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Heckler & Koch UMP

A heckler in Washington, D.C. leans across a police line toward a demonstration of Iranians during the Iran hostage crisis, August 1980.

A heckler is a person who harasses and tries to disconcert others with questions, challenges, or gibes.[1] Hecklers are often known to shout disparaging comments at a performance or event, or to interrupt set-piece speeches, with the intent of disturbing performers and/or participants.


Although the word heckler, which originated from the textile trade, was first attested in the mid-15th century, the sense "person who harasses" was from 1885.[2] To heckle was to tease or comb out flax or hemp fibres. The additional meaning, to interrupt speakers with awkward or embarrassing questions, was added in Scotland, and specifically perhaps in early nineteenth century Dundee, a famously radical town where the hecklers who combed the flax had established a reputation as the most radical and belligerent element in the workforce. In the heckling factory, one heckler would read out the day's news while the others worked, to the accompaniment of interruptions and furious debate.[3]

Heckling was a major part of the vaudeville theater. Sometimes it was incorporated into the play. Milton Berle's weekly TV variety series in the 1960s featured a heckler named Sidney Spritzer (German/Yiddish for 'squirter') played by Borscht Belt comic Irving Benson. In the 1970s and 1980s, The Muppet Show, which was also built around a vaudeville theme, featured two hecklers, Statler & Waldorf (two old men named after famous hotels). Heckles are now particularly likely to be heard at comedy performances, to unsettle or compete with the performer.


Politicians speaking before live audiences have less latitude to deal with hecklers. In one of his early political campaigns before becoming Premier of Ontario, Mitchell Hepburn stood on top of a manure spreader, apologizing to the crowd for speaking from a Tory platform, at which someone in the crowd shouted, "Well, wind 'er up Mitch, she's never carried a bigger load!"[4]

Legally, such conduct may constitute protected free speech. Strategically, coarse or belittling retorts to hecklers entail personal risk disproportionate to any gain. Some politicians, however, have been known to improvise a relevant and witty response despite these pitfalls. One acknowledged expert at this was Harold Wilson, British Prime Minister in the 1960s:

Heckler: (interrupting a passage in a Wilson speech about Labour's spending plans) What about Vietnam?
Wilson: The government has no plans to increase public expenditure in Vietnam.
Heckler: Rubbish!
Wilson: I'll come to your special interest in a minute, sir.[3]

Martin Luther King's I Have a Dream speech was largely a response to supporter Mahalia Jackson interrupting his prepared speech to shout "Tell them about the dream, Martin".[5] At that point, King stopped reading from his previously prepared speech and improvised the remainder of the speech - this improvised portion of the speech is the best-known part of the speech and frequently rated as one of the best of all time.

During a campaign stop just before winning the Presidency in 1980, Ronald Reagan was heckled by an audience member who kept interrupting him during a speech. Reagan tried to go on with his speech three times, but after being interrupted yet again glared at the heckler and snapped "Aw, shut up!" The audience immediately gave him a standing ovation.

In 1992, then-Presidential candidate Bill Clinton was interrupted by Bob Rafsky, a member of the AIDS activism group ACT UP, who accused him of "dying of ambition to be president"[6] during a rally. After becoming visibly agitated, Clinton took the microphone off the stand, pointed to the heckler and directly responded to him by saying, "[...] I have treated you and all of the other people who have interrupted my rallies with a hell of a lot more respect than you treated me. And it's time to start thinking about that!" Clinton was then met with raucous applause.[7]

On 9 September 2009, Representative Joe Wilson (R-SC) shouted "You lie!" at President Barack Obama after President Obama stated that his health care plan would not subsidize coverage for illegal immigrants during a speech he was making to a joint session of Congress. Wilson later apologized for his outburst.[8]

On 25 November 2013, Ju Hong, a 24-year-old South Korean immigrant without legal documentation, shouted at Obama to use his executive power to stop deportation of illegal immigrants.[9] Obama said "If, in fact, I could solve all these problems without passing laws in Congress, then I would do so." "But we're also a nation of laws, that's part of our tradition," he continued. "And so the easy way out is to try to yell and pretend like I can do something by violating our laws. And what I'm proposing is the harder path, which is to use our democratic processes to achieve the same goal."[10][11][12][13][14]

On December 29, 2014, New York City mayor Bill de Blasio was the target of this at his address to 884 police academy graduates at Madison Square Garden in the aftermath of the 2014 killings of NYPD officers Wenjian Liu and Rafael Ramos.

Audience control

One modern political approach to discourage heckling is to ensure that major events are given before a "tame" audience of sympathizers, or conducted to allow restrictions on who may remain on the premises (see also, astroturfing). The downside is this may make heckling incidents even more newsworthy. This happened to Tony Blair during a photo op visit to a hospital during the 2001 general election campaign, and again in 2003 during a speech.[15]

In 2004, American Vice President Dick Cheney was interrupted mid-speech by Perry Patterson, a middle-aged mother in a pre-screened rally audience. After various supportive outbursts that were permitted ("Four more years", "Go Bush!"), Patterson uttered "No, no, no, no" and was removed from the speech area and told to leave. She refused, and was arrested for criminal trespass.[16]

Later, in 2005, Cheney received some heckling that was broadcast during his trip to New Orleans, after Hurricane Katrina ravaged the city. The heckling occurred during a press conference in Gulfport, Mississippi, in an area that was cordoned off for public safety reasons, and then further secured for the press conference. Nevertheless, emergency room physician Ben Marble got close enough to the proceedings and could be heard yelling, "Go fuck yourself, Mr. Cheney." Cheney laughed it off and continued speaking.[17] The heckle was a reference to Cheney's use of the phrase the previous year, when during a heated exchange with Senator Patrick Joseph Leahy, Vermont, he said "fuck yourself" on the floor of the senate.[18]

On 15 October 2005, The Scotsman reported[19] "Iranian ambassador Dr Seyed Mohammed Hossein Adeli... speaking at the annual Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament conference... During his speech to the CND several people were told to leave the room following protests at Iran's human rights record. Several protesters shouted "Fascists" at the ambassador and the organisers of the conference. Walter Wolfgang, the 82-year-old peace campaigner who was forced out of the Labour Party conference last month, was in the audience."

Since 2005 heckling of performing artists has become more commonplace in Switzerland. Musicians of Basel and Zurich have become an increasing focus of hecklers. This shift is primarily perpetrated by foreigners and is often met with a positive response by the non-Swiss performers who welcome the audience interaction.

On Thursday, 20 April 2006, a heckler from the Falun Gong spiritual movement entered the US White House grounds as a reporter and interrupted a formal arrival ceremony for Chinese President Hu Jintao. Moments into Mr Hu's speech at the event, Wang Wenyi, perched on the top tier of the stands reserved for the press, began screaming in English and Chinese: "President Bush stop him. Stop this visit. Stop the killing and torture."[20] President Bush later apologised to his guest.[21]


Hecklers can also appear at sporting events, and usually (but not always) direct their taunts at a visiting team. Fans of the Philadelphia Eagles American football team are notorious for heckling; among the most infamous incidents were booing and subsequently throwing snowballs at a performer dressed as Santa Claus in a halftime show in 1968, and cheering at the career-ending injury of visiting team player Michael Irvin in 1999. Often, sports heckling will also involve throwing objects onto the field; this has led most sports stadiums to ban glass containers and bottlecaps. Another famous heckler is Robert Szasz, who regularly attends Tampa Bay Rays baseball games and is known for loudly heckling one opposing player per game or series. Former Yugoslav football star Dejan Savi?evi? is involved in an infamous incident with a heckler in which during an interview, a man on the street is heard shouting off-camera: "You're a piece of shit!" Dejan berated the man, and went on to finish the interview, without missing a beat.

In English and Scottish football, heckling and swearing from the stands, and football chants such as who ate all the pies? are common.

Australian sporting audiences are known for creative heckling. Perhaps the most famous is Yabba who had a grandstand at the Sydney Cricket Ground named after him, and now a statue.

The sport of cricket is particularly notorious for heckling between the teams themselves, which is known as sledging.

At the NBA Drafts of recent years, many fans have gone with heckling ESPN NBA analyst and host of, Quite Frankly with Stephen A. Smith, Stephen A. Smith. Most notably, The Stephen A. Smith Heckling Society of Gentlemen heckles him with a sock puppet dubbed as Stephen A. himself.

Tennis fans are also fairly noted for heckling. Some may call out during a service point to distract either player. Another common heckle from tennis fans is cheering after a service fault, which is considered to be rude and unsporting.

In 2009, then Toronto Blue Jays outfielder Alex Ríos was a victim of a heckling incident outside after a fund-raising event. The incident occurred after Rios declined to sign an autograph for a young fan, the same day he went 0 for 5 with 5 strikeouts in a game against the Los Angeles Angels. An older man yelled "The way you played today Alex, you should be lucky someone wants your autograph." Rios then replied with "Who gives a fuck", repeating it until being ushered into a vehicle. Rios did apologize the next day,[22] but was eventually placed on waivers and claimed by the Chicago White Sox later that year.


One of the most famous heckles in music history occurred at a Bob Dylan concert at the Manchester Free Trade Hall in 1966. During a quiet moment in between songs, an audience member shouts very loudly and clearly, "Judas!" referencing Dylan's so-called betrayal of folk music by "going electric". Dylan replied: "I don't believe you, you're a liar!" before telling his band to "Play it fucking loud!" They play an acidic version of "Like a Rolling Stone".[23] This incident was captured on tape and the full concert was released as volume four of Dylan's Live Bootleg Series.

Stand-up comedy

In stand-up comedy, a heckler is anyone who interrupts a comedian's set.[24] Hecklers want the stand-up to break the fourth wall.[25] Most sources claim that heckling is uncommon.[26][27][28] Heckling can occur during open stage performances, and/or where alcoholic beverages are being consumed; it is regarded as a sign of audience members becoming impatient with what they regard as a low-quality performance.[29] New comics are often underprepared to properly handle hecklers.[26][30]

In addition, live comedy venues tend to discourage heckling via signage and admissions policy, but tend to tolerate it as it creates customer loyalty. The etiquette of exactly how much heckling is tolerated differs immensely from venue to venue, however, but is generally more likely to be tolerated in blue-collar or working-class venues.

Comedians generally dislike heckling.[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] Hecklers may rarely threaten or physically assault comedians.[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] Even more rarely, comedians may receive death threats.[49][50]


Comedians counter hecklers by controlling the flow of conversation.[51] Some comedians ignore the heckling.[52][53][54] Others devise a strategy for quashing such outbursts, usually by having a repertoire of comebacks for hecklers[58]--known as "heckler lines" or "squelches"--on hand; those who handle the moment in an off-the-cuff manner do so by giving the heckler "enough rope to hang themselves."[59][60]Stewart Lee treats heckles as genuine inquiries.[61][62][63]Jerry Seinfeld is a "Heckle Therapist," who verbally sympathizes with the heckler to confuse the heckler and win the audience over.[64] Some comedians will get hecklers to repeat themselves to take away the momentum and laughter from the heckle.[65]


Bill Burr performed a set in Philadelphia where he reprimanded an audience of over ten thousand people.[66]Michael Richards became upset with a heckler and called them the N-word several times.[67] When a female audience member claimed that rape jokes are never funny, Daniel Tosh allegedly made an off-the-cuff retort that it would be funny if she were to be immediately raped.[68]

Other comedy mediums

The comedy TV series The Muppet Show featured a pair of hecklers named Statler and Waldorf. These characters created a kind of meta-comedy act in which the show's official comedian, Fozzie Bear, acted as their usual foil, although they occasionally made jokes at other characters as well.

Another notable use of heckling in comedy is in the cult favorite series Mystery Science Theater 3000. The series involves a man (either Joel Robinson or Mike Nelson) and two robots (Tom Servo and Crow T. Robot) sitting in a theater mocking bad B-movies. This style of comedy, coined as riffing, is continued with commentary-based series such as Rifftrax and Cinematic Titanic.

In one of Rowan Atkinson's plays "The School Master", a heckler interrupted his play by shouting "Here!" after Atkinson had read out an amusing name on his register. Atkinson incorporated it into his act by saying "I have a detention book..."[69]

See also


  1. ^ "Heckler". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2011.
  2. ^ "heckler | Origin and history of heckler by Online Etymology Dictionary". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ a b McKie, David (28 April 2005). "Unplotted ripostes". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2013.
  4. ^ John Yakabuski, MPP (4 November 2009). "Orders of the Day: Animal Health Act, 2009". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Ontario: Legislative Assembly of Ontario. at 10:00am
  5. ^ Lazarus, Hayden of heckla.com (16 April 2018) : Former Martin Luther King, Jr. adviser and speechwriter Clarence B. Jones talks to WSJ's Monika Vosough about how Martin Luther King's favorite gospel singer Mahalia Jackson helped create the "I Have a Dream" speech
  6. ^ Toner, Robin (27 March 1992). "NY Times". New York Times. Retrieved 2009.
  7. ^ 30 maart 2006. "Clinton's Angry Response to Heckler". YouTube. Retrieved 2009.
  8. ^ "Wilson apologizes: 'I let my emotions get the best of me'". Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Obama's immigration speech in deep-blue San Francisco interrupted by anti-deportation hecklers". mercurynews.com. 25 November 2013.
  11. ^ News, ABC. "Video: Heckler Disrupts Obama's Speech With Minute-Long Rant". ABC News.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Obama addresses heckler during speech on immigration". daytondailynews.com.
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ "Blair's heckler states his case", BBC, 24 January 2003.
  16. ^ "Woman utters No". Eugeneweekly.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2013. Retrieved 2009.
  17. ^ June Deery: Consuming Reality: The Commercialization of Factual Entertainment. MacMillan, 2012. Page 71.
  18. ^ "Cheney Dismisses Critic With Obscenity". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ "Iran denies troop attack links". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007.
  20. ^ "No breakthrough in US, China talks" Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Goldenberg, Suzanne (21 April 2006). "Protester gatecrashes Hu visit as China and US fail to make progress". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2009.
  22. ^ "Rios apologizes for YouTube tirade at abusive fan". CBC News. 5 June 2009.
  23. ^ Glover, Tony (1998). Bob Dylan Live 1966 Liner Notes. New York: Columbia Records. p. 7.
  24. ^ Dean, Greg (2000). Step by Step to Stand-up Comedy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. p. 188. ISBN 0-325-00179-0.
  25. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 20. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. An audience may imply (through heckling, interrupting, etc.) a desire for the comic to break down the fourth wall and 'join the crow,' but experienced comedians know that this would only make the room more uncomfortable.
  26. ^ a b MacInnes, Paul (15 August 2004). "How can he show his face?". The Guardian. Logan Murray. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 2019. For new comics, heckling is like parallel parking for new drivers, you need to know how to do it, but it doesn't happen very often.
  27. ^ Cassinos-Carr, Cathy (12 December 2018). "How About Those Hecklers?". Sacramento Magazine. Retrieved 2019. You see a lot of heckler videos go viral. But that's not because heckling happens a lot.
  28. ^ Conway, Andrew (11 December 1995). Collected by Robert Nelson, Scott Meltzer, Ngaio Bealum and Dave Gomez. "You're Ugly, Your Dick Is Small, and Everybody Fucks Your Mother--The Stand-Up Comedian's Response to the Heckler" (Text). Maledicta, The International Journal of Verbal Aggression. Santa Rosa, CA: Maledicta Press. 11. ISBN 978-0916500313. Retrieved 2019. In performances by comedians in the USA it is not uncommon for a member of the audience to interrupt the performance by shouting a comment.
  29. ^ Murray, Logan (25 June 2010). Be A Great Stand-Up (2nd ed.). London, Great Britain: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-444-10726-5. [Heckling] usually only happens because of one of two reasons: either you have lost the interest of the audience or the heckler is an idiot.
  30. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 136. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. To develop this kind of heckler-deflecting skill takes years; like writing and timing, it is developed with the benefit of those lovable comic twins: time and pain.
  31. ^ Sarah Silverman (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 40:44-41:10. I don't like hecklers, but I'm fascinated by them, and you know, I don't have like bits for hecklers, but I just love going in and talking to--giving them the attention that they need so badly and talking about it, you know, and where that comes from and how can I help you. How can I make you feel good about yourself?
  32. ^ Billy Connolly (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 34:20-34:33. I can never hear what a heckler is saying. I just respond wildly to them. And they might be saying, oh Billy, I love you--I say, shut the fuck up! I don't really like them as a species.
  33. ^ Oswalt, Patton (14 June 2014). "A Closed Letter to Myself About Thievery, Heckling and Rape Jokes: Heckling". Patton Oswalt. Patton Oswalt. Retrieved 2019. Hecklers don't make a show memorable. They prevent a show from being a fucking show. Comedians do not love hecklers.
  34. ^ Billy Connolly (2011). Alan Yentob (ed.). The Art of Stand-Up (TV). United Kingdom: BBC: One. Event occurs at 40:18-40:44. I loathe hecklers. I haven't one good syllable to say about hecklers. When you've come out of the club circuit and all that and you're in the concert hall...they should be gone.
  35. ^ Fernandez, Jesse (29 August 2016). "How to Deal With Hecklers: Tips From Nine Top Stand-up Comics". Paste. Paste Media Group. Retrieved 2019.
  36. ^ "Handling the Heckler". Toastmasters International. Retrieved 2019. I asked some fellow comedians what they thought about hecklers. As you might imagine, it was tough to get a straight answer:
  37. ^ Murray, Logan (25 June 2010). Be A Great Stand-Up. Pat Condell (2nd ed.). London, Great Britain: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-444-10726-5. I've never met a heckler I didn't want to punch in the face.
  38. ^ Zoglin, Richard (22 January 2008). Comedy at the Edge: How Stand-up in the 1970s Changed America. Bloomsbury USA. p. 46. ISBN 978-1582346243. Retrieved 2019. Even in the Café Wha? days, Roth remembers seeing Pryor get so enraged at a heckler that he stabbed the guy with a fork.
  39. ^ Billy Connolly (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 38:13-38:17. There's a guy [who] punched me onstage.
  40. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 134. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. Generally, however, any comic's physical encounters onstage can be counted on one hand--more often, one finger...Insults about appearance are almost exclusively aimed at women [comics].
  41. ^ Perrett, Connor (22 July 2019). "Stand-Up Comedian Says He Was Punched By A Trump Supporter For Telling A Joke About The President". The Inquisitr. Retrieved 2019. Following Fontenot's quip, the man reportedly stormed the stage and punched the comedian in the face, causing him to lose consciousness.
  42. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. pp. 133-134. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. Alan Harvey was once stabbed with a pencil by a crazed female patron. Tom Dreesen remembers, in the days when he was part of a double act with Tim Reid...'One night, one drunk walked by, put a lit cigarette out in Tom's face...He says that cmics are particularly vulnerable up there because the light is directly in their faces, so they can't see where a potential attacker is coming from. Jonathan Solomon says that he was once attacked by a drunk man...and nobody came onstage to help...another time...in Washington, a man threw a drink at him onstage.
  43. ^ Kettle, James (24 August 2010). "When heckling goes bad". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 2019. There are numerous stories of comics being attacked by audience members - in fact YouTube footage exists of one of the biggest draws at this year's fringe, Australian comic Jim Jeffries, being punched in the head onstage at the Manchester Comedy Store.
  44. ^ Leavenworth, Jesse (25 February 2019). "Police say heckler pulled knife, threatened comedian at Manchester club". Hartford Courant. Retrieved 2019.
  45. ^ McGregor, Nesta (29 November 2018). "Heckling: How to deal with it during a comedy show". BBC News. Ian Smith. BBC. Retrieved 2019. Ian says while the crowd saw the funny side of the gag, the man had to be restrained by his friends--before later being escorted out of the venue.
  46. ^ Zinoman, Jason (17 July 2012). "Toe-to-Toe at the Edge of the Comedy Club Stage". The New York Times. New York Times Company. Retrieved 2019. [A] heckler ended an exchange with Tammy Pescatelli, a veteran comic, by tossing a wine glass at her at a club in Jacksonville, Fla., scratching her cornea.
  47. ^ "Woman May Sue Comedian Eddie Griffin Over Pleasanton Heckling". CBS SF BayArea. San Francisco: CBS Broadcasting Inc. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 2019. It was a chaotic scene as a woman throws her drink at Griffin at Tommy T's. Fiona Walshe said she was taunted by Griffin for being a lesbian.
  48. ^ Bobby Lee (comedian), Michael Addis (director) (2007). Heckler. FilmRise. Event occurs at 8:12-9:00. I was onstage in New Mexico and some kid was going--just halfway through a punchline I hear--ching, ching, ching chong ching, ching chong ching chong, ching ching chong. This was a really dark, Mexican guy. So then I just basically went, '[variation of ándale]--hey, I'm digging a ditch,' you know (laughs to camera), 'I'm a ditch-digger.' Then, all of the sudden, through my peripheral I see him climbing onto the stage. So I keep going, then all of the sudden, like, I black out. I'm literally like, on the stage, laying there. He had punched me (pause) in the face.
  49. ^ Hofstetter, Steve (18 July 2019). "A Comedian's Guide To Handling Nazi Death Threats". The Canadian Jewish News. Retrieved 2019. I received 252 death threats, both direct and indirect [that I reported to the FBI]...I [talked] with one of the agents, who let me know that some of the folks that were threatening me were career criminals.
  50. ^ "Kathy Griffin on receiving death threats". CBS News. 24 March 2019. Retrieved 2019. On the day that I filmed...two FBI agents come in...they told me that they had [knowledge of] an imminent threat, Cesar Sayoc had shared his list with like-minded people
  51. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 136. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. Adrianne Tolsch says that, like stand-up in general, the key to dealing with hecklers is to remember, 'it's all about control...it's not what you say, it's how fast and forcefully you say it'
  52. ^ Patrick, Colin (13 January 2014). "11 Ways to Handle a Heckler". Mental Floss. minute media. Retrieved 2019.
  53. ^ McGregor, Nesta (29 November 2018). "Heckling: How to deal with it during a comedy show". BBC News. Ian Smith. BBC. Retrieved 2019. I sometimes try to ignore them because it might be the attention that they're after.
  54. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 135. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. Carol [Siskind] says, she acts as she does in any heckling episode: 'I try to ignore them [at first]...or I state my position right away.
  55. ^ Conway, Andrew (11 December 1995). Collected by Robert Nelson, Scott Meltzer, Ngaio Bealum and Dave Gomez. "You're Ugly, Your Dick Is Small, and Everybody Fucks Your Mother--The Stand-Up Comedian's Response to the Heckler" (Text). Maledicta, The International Journal of Verbal Aggression. Santa Rosa, CA: Maledicta Press. 11. ISBN 978-0916500313. Retrieved 2019. The comedian's response to the heckler is called a 'heckler line'...A successful comedian will usually have a large repertoire of lines, and will attempt to choose one that fits the situation, as this will make the response appear to be improvised.
  56. ^ Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Jim Jefferies. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 230-231. ISBN 978-1-4725-2638-0. I have a list of three or four [comebacks]...and the rest will be off the cuff
  57. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. pp. 135-136. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. Like all comics, [Carol Siskind's] responses to hecklers are usually not ad-libs, but cold, calculated antidotes
  58. ^ [55][56][57]
  59. ^ Murray, Logan (25 June 2010). Be A Great Stand-Up (2nd ed.). London, Great Britain: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. p. 165,174. ISBN 978-1-444-10726-5.
  60. ^ Apatow, Judd (2016). Sick In The Head. Jay Leno. NY: Random House. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-8129-8728-7. [G]ive them enough rope so they hang themselves
  61. ^ Stewart Lee (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 41:10-41:50. Another...way of controlling a room, which again can lead to fantastic deaths but really enjoyable ones, is to treat abusive heckles as if they were genuine inquiries...and actually to answer them at such length that the people regret having asked the question in the first place.
  62. ^ Stuart Goldsmith (6 March 2017). "The Comedian's Comedian with Stuart Goldsmith: 200 Stewart Lee". The Comedian's Comedian (Podcast). Stewart Lee. Stuart Goldsmith. Event occurs at 18:30-18:55. Retrieved 2019. I try to treat all heckles as a genuine inquiry...and I know where I've got that from. It's from one recording[, a track called Life on the Road,] of Ted Chippington['s album, Man in a Suitcase]
  63. ^ Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Stewart Lee. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-4725-2638-0. I treat it [the heckle] like it's an honest inquiry.
  64. ^ Lindsay, Benjamin (8 January 2018). "How to Become a Standup Comedian". backstage. Backstage. Retrieved 2019. [Jerry Seinfeld is a] Heckle Therapist...when people would say something nasty...[he] would...become...sympathetic to them and try to help them with their problem...to work out what was upsetting them, and try to be...understanding with their anger...[he] would counsel the heckler...'You seem so upset, and I know that's not what you wanted to have happen tonight. Let's talk about your problem,' and the audience...[found] it funny and it would [confuse the heckler]
  65. ^ Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 57. ISBN 9781468004847. [When asked to repeat what they said], the heckler will freeze up...[or if they do repeat it], it won't have as much steam.
  66. ^ Tanenbaum, Michael (30 November 2017). "Comedian Bill Burr explains his epically profane 'Philly rant' at '06 show". Philly Voice. WWB Holdings, LLC. . Retrieved 2019.
  67. ^ "The Single Destructive Moments That Disgraced Famous Comedians' Careers". Willamette Week. Willamette Week. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 2019. Nov. 17, 2006: Michael Richards goes on a racist rant at the Laugh Factory in L.A.
  68. ^ Holpunch, Amanda (11 July 2012). "Daniel Tosh apologises for rape joke as fellow comedians defend topic". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 2019. In a blog entry posted on Tumblr, an audience member wrote that after Tosh told a series of jokes proclaiming that rape is always funny, she called out 'Actually, rape jokes are never funny!' To which she claims Tosh replied: 'Wouldn't it be funny if that girl got raped by like, five guys right now? Like right now? What if a bunch of guys just raped her'
  69. ^ Atkinson, Rowan (27-30 June 1979). "The Secret Policeman's Ball". Headmaster. The Secret Policeman's Balls. 0:54 minutes in.

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