Hawker Hind
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Hawker Hind

Hind
Hawker Hind K5414 (Shuttleworth Uncovered).jpg
Hawker Hind (Afghan), Shuttleworth Collection
Role Light bomber, Trainer
Manufacturer Hawker Aircraft Limited
Designer Sydney Camm
First flight 12 September 1934
Introduction 1935
Retired 1957 (Afghanistan)
Primary users Royal Air Force
Iran
New Zealand
South Africa
Produced 1935-1938
528
Variants Hawker Hart (precursor)
Hawker Hector
Hawker P.V.4

The British Hawker Hind was a Royal Air Force light bomber of the inter-war years produced by Hawker Aircraft. It was developed from the Hawker Hart day-bomber introduced in 1931.

Design and development

An improved Hawker Hart bomber defined by Specification G.7/34, was purchased by the RAF as an interim aircraft, while more modern monoplane bombers such as the Fairey Battle were still in development. Structural elements were a mixture of steel and duralumin with the wings being fabric covered; the main differences compared to the earlier Hart was a new powerplant, (the Rolls Royce Kestrel V) and the inclusion of refinements from the earlier derivatives such as the cut-down rear cockpit developed for the Demon. The prototype (Serial number K2915) was constructed very rapidly due to Hawker's development work for other proposals and made its first flight on 12 September 1934. A variety of changes were subsequently incorporated ("ram's horn" exhaust manifolds, Fairey-Reed metal propeller and engine improvements) with the first production Hind (K4636) flown on 4 September 1935.

Operational history

Shuttleworth's Hind (Afghan)

The Hind went into service in November 1935 and eventually equipped 20 RAF bomber squadrons. A number were also sold to foreign customers including Afghanistan, the Republic of Ireland, Latvia, Persia (Iran), Portugal, South Africa, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia. By 1937, the Hind was being phased out of front line service, replaced by the Fairey Battle and Bristol Blenheim, with many of the Auxiliary Air Force squadrons changing their role to fighter or maritime patrol units. At the outbreak of the Second World War, 613 Squadron retained the Hind for army co-operation before re-equipping with the Hart derivative, the Hawker Hector, in November 1939.[1]

The Hind found a new career in 1938 as a training aircraft, representing the next step up from basic training on Tiger Moths. It continued in use as an intermediate trainer during the war. Hind trainers were also operated by Canada and New Zealand. In 1941, Hinds flew operations in their original role as light bombers against Axis forces. South African Hinds were employed against Italian forces in Kenya during the East African Campaign and Yugoslav Hinds were used against the Germans and Italians. Iranian Hinds were used briefly against Allied forces during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. Imperial Iranian Air Force bases were occupied by the Allies and their aircraft were destroyed or dismantled by the invading British. Hawker Hind aircraft were also used by the Afghan government to suppress the tribal revolts of 1944-1945.

Variants

A Bristol Mercury-engined Hind of the Imperial Iranian Air Force
Hind Mk I
Two-seat light bomber aircraft for the RAF, powered by a 477 kW (640 hp) Rolls-Royce Kestrel piston engine.
Afghan Hind
Similar to the Hind Mk I, four aircraft fitted with Rolls-Royce Kestrel V engines, plus another four aircraft fitted with Kestrel UDR engines; eight built for Afghanistan.
Latvian Hind
Two-seat training aircraft, powered by a Bristol Mercury IX radial piston-engine; three built for Latvia.
Persian Hind
Modified version of the Hind Mk I, powered by a Bristol Mercury VIII radial piston-engine; 35 built for Persia.
Portuguese Hind
Similar to the Hind Mk I, two aircraft built as bombers, two aircraft built as trainers; four built for Portugal.
Swiss Hind
Two-seat unarmed communications aircraft; one built for Switzerland.
Yugoslav Hind
Modified version of the Hind Mk I, two aircraft fitted with Rolls-Royce Kestrel XVI piston-engines, one aircraft fitted with a Gnome-Rhone Mistral engine; three built for Yugoslavia.

Operators

Hind operators
 Afghanistan
 Canada
 Iran
 Ireland
 Latvia
 New Zealand
 Portugal
 South Africa
  Switzerland
 United Kingdom
 Yugoslavia

Surviving aircraft

In 1937-39, 28 Hinds were sold to the Afghan government in two batches. After being retired in 1956, two airframes were donated to the United Kingdom in 1967-68. A further two airframes were donated to the National Aeronautical Collection in 1975 by the Afghan president.[3][5]

Specifications (Hind)

Data from The British Bomber since 1914[4]

General characteristics

  • Crew: two
  • Length: 29 ft 3 in (8.92 m)
  • Wingspan: 37 ft 3 in (11.35 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 7 in (3.23 m)
  • Wing area: 348 sq ft (32.3 m2)
  • Empty weight: 3,195 lb (1,449 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 4,657 lb (2,112 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Kestrel V water-cooled V12 engine, 640 hp (480 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 185 mph (298 km/h, 161 kn) at 15,500 ft (4,700 m)
  • Stall speed: 45 mph (72 km/h, 39 kn) [10]
  • Range: 460 mi (740 km, 400 nmi) [11]
  • Service ceiling: 26,400 ft (8,000 m)
  • Time to altitude: 8 min 6 s to 10,000 ft (3,000 m)

Armament

  • Guns: 1 × synchronised forward-firing .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers gun and 1 × .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun in rear cockpit
  • Bombs: Up to 510 lb (230 kg) bombs under wings

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ "History of No. 613 Squadron."[permanent dead link]Royal Air Force Air Historical Branch. Retrieved: 13 January 2008.
  2. ^ Astin, Robert (8 December 2016). "Anglo-Italian Competition: The sale of military aircraft to Kabul". British Library. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d Simpson, Andrew (2013). "INDIVIDUAL HISTORY [BAPC 82]" (PDF). Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ a b Mason 1994, p. 261.
  5. ^ a b "HAWKER HIND". Ingenium. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ "HAWKER HIND". Shuttleworth. Shuttleworth. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ "Hawker Hind, L7181". Historic Aircraft Collection. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ "AVIATION". MOTAT. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ a b Prince, Ivan; Cowan, Brendan (26 November 2013). "RNZAF Hawker Hind & Hind Trainer NZ1501 to NZ1563 + RAF Serials". ADF Serials. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ "Hawker Hind". Air Transport Auxiliary Ferry Pilots Notes (reproduction). Elvington, York, UK: Yorkshire Air Museum, 1996. ISBN 0-9512379-8-5.
  11. ^ Thetford 1957, p. 287.

Bibliography

  • Crawford, Alex. Hawker Hart Family. Redbourn, Hertfordshire, UK: Mushroom Model Publications Ltd., 2008. ISBN 83-89450-62-3.
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber Since 1914. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  • Mason, Francis K. Hawker Aircraft since 1920. London: Putnam, Third revised edition 1991, first edition 1961. ISBN 0-85177-839-9.
  • Thetford, Owen. Aircraft of the Royal Air Force 1918-57. London: Putnam, 1st edition, 1957.

External links


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