the combination of u and a; yuh, as in muh'yuh, combination of i and uh, and wuh, as in tuhwuhi, combination of u and uh.

Grammar

Hajong language primarily has a canonical word order of Subject-object-verb. A subject-object-verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear or usually appear in that order. Hajong language has a strong tendency to use postpositions rather than prepositions, to place auxiliary verbs after the action verb, to place genitive noun phrases before the possessed noun and to have subordinators appear at the end of subordinate clauses. Hajong is an agglutinative language. Words are often combined and compressed, often there are no pauses between words until the sentence ends. Even though it is considered an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, Hajong does not conjugate verbs in the same way Bengali or Asamiya do, but rather has a simplified system. The case endings in Hajong are also unique compared to other Indo-Aryan languages and may represent affinity with Tibeto Burman languages.[11][12] The following table is taken from Phillips:[12]

Hajong Hajong (in IPA) English Case
?- buri-r? the old woman unmarked
?-? buri-r?ge to the old woman dative
?- buri-l? of the old woman genitive
? buri ni to/at the old woman locative
? ? buri b?a? to the old woman allative
? ? buri tiki from the old woman ablative
? ? buri di? through/by the help of the old woman instrumental

The genitive and unmarked or accusative cases have two forms; re'/ra and le'/la. For words ending with the vowels /a/, /?/ and /?/ it becomes ra and la and for /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/ and /?/ it becomes re' and le'. The vowels /?/(e) and /?/(o) are used to end interrogative sentences, like 'Bhat khase?'(have you taken your food?) and 'Bhat khabo?'(Do you want to eat?); and the vowels /e/(ei) and /o/(ou) are used at the end of declarative sentences, as in 'Bhat khasei.'([I] have taken my food.) and 'Bhat Khabou'([I] will eat.). Adding the suffix be' or ba to interrogative words turn them into indefinite pronouns; for example, kibe' means something, kei'be' means someone, kumaba means somewhere and also ke'ibe', kageba, kunde'be' and kalaba means 'I don't know who/whom/which/who's' respectively in English. Similarly adding the suffix ha and ga to verbs means 'come and (verb)' and 'go and (verd)' respectively; for example, khaha means come and eat, niha means come and take; khaga means go and eat and niga means go and take.

Honorifics

A unique feature of Hajong language is the use of honorifics. When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker usually uses special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority. Unlike Assamese, Bengali, Sylheti and other Indo-Aryan languages, there is no word like /?/?(apuni/apni/afne) to substitute you. Instead, Hajong has a different way to indicate supremacy of the other person. For elders and other higher ranking, people second person and third person pronouns are never used. One always has to refer an elder with their name or their honorary title. Ending words with 'ge' and 'ha' is also a form of showing respect to the other person.

Example short phrases[13]

Hajong Phrases Hajong Latin Script Meaning
kumai jai? Where are you going?
? king'ke' ase? How are you?
? ? Toi ahile? Bhiturbai ai. You came? Come inside.
? ? Tula ahara bhala husei. It was good of you to come.
Bhat khase? Have you eaten?
Cha khabo? Will you take tea?
Toi kun gaola? What village are you from?
Moi Tang'abarile'. I am from Tangabari.
Ila toi kumai thake? Now where do you live?
? ? ? Tula ghorra kumai? Where is your house?
? ? Mula ghorra Hawakhanani. My house is in Hawakhana.
? Ide' oge bujye' di. Explain this to him.
Ide'ni likhik. Write it here.
? Moi jang. I'm going.
? Abar lak pabou. We will meet again.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Hajong at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  2. ^ a b Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2019). Hajong Ethnologue: Languages of the World (22nd ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hajong". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Hajong, B. (2002). The Hajongs and their struggle. Assam, Janata Press. Foreword(2) by Satyendra Narayan Goswami 2001.
  5. ^ General Knowledge of Northeast India: For All Psc and Competitive Exams. By Joydeep Ghosh, 2019. p.85 [1]
  6. ^ Singh, R. P. (2013). "Hajong". In Danver, Steven (ed.). Native Peoples of the World. Volume 2. Sharpe Reference. p. 531. ISBN 978-0-7656-8222-2. [The Hajongs] speak the Hajong language, originally a Tibeto-Burman tongue that later mixed with Assamese and Bengali.
  7. ^ Script Source
  8. ^ Ahmad, S., A. Kim, S. Kim, and M. Sangma. (2005). The Hajong of Bangladesh: A sociolinguistic survey. http://www.sil.org/resources/publications/entry/42943, p. 13.
  9. ^ a b c Guts, Y. (2007). Phonological description of the Hajong language. Masters Thesis. Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit.
  10. ^ Guts, Y. (2007). Phonological description of the Hajong language. Masters Thesis. Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit; p 59.
  11. ^ Grierson, G. A. (1903-28). Linguistic survey of India. Repr. Delhi 1967. Calcutta, Motilal Banarsidass, p 215.
  12. ^ a b Phillips, V. C. (2011). "Case Marking in Hajong." In G. Hyslop, S. Morey and M. Post, Eds. North East Indian Linguistics: Volume 3. Delhi, Cambridge.
  13. ^ (Hajong, Phillips & Phillips 2009)

References


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