Get Haplogroup I1 Y-DNA essential facts below. View Videos or join the Haplogroup I1 Y-DNA discussion. Add Haplogroup I1 Y-DNA to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Haplogroup I1 Y-DNA
This article needs attention from an expert in Human Genetic History. The specific problem is: Nomenclature of haplogroup(s) and subclades.WikiProject Human Genetic History may be able to help recruit an expert.(February 2017)
Haplogroup I1 (M253)
Possible time of origin
3,170-4,600-5,070 BP (today's diversification)(previously 11,000 BP to 33,000 BP)
27,500 (diversification with I2-FGC77992)
Haplogroup I-M253, also known as I1, is a Y chromosomehaplogroup. The genetic markers confirmed as identifying I-M253 are the SNPs M253,M307.2/P203.2, M450/S109, P30, P40, L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1, L186, and L187. It is a primary branch of Haplogroup I-M170 (I*).
Haplogroup I-M253 is a primary branch of haplogroup I* (I-M170), which has been present in Europe since ancient times. The other primary branch of I* is I-M438, also known as I2.
All known living members descend from a common ancestor 6 times younger than the common ancestor with I2.
Before a reclassification in 2008, the group was known as I1a, a name that has since been reassigned to a primary branch, haplogroup I-DF29. The other primary branches of I1 (M253) are I1b (S249/Z131) and I1c (Y18119/Z17925).
According to a study published in 2010, I-M253 originated between 3,170 and 5,000 years ago, in Chalcolithic Europe. A new study in 2015 estimated the origin as between 3,470 and 5,070 years ago or between 3,180 and 3,760 years ago, using two different techniques. It is suggested that it initially dispersed from the area that is now Denmark.
A 2014 study in Hungary uncovered remains of two individuals from the Linear Pottery culture, one of whom was found to have carried the M253 SNP which defines Haplogroup I1. This culture is thought to have been present between 7,500 and 6,500 years ago.
I-M253 is found at its highest density in Northern Europe and other countries that experienced extensive migration from Northern Europe, either in the Migration Period, the Viking Age, or modern times. It is found in all places invaded by the Norse.
During the modern era, significant I-M253 populations have also taken root in immigrant nations and former European colonies such as the United States, Australia and Canada.
Map showing the distribution of Y chromosomes in a trans section of England and Wales from the paper "Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration". The authors attribute the differences in frequencies of haplogroup I to Anglo-Saxon mass migration into England, but not into Wales.
In 2002 a paper was published by Michael E. Weale and colleagues showing genetic evidence for population differences between the English and Welsh populations, including a markedly higher level of Y-DNA haplogroup I in England than in Wales. They saw this as convincing evidence of Anglo-Saxon mass invasion of eastern Great Britain from northern Germany and Denmark during the Migration Period. The authors assumed that populations with large proportions of haplogroup I originated from northern Germany or southern Scandinavia, particularly Denmark, and that their ancestors had migrated across the North Sea with Anglo-Saxon migrations and DanishVikings. The main claim by the researchers was
that an Anglo-Saxon immigration event affecting 50-100% of the Central English male gene pool at that time is required. We note, however, that our data do not allow us to distinguish an event that simply added to the indigenous Central English male gene pool from one where indigenous males were displaced elsewhere or one where indigenous males were reduced in number ... This study shows that the Welsh border was more of a genetic barrier to Anglo-Saxon Y chromosome gene flow than the North Sea ... These results indicate that a political boundary can be more important than a geophysical one in population genetic structuring.
Distribution of Y chromosome haplogroups from Capelli et al. (2003). Haplogroup I-M253 is present in all populations, with higher frequencies in the east and lower frequencies in the west. There appears to be no discrete boundary as observed by Weale et al. (2002)
In 2003 a paper was published by Christian Capelli and colleagues which supported, but modified, the conclusions of Weale and colleagues. This paper, which sampled Great Britain and Ireland on a grid, found a smaller difference between Welsh and English samples, with a gradual decrease in Haplogroup I frequency moving westwards in southern Great Britain. The results suggested to the authors that Norwegian Vikings invaders had heavily influenced the northern area of the British Isles, but that both English and mainland Scottish samples all have German/Danish influence.
Prominent members of I-M253
Alexander Hamilton, through genealogy and the testing of his descendants (assuming actual paternity matching his genealogy), has been placed within Y-DNA haplogroup I-M253.
Birger Jarl, 'Duke of Sweden' of the East Geatish House of Bjälbo, founder of Stockholm; his remains were exhumed and tested in 2002 and found to be also I-M253..
Sting was revealed to belong to haplogroup I1 by the PBS TV series Finding Your Roots.
DNA example: strand 1 differs from strand 2 at a single base pair location (a C >> T polymorphism).
The following are the technical specifications for known I-M253 haplogroup SNP and STR mutations.
^ abPedro Soares, Alessandro Achilli, Ornella Semino, William Davies, Vincent Macaulay, Hans-Jürgen Bandelt, Antonio Torroni, and Martin B. Richards, The Archaeogenetics of Europe, Current Biology, vol. 20 (February 23, 2010), R174-R183. yDNA Haplogroup I: Subclade I1, Family Tree DNA,
^P.A. Underhill, N.M. Myres, S. Rootsi, C.T. Chow, A.A. Lin, R.P. Otillar, R. King, L.A. Zhivotovsky, O. Balanovsky, A. Pshenichnov, K.H. Ritchie, L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, T. Kivisild, R. Villems, S.R. Woodward, New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory, in P. Mellars, K. Boyle, O. Bar-Yosef and C. Stringer (eds.), Rethinking the Human Evolution (2007), pp. 33-42.
^Lappalainen, T.; Laitinen, V.; Salmela, E.; Andersen, P.; Huoponen, K.; Savontaus, M.-L.; Lahermo, P. (2008). "Migration Waves to the Baltic Sea Region". Annals of Human Genetics. 72 (3): 337-48. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00429.x. PMID18294359.
^Lappalainen, T.; Hannelius, U.; Salmela, E.; von Döbeln, U.; Lindgren, C. M.; Huoponen, K.; Savontaus, M.-L.; Kere, J.; Lahermo, P. (2009). "Population Structure in Contemporary Sweden: A Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis". Annals of Human Genetics. 73 (1): 61-73. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00487.x. PMID19040656.
^ abPeter A. Underhill et al., New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory, in Rethinking the Human Revolution (2007), pp. 33-42. P. Mellars, K. Boyle, O. Bar-Yosef, C. Stringer (Eds.) McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK.
^Lappalainen T., Koivumäki S., Salmela E., Huoponen K., Sistonen P., Savontaus M.L., Lahermo P.; 2006, "Regional differences among the Finns: a Y-chromosomal perspective", Gene vol. 376, no. 2, pp. 207-15.
^Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187-91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID24166809.