Handan
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Handan
Handan


Hantan
Top left:Pavilion of Wuling Emperor in Congtai Park, Top right:Nuwa Palace, Middle left:Stature of Riding on Hufu, Upper middle:Handan Grand Theater, Lower middle:Longhu Park, Middle right:Handan Castle Ruins, Bottom:Southring Interchange in Nanhebian area,
Top left:Pavilion of Wuling Emperor in Congtai Park, Top right:Nuwa Palace, Middle left:Stature of Riding on Hufu, Upper middle:Handan Grand Theater, Lower middle:Longhu Park, Middle right:Handan Castle Ruins, Bottom:Southring Interchange in Nanhebian area,
Location of Handan City jurisdiction in Hebei
Location of Handan City jurisdiction in Hebei
Handan is located in Hebei
Handan
Handan
Location of the city centre in Hebei
Coordinates: 36°36?N 114°29?E / 36.600°N 114.483°E / 36.600; 114.483
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHebei
Area
 o Prefecture-level city12,068 km2 (4,659 sq mi)
 o Urban
142 km2 (55 sq mi)
 o Metro
2,466 km2 (952 sq mi)
Population
(2015[1])
 o Prefecture-level city9,433,000
 o Density780/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
 o Urban
941,427
 o Metro
2,845,790
 o Metro density1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
ISO 3166 codeCN-HE-04
Licence plate prefixes?D
Websitehd.gov.cn
Handan
Handan (Chinese characters).svg
"Handan" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese

Handan is a prefecture-level city located in the southwest of Hebei province, China. The southernmost prefecture-level city of the province, it borders Xingtai on the north, and the provinces of Shanxi on the west, Henan on the south and Shandong on the east. At the 2010 census, its population was 9,174,683 inhabitants whom 2,845,790 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 5 urban districts. Handan City and its Yongnian district, and Shahe City in Xingtai municipality, have largely been conurbated now.

History

Map of the archaeological site of Warring States Era Handan

Handan, once well-defended from southern attack by a bend in the Zhang River, was a city of the state of Zhao during the Warring States Period (5th-3rd centuries BCE) of Chinese history. It was their second capital, after Zhongmu. It has held the name "Handan" since at least the 1st millennium BCE.[clarification needed]King Wuling of Zhao turned Zhao into one of the Qin state's most stalwart foes, pioneering the use of walls to secure new frontiers (which would inspire the eventual construction of the Great Wall of China). The city was conquered by the State of Qin after the virtual annexation of Zhao by Qin except for the Dai Commandery. The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang was born in Handan, the child of a statesman from the state of Qin and after successfully conquering Zhao he ordered all enemies of his mother to be buried alive. The conquest of Zhao, particularly the Qin siege of Handan, is featured extensively in Chen Kaige's classic film, The Emperor and the Assassin.

At the beginning of the Han dynasty, Handan was Liu Bang's base for suppressing Chen Xi's rebellion in 197 and 196 BCE. The town was still regarded as a cultural and commercial centre at the end of the dynasty in the early 3rd century CE. It slowly declined, perhaps because of the numerous battles that ravaged northern China following the Han Dynasty, but maintained a reputation for its fine Cizhou ware well into the Qing dynasty (1644-1911). It was also the birthplace in the 19th century of Yang-style tai chi, one of its five major schools.

Though much of Handan's ancient history is no longer visible, it still has some attractions, most derived from Zhao folklore such as the road into which Lin Xiangru, courier of the precious Heshibi, backed in order to let his nemesis Lian Po pass first, as well as the location in which Lian Po begged for Lin Xiangru's forgiveness. Modern-day Congtai Park is located on the site of the historical Zhao court. Next to Congtai Park is the legendary "Xuebu Qiao" (), or "Learning to Walk Bridge". Legend has it that a noble from the state of Yan heard of a particularly elegant manner of walking unique to Handan. Arriving in Handan, he spent weeks trying to master the Handan style of walking on a bridge, only to fail. In the process, however, he had forgotten how to walk normally and had to crawl back to Yan. This story inspired the Chinese expression, ?, which means learning something difficult too intensely, thereby forgetting the basics in the process.[]

The nearby Xiangtangshan Caves contain massive Buddha statues carved into the mountainside, some dating to the 6th century. Many of these statues were severely vandalised by occupying Japanese forces during World War II. Handan was prized by the Japanese invaders for its coal reserves.

In 2007, Handan was the location of China's largest ever bank robbery

Administration

The population at the 2010 census was 941,427 for the 3 urban districts, 2,845,790 for the built up area and 9,174,683 for the entire Prefecture-level city area of 12,068 km2 (4,659 sq mi).

The municipal executive, legislative and judiciary are situated in Congtai District (, Cóngtái Q?), as well as the CPC and Public Security bureaux.

Map
Name Chinese Pinyin Population (2004 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Congtai District Cóngtái Q? 330,000 28[] 11,786
Hanshan District Hánsh?n Q? 310,000 32[] 9,688
Fuxing District Fùx?ng Q? 250,000 37[] 6,757
Fengfeng Mining District ? F?ngf?ng Kuàngq? 500,000 353 1,416
Feixiang District Féixi?ng Q? 310,000 496 625
Yongnian District Y?ngnián Q? 860,000 898 958
Wu'an City W?'?n Shì 720,000 1,806 399
Handan County (Defunct since 2016) Hánd?n Xiàn 400,000 522 766
Linzhang County Línzh?ng Xiàn 590,000 744 793
Cheng'an County Chéng'?n Xiàn 370,000 485 763
Daming County Dàmíng Xiàn 750,000 1,052 713
She County Shè Xiàn 390,000 1,509 258
Ci County Cí Xiàn 640,000 1,035 618
Qiu County Qi? Xiàn 200,000 448 446
Jize County J?zé Xiàn 250,000 337 742
Guangping County Gu?ngpíng Xiàn 250,000 320 781
Guantao County Gu?ntáo Xiàn 290,000 456 636
Wei County Wèi Xiàn 810,000 862 940
Quzhou County Q?zh?u Xiàn 410,000 667 615

Climate

Handan has a cold, continental semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with strong monsoonal influence, typical of the North China Plain. The normal monthly daily mean temperature ranges from -0.9 °C (30.4 °F) in January to 27.3 °C (81.1 °F) in July, while the annual mean temperature is 14.3 °C (57.7 °F). A majority of the normal annual precipitation of 502 mm (19.8 in) occurs in July and August.

Climate data for Handan (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.7
(67.5)
25.3
(77.5)
31.7
(89.1)
37.9
(100.2)
40.0
(104.0)
43.6
(110.5)
42.0
(107.6)
37.2
(99.0)
40.1
(104.2)
33.5
(92.3)
28.6
(83.5)
28.4
(83.1)
43.6
(110.5)
Average high °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
8.2
(46.8)
14.3
(57.7)
22.0
(71.6)
27.3
(81.1)
32.1
(89.8)
32.1
(89.8)
30.6
(87.1)
27.0
(80.6)
21.4
(70.5)
12.8
(55.0)
6.0
(42.8)
19.8
(67.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) -0.9
(30.4)
2.7
(36.9)
8.5
(47.3)
15.8
(60.4)
21.4
(70.5)
26.2
(79.2)
27.3
(81.1)
26.0
(78.8)
21.5
(70.7)
15.3
(59.5)
7.0
(44.6)
1.0
(33.8)
14.3
(57.8)
Average low °C (°F) -4.8
(23.4)
-1.7
(28.9)
3.5
(38.3)
10.3
(50.5)
15.7
(60.3)
20.7
(69.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.1
(71.8)
17.0
(62.6)
10.5
(50.9)
2.6
(36.7)
-2.8
(27.0)
9.7
(49.5)
Record low °C (°F) -15.0
(5.0)
-14.4
(6.1)
-6.1
(21.0)
0.0
(32.0)
7.7
(45.9)
11.5
(52.7)
16.5
(61.7)
13.7
(56.7)
5.4
(41.7)
-1.0
(30.2)
-11.4
(11.5)
-12.7
(9.1)
-15.0
(5.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.1
(0.12)
6.3
(0.25)
13.4
(0.53)
19.2
(0.76)
44.2
(1.74)
49.1
(1.93)
133.8
(5.27)
138.1
(5.44)
50.0
(1.97)
29.7
(1.17)
11.8
(0.46)
3.1
(0.12)
501.8
(19.76)
Source: China Meteorological Administration,[2]

Economy

Handan has witnessed rapid growth over the past 20 years. Industrial growth in the city has focused on communication and transport activities. Handan is a major producer of coal and steel, with Coal mines at Fengfeng providing power for Handan's iron, steel and textile mills. Chemical and cement plants along with other industries also benefit. Local agriculture produces maize, pomegranates and eggs[3]. Handan also has a growing services sector, with retail, banking and trading making up 40% of the economy.[4] The GDP per capita in Renminbi was estimated at ¥13,449 in 2005. In 2015, the figure was ?33,554.87.

Air pollution

According to a survey by "Global voices China" in February 2013, Handan was one of China's most polluted cities due to heavy industrial outputs.[5]

However the government has made a significant effort to make the city cleanerwhich involved closing down many polluting power plants. It is no longer the most polluted city, and according to a 2016 government survey, the number of good air quality days is 189 days, an increase of 135 days compared with 2013.[6]

Tourism

Handan Prefecture is home to the AAAAA tourist attractions Guangfu Ancient City and the Nüwa Imperial Palace.

Handan3.jpg

Demographics

Ethnic minorities

According to Handan government in 2007, 40 ethnic groups were present in Handan. Ethnic minorities represent 50,000 people, among which 48,000 Hui. There are 22 Hui schools and 5 Hui junior high schools in Handan.[7]

Religion

The most widespread religion in Handan is Chinese folk religion, including Taoism and Buddhism.

In 2013, there were more than 150,000 Catholics in Handan according to the Catholic Church, in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Yongnian.[8]Mother of Grace Cathedral in Daming County was built in 1918. The most recent church was built in 2007.[9]

There are also 300,000 Protestants. The largest Protestant church is on Qianjin Avenue () and was built in 1997.[10] The oldest church was on Congtai Street and was built in 1920. The church was destroyed 2009 by the local government.[11] A new church was built in 2011.[12]

According to the local government 30,000 Hui Muslims live in the prefecture of Handan.[13]

Notable people

Sister cities

References

  1. ^ 11 - -. ts.leju.com. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ ?(1981-2010?) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011.
  3. ^ Patton, Dominique. "China's chickens need to lay a billion eggs a day. Here's how..." U.K. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "Handan (Hebei) City Information | HKTDC". china-trade-research.hktdc.com. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Bildner, Eli (February 27, 2013). "Interactive Maps of China's Most-and Least-Polluted Places". Global Voices China. http://newsmotion.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  6. ^ Xu, Hui (). ·. CCTV-NEWS (in Chinese).
  7. ^ ?
  8. ^ Fides, Agenzia. "/ - ?() - Agenzia Fides". www.fides.org. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-08-26. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ ?. "". www.hebmzt.gov.cn. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ "?"?"". Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ "_--?- -?". www.hdjdjh.com. Retrieved 2018.
  13. ^
  14. ^ -. . ? ? .
  15. ^ ? ? . Kryvyi Rih City. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29.

External links

Coordinates: 36°36?N 114°29?E / 36.600°N 114.483°E / 36.600; 114.483


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Handan
 



 



 
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