Halo Nucleus
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Halo Nucleus

In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo when it has a core nucleus surrounded by a "halo" of orbiting protons or neutrons, which makes the radius of the nucleus appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model. Halo nuclei form at the extreme edges of the table of nuclides -- the neutron drip line and proton drip line -- and have short half-lives, measured in milliseconds. These nuclei are studied shortly after their formation in an ion beam.

Typically, an atomic nucleus is a tightly bound group of protons and neutrons. However, in some nuclides, there is an overabundance of one species of nucleon. In some of these cases, a nuclear core and a halo will form.

Often, this property may be detected in scattering experiments, which show the nucleus to be much larger than the otherwise expected value. Normally, the cross-section (corresponding to the classical radius) of the nucleus is proportional to the cube root of its mass, as would be the case for a sphere of constant density. Specifically, for a nucleus of mass number A, the radius r is (approximately)

${\displaystyle r=r_{\circ }A^{\frac {1}{3}},}$

where ${\displaystyle r_{\circ }}$ is 1.2 fm.

One example of a halo nucleus is 11Li, which has a half-life of 8.6 ms. It contains a core of 3 protons and 6 neutrons, and a halo of two independent and loosely bound neutrons. It decays into 11Be by the emission of an antineutrino and an electron.[1] Its mass radius of 3.16 fm is close to that of 32S or, even more impressively, of 208Pb, both much heavier nuclei.[2]

Experimental confirmation of nuclear halos is recent and ongoing. Additional candidates are suspected. Several nuclides including 9B, 13N, and 15N are calculated to have a halo in the excited state but not in the ground state.[3]

## List of known nuclides with nuclear halo

Nuclei that have a neutron halo include 11Be[4] and 19C. A two-neutron halo is exhibited by 6He, 11Li, 17B, 19B and 22C.

Two-neutron halo nuclei break into three fragments and are called Borromean because of this behavior, analogously to how all three of the Borromean rings are linked together but no two share a link. For example, the two-neutron halo nucleus 6He (which can be taken as a three-body system consisting of an alpha particle and two neutrons) is bound, but neither 5He nor the dineutron is. 8He and 14Be both exhibit a four-neutron halo.

Nuclei that have a proton halo include 8B and 26P. A two-proton halo is exhibited by 17Ne and 27S. Proton halos are expected to be rarer and more unstable than neutron halos because of the repulsive forces of the excess proton(s).

Atomic
number
Name # of nuclear
halo isotopes
Nuclear halo
isotopes
Halo
composition
Half-life (ms)[5]
2 helium 2 helium-6
helium-8
2 neutrons
4 neutrons
801(10)
119.1(12)
3 lithium 1 lithium-11 2 neutrons 8.75(14)
4 beryllium 2 beryllium-11
beryllium-14
1 neutron
4 neutrons
13810(80)
4.35(17)
5 boron 3 boron-8
boron-17
boron-19
1 proton
2 neutrons
4 neutrons
770(3)
5.08(5)
2.92(13)
6 carbon 2 carbon-19
carbon-22
1 neutron
2 neutrons
49(4)
6.1+1.4
-1.2
10 neon 1 neon-17 2 protons 109.2(6)
15 phosphorus 1 phosphorus-26 1 proton 43.7(6)
16 sulfur 1 sulfur-27 2 protons 15.5(15)

## References

1. ^ "It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Lithium". Retrieved 2015.
2. ^ "ISOLDE goes on the trail of superlatives". Retrieved 2015.
3. ^ Jin-Gen, Chen; Xiang-Zhou, Cai; Hu-Yong, Zhang; Wen-Qing, Shen; Zhong-Zhou, Ren; Wei-Zhou, Jiang; Yu-Gang, Ma; Chen, Zhong; Yi-Bin, Wei; Wei, Guo; Xing-Fei, Zhou; Guo-Liang, Ma; Kun, Wang (2003). "Chinese Phys. Lett. 20 1021 - Proton Halo or Skin in the Excited States of Light Nuclei". Chinese Physics Letters. 20 (7): 1021-1024. doi:10.1088/0256-307X/20/7/314.
4. ^ Krieger, A; Blaum, K; Bissell, M. L; Frömmgen, N; Geppert, Ch; Hammen, M; Kreim, K; Kowalska, M; Krämer, J; Neff, T; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Novotny, Ch; Sánchez, R; Yordanov, D. T (2012). "Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 142501 (2012) - Nuclear Charge Radius of 12Be". Physical Review Letters. 108 (14): 142501. arXiv:1202.4873. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.142501. PMID 22540787. S2CID 1589595.
5. ^ U.S. National Nuclear Data Center. "NuDat 2.6". Retrieved 2015.

• Nörtershäuser, W.; Tiedemann, D.; ?áková, M.; Andjelkovic, Z.; Blaum, K.; Bissell, M. L.; Cazan, R.; Drake, G. W. F.; Geppert, Ch.; Kowalska, M.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Neugart, R.; Sánchez, R.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Yan, Z.-C.; Yordanov, D. T.; Zimmermann, C. (2009). "Nuclear Charge Radii ofBe7,9,10and the One-Neutron Halo NucleusBe11". Physical Review Letters. 102 (6): 062503. arXiv:0809.2607. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.102f2503N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.062503. PMID 19257582. S2CID 24357745.
• "Atomic Nucleus with Halo: For the First Time, Scientists Measure the Size of a One-Neutron Halo with Lasers". The measurements revealed that the average distance between the halo neutrons and the dense core of the nucleus is 7 femtometers. Thus, the halo neutron is about three times as far from the dense core as is the outermost proton, since the core itself has a radius of only 2.5 femtometers. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
• Marqués, F. M.; Labiche, M.; Orr, N. A.; Angélique, J. C.; Axelsson, L.; Benoit, B.; Bergmann, U. C.; Borge, M. J. G.; Catford, W. N.; Chappell, S. P. G.; Clarke, N. M.; Costa, G.; Curtis, N.; d'Arrigo, A.; De Góes Brennand, E.; De Oliveira Santos, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Fazio, G.; Freer, M.; Fulton, B. R.; Giardina, G.; Grévy, S.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Hanappe, F.; Heusch, B.; Jonson, B.; Le Brun, C.; Leenhardt, S.; Lewitowicz, M.; et al. (2002). "Detection of neutron clusters". Physical Review C. 65 (4): 044006. arXiv:nucl-ex/0111001. Bibcode:2002PhRvC..65d4006M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.65.044006. S2CID 37431352.