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Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe (; June 14, 1811 - July 1, 1896) was an American abolitionist and author. She came from the Beecher family, a famous religious family, and is best known for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), which depicts the harsh conditions for enslaved African Americans. The book reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential in the United States and Great Britain, energizing anti-slavery forces in the American North, while provoking widespread anger in the South. Stowe wrote 30 books, including novels, three travel memoirs, and collections of articles and letters. She was influential for both her writings and her public stances and debates on social issues of the day.
Life and work
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, on June 14, 1811. She was the sixth of 11 children  born to outspoken Calvinist preacher Lyman Beecher. Her mother was his first wife, Roxana (Foote), a deeply religious woman who died when Stowe was only five years old. Roxana's maternal grandfather was General Andrew Ward of the Revolutionary War. Her siblings included a sister, Catharine Beecher, who became an educator and author, as well as brothers who became ministers: including Henry Ward Beecher, who became a famous preacher and abolitionist, Charles Beecher, and Edward Beecher.
Harriet enrolled in the Hartford Female Seminary run by her older sister Catharine. There she received something girls seldom got, a traditional academic education, with a focus in the Classics, languages, and mathematics. Among her classmates was Sarah P. Willis, who later wrote under the pseudonym Fanny Fern.
Harriet was also influenced by the Lane Debates on Slavery. The biggest event ever to take place at Lane, it was the series of debates held on 18 days in February 1834, between colonization and abolition defenders, decisively won by Theodore Weld and other abolitionists. Elisabeth attended most of the debates.:171 Her father and the trustees, afraid of more violence from anti-abolitionist whites, prohibited any further discussions of the topic. The result was a mass exodus of the Lane students, together with a supportive trustee and a professor, who moved as a group to the new Oberlin Collegiate Institute after its trustees agreed, by a close and acrimonious vote, to accept students regardless of "race", and to allow discussions of any topic.
It was in the literary club at Lane that she met Rev. Calvin Ellis Stowe, a widower who was a professor of Biblical Literature at the seminary. The two married at the Seminary on January 6, 1836. The Stowes had seven children together, including twin daughters.
In 1850, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law, prohibiting assistance to fugitives and strengthening sanctions even in free states. At the time, Stowe had moved with her family to Brunswick, Maine, where her husband was now teaching at Bowdoin College. Their home near the campus is protected as a National Historic Landmark. The Stowes were ardent critics of slavery and supported the Underground Railroad, temporarily housing several fugitive slaves in their home. One fugitive from slavery, John Andrew Jackson, wrote of hiding with Stowe in her house in Brunswick, Maine, as he fled to Canada in his narrative titled "The Experience of a Slave in South Carolina" (London: Passmore & Albaster, 1862).
Stowe claimed to have a vision of a dying slave during a communion service at Brunswick's First Parish Church, which inspired her to write his story. However, what more likely allowed her to empathize with slaves was the loss of her eighteen-month-old son, Samuel Charles Stowe. She even stated the following, "Having experienced losing someone so close to me, I can sympathize with all the poor, powerless slaves at the unjust auctions. You will always be in my heart Samuel Charles Stowe." On March 9, 1850, Stowe wrote to Gamaliel Bailey, editor of the weekly anti-slavery journal The National Era, that she planned to write a story about the problem of slavery: "I feel now that the time is come when even a woman or a child who can speak a word for freedom and humanity is bound to speak... I hope every woman who can write will not be silent."
Shortly after in June 1851, when she was 40, the first installment of Uncle Tom's Cabin was published in serial form in the newspaper The National Era. She originally used the subtitle "The Man That Was A Thing", but it was soon changed to "Life Among the Lowly". Installments were published weekly from June 5, 1851, to April 1, 1852. For the newspaper serialization of her novel, Stowe was paid $400.Uncle Tom's Cabin was published in book form on March 20, 1852, by John P. Jewett with an initial print run of 5,000 copies. Each of its two volumes included three illustrations and a title-page designed by Hammatt Billings. In less than a year, the book sold an unprecedented 300,000 copies. By December, as sales began to wane, Jewett issued an inexpensive edition at 37½ cents each to stimulate sales. Sales abroad, as in Britain where the book was a great success, earned Stowe nothing as there was no international copyright agreement in place during that era. In late 1853 Stowe undertook a lecture tour of Britain and, to make up the royalties that she could not receive there, the Glasgow New Association for the Abolition of Slavery set up Uncle Tom's Offering.
According to Daniel R. Lincoln, the goal of the book was to educate Northerners on the realistic horrors of the things that were happening in the South. The other purpose was to try to make people in the South feel more empathetic towards the people they were forcing into slavery.
Portrait of Harriet Beecher Stowe by Francis Holl, 1853
The book's emotional portrayal of the effects of slavery on individuals captured the nation's attention. Stowe showed that slavery touched all of society, beyond the people directly involved as masters, traders and slaves. Her novel added to the debate about abolition and slavery, and aroused opposition in the South. In the South, Stowe was depicted as out of touch, arrogant, and guilty of slander. Within a year, 300 babies in Boston alone were named Eva (one of the book's characters), and a play based on the book opened in New York in November. Southerners quickly responded with numerous works of what are now called anti-Tom novels, seeking to portray Southern society and slavery in more positive terms. Many of these were bestsellers, although none matched the popularity of Stowe's work, which set publishing records.
After the start of the Civil War, Stowe traveled to the capital, Washington, D.C., where she met President Abraham Lincoln on November 25, 1862. Stowe's daughter, Hattie, reported, "It was a very droll time that we had at the White house I assure you... I will only say now that it was all very funny--and we were ready to explode with laughter all the while." What Lincoln said is a minor mystery. Her son later reported that Lincoln greeted her by saying, "so you are the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war." Her own accounts are vague, including the letter reporting the meeting to her husband: "I had a real funny interview with the President."
A year after the Civil War, Stowe purchased property near Jacksonville, Florida. In response to a newspaper article in 1873, she wrote, "I came to Florida the year after the war and held property in Duval County ever since. In all this time I have not received even an incivility from any native Floridian."
Stowe is controversial for her support of Elizabeth Campbell, Duchess of Argyll, whose father-in-law decades before was a leader in the Highland Clearances, the transformation of the remote Highlands of Scotland from a militia-based society to an agricultural one that supported far fewer people. The newly homeless moved to Canada, where very bitter accounts appeared. It was Stowe's assignment to refute them using evidence the Duchess provided, in Letter XVII Volume 1 of her travel memoir Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands. Stowe was vulnerable when she seemed to defend the cruelties in Scotland as eagerly as she attacked the cruelties in the American South.
In 1868, Stowe became one of the first editors of Hearth and Home magazine, one of several new publications appealing to women; she departed after a year. Stowe campaigned for the expansion of married women's rights, arguing in 1869 that:
[T]he position of a married woman ... is, in many respects, precisely similar to that of the negro slave. She can make no contract and hold no property; whatever she inherits or earns becomes at that moment the property of her husband.... Though he acquired a fortune through her, or though she earned a fortune through her talents, he is the sole master of it, and she cannot draw a penny....[I]n the English common law a married woman is nothing at all. She passes out of legal existence.
In the 1870s, Stowe's brother Henry Ward Beecher was accused of adultery, and became the subject of a national scandal. Unable to bear the public attacks on her brother, Stowe again fled to Florida but asked family members to send her newspaper reports. Through the affair, she remained loyal to her brother and believed he was innocent.
After her return to Connecticut, Mrs. Stowe was among the founders of the Hartford Art School, which later became part of the University of Hartford.
Following the death of her husband, Calvin Stowe, in 1886, Harriet started rapidly to decline in health. By 1888, The Washington Post reported that as a result of dementia the 77-year-old Stowe started writing Uncle Tom's Cabin over again. She imagined that she was engaged in the original composition, and for several hours every day she industriously used pen and paper, inscribing passages of the book almost exactly word for word. This was done unconsciously from memory, the author imagining that she composed the matter as she went along. To her diseased mind the story was brand new, and she frequently exhausted herself with labor which she regarded as freshly created.
Mark Twain, a neighbor of Stowe's in Hartford, recalled her last years in the following passage of his autobiography:
Her mind had decayed, and she was a pathetic figure. She wandered about all the day long in the care of a muscular Irish woman. Among the colonists of our neighborhood the doors always stood open in pleasant weather. Mrs. Stowe entered them at her own free will, and as she was always softly slippered and generally full of animal spirits, she was able to deal in surprises, and she liked to do it. She would slip up behind a person who was deep in dreams and musings and fetch a war whoop that would jump that person out of his clothes. And she had other moods. Sometimes we would hear gentle music in the drawing-room and would find her there at the piano singing ancient and melancholy songs with infinitely touching effect.
Stereoscope of Dr. Stowe and Harriet Beecher Stowe at the house in Mandarin, Florida
Multiple landmarks are dedicated to the memory of Harriet Beecher Stowe, and are located in several states including Ohio, Florida, Maine and Connecticut. The locations of these landmarks represent various periods of her life such as her father's house where she grew up, and where she wrote her most famous work.
The Harriet Beecher Stowe House in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the former home of her father Lyman Beecher on the former campus of the Lane Seminary. Her father was a preacher who was greatly affected by the pro-slavery Cincinnati Riots of 1836. Harriet Beecher Stowe lived here until her marriage. It is open to the public and operated as a historical and cultural site, focusing on Harriet Beecher Stowe, the Lane Seminary and the Underground Railroad. The site also presents African-American history.
In the 1870s and 1880s, Stowe and her family wintered in Mandarin, Florida, now a neighborhood of modern consolidated Jacksonville, on the St. Johns River. Stowe wrote Palmetto Leaves while living in Mandarin, arguably an eloquent piece of promotional literature directed at Florida's potential Northern investors at the time. The book was published in 1873 and describes Northeast Florida and its residents. In 1874, Stowe was honored by the governor of Florida as one of several northerners who had helped Florida's growth after the war. In addition to her writings inspiring tourists and settlers to the area, she helped establish a church and a school, and she helped promote oranges as a major state crop through her own orchards. The school she helped establish in 1870 was an integrated school in Mandarin for children and adults. This predated the national movement toward integration by more than a half century. The marker commemorating the Stowe family is located across the street from the former site of their cottage. It is on the property of the Community Club, at the site of a church where Stowe's husband once served as a minister. The Church of our Saviour is an Episcopal Church founded in 1880 by a group of people who had gathered for Bible readings with Professor Calvin E. Stowe and his famous wife. The house was constructed in 1883 which contained the Stowe Memorial stained glass window, created by Louis Comfort Tiffany.
The Harriet Beecher Stowe House in Brunswick, Maine, is where Stowe lived when she wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin. Her husband was teaching theology at nearby Bowdoin College, and she regularly invited students from the college and friends to read and discuss the chapters before publication. Future Civil War general, and later Governor, Joshua Chamberlain was then a student at the college and later described the setting. "On these occasions," Chamberlain noted, "a chosen circle of friends, mostly young, were favored with the freedom of her house, the rallying point being, however, the reading before publication, of the successive chapters of her Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the frank discussion of them." In 2001, Bowdoin College purchased the house, together with a newer attached building, and was able to raise the substantial funds necessary to restore the house. It is now open to the public.
The Harriet Beecher Stowe House in Hartford, Connecticut, is the house where Stowe lived for the last 23 years of her life. It was next door to the house of fellow author Mark Twain. In this 5,000 sq ft (460 m2) cottage-style house, there are many of Beecher Stowe's original items and items from the time period. In the research library, which is open to the public, there are numerous letters and documents from the Beecher family. The house is open to the public and offers house tours on the hour.
In 1833, during Stowe's time in Cincinnati, the city was afflicted with a serious cholera epidemic. To avoid illness, Stowe made a visit to Washington, Kentucky, a major community of the era just south of Maysville. She stayed with the Marshall Key family, one of whose daughters was a student at Lane Seminary. It is recorded that Mr. Key took her to see a slave auction, as they were frequently held in Maysville. Scholars believe she was strongly moved by the experience. The Marshall Key home still stands in Washington. Key was a prominent Kentuckian; his visitors also included Henry Clay and Daniel Webster.
The Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site is part of the restored Dawn Settlement at Dresden, Ontario, which is 20 miles east of Algonac, Michigan. The community for freed slaves founded by the Rev. Josiah Henson and other abolitionists in the 1830s has been restored. There's also a museum. Henson and the Dawn Settlement provided Stowe with the inspiration for Uncle Tom's Cabin.
"Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly". The National Era. June 5, 1851. (First two chapters of serialized version which ran for 40 numbers.) (Digitized version of entire series by University of Virginia.)
Uncle Tom's Cabin, or, Life among the Lowly. Boston & Cleveland: J.P. Jewett; Jewett, Proctor & Worthington. 1852. (Published in 2 volumes; stereotyped by Hobart & Robbins.) (One volume 1853 edition is hosted by HathiTrust.)
Uncle Tom's Cabin: The Great American Novel, to be completed in six weekly numbers, price one penny each Saturday. London: Vickers. August 7, 1852. (Title from first number.)
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, The History of a Christian Slave. London: Partridge and Oakey. 1852. (First English illustrated edition.) (Digital copy hosted by HathiTrust.)
The Christian Slave. A Drama founded on a Portion of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Boston: Phillips, Sampson & Company. 1855. (Closet drama or reading version based on Uncle Tom's Cabin.) (Digital copy hosted by HathiTrust.)
A New England Sketchbook. Lowell [Mass.]: A. Gilman. 1834. (As Harriet E. Beecher.)
Earthly Care, A Heavenly Discipline. Boston: The American Tract Society. [ca. 1845].
"A New Year's Dream". The Christian Keepsake, and Missionary Annual, for MDCCCXLIX. n.l.: Brower, Hayes & Co. .
History of the Edmonson Family. Andover, Mass.: The Author. 1852?. (Self-published book to raise funds to educate Emily and Mary Edmonson, former slaves redeemed by a public subscription in 1848, supported by Stowe.)
A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin, presenting the original facts and documents upon which the story is founded together with corroborative statements verifying the truth of the work. Boston, Cleveland, London: John P. Jewett & Co.; Jewett, Proctor & Worthington; Low and Company. 1853.(Digital Copy hosted by HathiTrust.)
Little Foxes. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. 1866. (Published under the name of Christopher Crowfield.) (Digital copy hosted by Archive.org.)
Men of our Times; or, Leading Patriots of the Day. Being narratives of the lives and deeds of statesmen, generals, and orators. Including biographical sketches and anecdotes of Lincoln, Grant, Garrison, Sumner, Chase, Wilson, Greeley, Farragut, Andrew, Colfax, Stanton, Douglass, Buckingham, Sherman, Sheridan, Howard, Phillips and Beecher. Hartford, Conn.; New York: Hartford Publishing Co.; J.D. Denison. 1868. (Digital copy hosted by HathiTrust.)
Bible Heroines, Being Narrative Biographies of Prominent Hebrew Women in the Patriarchal, National, and Christian Eras, Giving Views of Women in Sacred History, as Revealed in the Light of the Present Day. New York: Fords, Howard, & Hulbert. 1878. (Digital copy hosted by HathiTrust.)
Uncle Sam's Emancipation; Earthly Care, A Heavenly Discipline; and Other Sketches. Philadelphia: W.P. Hazard. 1853. (Consists of the following sketches: "Account of Mrs. Beecher Stowe and her Family," "Uncle Sam's Emancipation," "Earthly Care, A Heavenly Discipline," "A Scholar's Adventure in the Country," "Children," "The Two Bibles," "Letter from Maine, No. 1," "Letter from Maine, No. 2," "Christmas; or, The Good Fairy.") (Digital copy hosted at HathiTrust.)
Evergreen: Being the Smaller Works of Mrs. H. Beecher Stowe. Belfast: Alex. S. Mayne. 1853. (A collection of works consisting of: "The New Year's Gift," "The Bible, The Source of Sure Comfort," "Make to Yourselves Driends," "Earthly Care, A Heavenly Discipline," "So Many Calls," "Learn of Children," "Anti-slavery Meeting in Glasgow, Letter from Mrs. Stowe to Dr Wardlaw.")
Queer Little People. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. 1868. (Published under the name of Christopher Crowfield.) (Digital copy hosted by HathiTrust.) (Consists of the following stories: "The Hen That Hatched Ducks," "The Nutcracker of Nutcracker Lodge," "The History of Tip-Top," "Miss Katy-Did and Miss Cricket," "Mother Magpie's Micschief," "The Squirrels that Live in a House," "Hum, the Son of Buz," "Our Country Neighbors," "Our Dogs," "Dogs and Cats," "Aunt Esther's Rules," "Aunt Esther's Stories," "Sir Walter Scott and his Dogs" and "Country Neighbors Again.")
Oldtown Fireside Stories. Boston: J.R. Osgood. 1872. (Digital copy hosted by HathiTrust.) (Consists of the stories: "The Ghost in the Mill," "The Sullivan Looking-Glass," "The Minister's Housekeeper," "The Widow's Bandbox," "Captain Kidd's Money," "'Mis' Elderkin's Pitcher'," "The Ghost in the Cap'n Brownhouse.")
Betty's Bright Idea [and Other Stories]. New York: J.B. Ford & Company. 1876. (In addition to the title story, the book includes "Deacon Pitkin's Farm" and "The First Christmas of New England".) (Digital copy hosted by HathiTrust.)
Sam Lawson's Oldtown Fireside Stories. Boston; New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 1887. (Digital copy hosted by HathiTrust.) (Consists of: "The Ghost in the Mill," "The Sullivan Looking-Glass," "The Minister's Housekeeper," "The 2idow's Bandbox," "Captain Kidd's Money," "'Mis' Elderkin's pitcher'," "The Ghost in the Cap'n Brown House," "Colonel Eph's Shoebuckles," "The Bull-Fight," "How to Fight the Devil," "Laughin' in Meetin'," "Tom Toothacre's Ghost Story," "The Parson's Horse-Race," "Oldtown Fireside Talks of the Revolution" and "A Student's Sea Story.")
The Writings of Harriet Beecher Stowe. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1896-97. 17 Volumes. (A digital copy, hosted by HathiTrust, is linked to each volume number: Vol. I and Vol. II: Uncle Ton's Cabin and A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin in two volumes; Vol. III & Vol IV: Dread, A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp and Antislavery Tales and Papers, and Life in Florida After the War; in two volumes Vol. V: The Minister's Wooing; Vol. VI: The Pearl of Orr's Island; Vol. VII: Agnes of Sorento; Vol. VIII: Household Papers and Stories; Vol. IX and Vol. X: Oldtown Folks and Sam Lawson's Oldtown Fireside Stories in two volumes; Vol. XI" Poganuc Peoples and Pink and White Tyranny; Vol. XII: My Wife and I; Vol. XIII: We and Our Neighbors; [Vol. XIV]: Stories, Sketches and Studies: "Uncle Lot," "Love versus Law," "The Tea Rose," "Aunt Mary," "Frankness," "Cousin William," "Mrs. A and Mrs. B; or, What She Thinks about It," "Which is the Liberal Man?" "The Canal Boat," "Feeling," "The Seamstress," "Old Father Morris," "The Coral Ring," "Art and Nature," "The New Year's Gift," "Our Wood Lot in Winter," "The Mourning Veil," "New England Ministers," "Betty's Bright Idea," Deacon Pritkin's Farm, The First Christmas of New England and Little Foxes; Vol. XV: Religious Studies, Sketches and Poems; Vol. XVI: Stories and Sketches for the Young: Queer Little People, Little Pussy Willow, The Minister's Watermelons, A Dog's Mission, Lulu's Pupil and The Daisy's First Winter; [Vol. XVII]: Life and Letters of Harriet Beecher Stowe edited by Annie Field.)
"The Dancing School (I)". New York Evangelist. 14 (14): 1. April 6, 1843. and "The Dancing School (II)". New York Evangelist. 14 (14): 1. April 13, 1843.
"The Family Circle". Christian Reflector. 6 (19). May 10, 1843.
"Feeling". New York Evangelist. 14 (16): 1. April 20, 1843.
"Now we see through a glass darkly". New York Evangelist. 14 (23): 1. June 8, 1843.
"The Bashful Cousin". Philanthropist. 7 (44): 4. July 12, 1843.
"So Many Calls". Ladies Repository, and Gatherings of the West. 3: 278. September 1843.
"The Nursery (I)". The Youth's Companion. 17 (25): 98. October 26, 1843. and "The Nursery (II)". The Youth's Companion. 17 (26): 102. November 2, 1843.
"Which is the Liberal Man?". New York Evangelist. 15 (5): 1. February 1, 1844.
"Moralist and Miscellanist". Christian Reflector. 7 (6): 24. February 8, 1844.
"Mark Meriden". The Rover: A Weekly Magazine of Tales, Poetry, and Engravings. 3 (24): 376. August 7, 1844.
"Tales and Sketches of Real Life". Littell's Living Age. 2 (18): 339. September 14, 1844.
"Mary at the Cross". New York Evangelist. 15 (48): 192. November 28, 1844.
"Love and Fear". New York Evangelist. 15 (49): 196. December 5, 1844.
"Immediate Emancipation - A Sketch". The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist. 9 (21): 2. February 5, 1845.
"Ladies' Department". Massachusetts Ploughman and New England Journal of Agriculture. 4 (24): 4. March 15, 1845.
"Narrative". The Youth's Companion. 18 (48): 190. April 3, 1845.
"Slavery". Zion's Herald and Wesleyan Journal. 16 (15): 60. April 9, 1845.
"The Interior or Hidden Life". New York Evangelist. 16 (16): 1. April 17, 1845..
"Uncle Abel and Little Edatrd". Zion's Herald and Wesleyan Journal. 16 (21): 1. May 21, 1845..
"A Tradition of the Church of Laodicea". Episcopal Recorder. 23 (28): 109. September 27, 1845.
"Children". New York Evangelist. 17 (3): 1. January 15, 1846.
"What will the American People do? (I)". New York Evangelist. 17 (5): 1. January 29, 1846. and "What will the American People do? (II)". New York Evangelist. 17 (6): 1. February 5, 1846.
"Parents and Children". The New York Observer and Chronicle. 24 (32): 128. August 8, 1946.
"The Way to Live on Christ". Christian Watchman. 28 (2): 1. January 8, 1847.
"Feelings". Godey's Magazine and Lady's Book. 36: 102. February 1848.
"The Coral Ring". Godey's Magazine and Lady's Book. 36: 340. June 1848.
"Moral Tales (I)". The Youth's Companion. 22 (20): 77. September 14, 1848. and "Moral Tales (II)". The Youth's Companion. 22 (21): 81. September 21, 1848.
"Atonement - A Historical Reverie". New York Evangelist. 19 (52): 1. December 28, 1948.
"A Little Child Shall Lead Them". Christian Parlor Magazine: 248. May 1, 1850.
"The Freeman's Dream: A Parable". National Era. IV (31): 121. August 1, 1850.
"Earthly Care a Heavenly Discipline". New York Evangelist. 21 (1): 1. August 1, 1850.
"Heinrich Stilling". New York Evangelist. 22 (6): 1. February 6, 1851.
"The Two Altars; or, Two Pictures in One (I)". New York Evangelist. 22 (24): 1. June 12, 1851. and "The Two Altars; or, Two Pictures in One (II)". New York Evangelist. 22 (25): 1. June 19, 1851. (Reprinted in a collection of leading abolitionists with facsimile signatures of the authors: Autographs for Freedom. London: Sampson Low, Son & Co. ; and John Cassell. 1853. p. 88. Digited by Archive.org.)
"The True Story of Lady Byron's Life". The Atlantic Monthly. 24: 295. September 1869.
^Parfait, Claire. The Publishing History of Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1852-2002. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007: 71-72. ISBN978-0-7546-5514-5
^Morgan, Jo-Ann. Uncle Tom's Cabin As Visual Culture. University of Missouri Press, 2007: 136-37. ISBN978-0-8262-1715-8
^Parfait, Claire. The Publishing History of Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1852-2002. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007: 78. ISBN978-0-7546-5514-5
^Lyons, Martyn. Books: A Living History. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2011. chapter 4 p.143
^Mullen, Stephen. (2009). It wisnae us : the truth about Glasgow and slavery. Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland., Glasgow Anti Racist Alliance. Edinburgh: Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland. p. 75. ISBN978-1-873190-62-3. OCLC551393830.
^Vollaro, Daniel R. "Lincoln, Stowe, And The Little Woman/Great War' Story: The Making, And Breaking, Of A Great American Anecdote". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 30.1 (2015).
^Morgan, Jo-Ann. Uncle Tom's Cabin As Visual Culture. University of Missouri Press, 2007: 137. ISBN978-0-8262-1715-8
Vollaro, Daniel R., "Lincoln, Stowe, and the 'Little Woman/Great War' Story: The Making, and Breaking, of a Great American Anecdote". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association, vol. 30, issue 1 (Winter 2009)