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Heilongjiang Province

Name transcription(s)
 o Chinese? (H?ilóngji?ng Sh?ng)
 o AbbreviationHL / ? (pinyin: H?i)
Landscape of Jingpo Lake
Landscape of Jingpo Lake
Map showing the location of Heilongjiang Province
Map showing the location of Heilongjiang Province
Coordinates: 48°N 129°E / 48°N 129°E / 48; 129Coordinates: 48°N 129°E / 48°N 129°E / 48; 129
Named for? h?i--black
? lóng--dragon
? ji?ng--river
Amur River
(and largest city)
Qiqihar (1949-1953)
Harbin (1954-present)
Divisions13 prefectures, 130 counties, 1274 townships
 o SecretaryZhang Qingwei
 o GovernorWang Wentao
 o Total454,800 km2 (175,600 sq mi)
Area rank6th
Highest elevation
1,690 m (5,540 ft)
 o Total38,312,224
 o Rank15th
 o Density84/km2 (220/sq mi)
 o Density rank28th
 o Ethnic compositionHan: 95%
Manchu: 3%
Korean: 1%
Mongol: 0.4%
Hui: 0.3%
 o Languages and dialectsNortheastern Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin
ISO 3166 codeCN-HL
GDP (2017[3])CNY 1.62 trillion
US$239.93 billion (21st)
 o per capitaCNY 42,699
US$6,324 (25th)
HDI (2018)0.747[4] (high) (12th)
Heilongjiang (Chinese characters).svg
"Heilongjiang" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaning"Black Dragon River"
Mongolian name
Mongolian script?
Manchu name
Manchu script
RomanizationSahaliyan'ula golo

Heilongjiang (About this sound; formerly romanized as Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia (Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai and Zabaykalsky Krai) to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.

The province takes its name from the Heilong River (Chinese name of the Amur), which marks the border between the People's Republic of China and Russia. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe City along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amur and Ussuri rivers).

Heilongjiang has significant agricultural production,[5] and raw materials, such as timber, oil and coal.


"Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the more well known western name, Amur. The one-character abbreviation is ? (pinyin: H?i). The Manchu name of the region is Sahaliyan ula (literally, "Black River"), from which the name of Sakhalin is derived, and the Mongolian name with the same meaning is Qaramörin. It is sometimes spelt "Heilungkiang", especially in older English texts.


Saint Sofia Church

Ancient Chinese records and other sources state that Heilongjiang was inhabited by people such as the Sushen, Buyeo, the Mohe, Balhae, and the Khitan. Mongolic Donghu people lived in Inner Mongolia and the western part of Heilongjiang.[6] Some names are Manchu or Mongolian.[7] The eastern portion of Heilongjiang was ruled by the kingdom of Balhae between the 7th and 10th centuries. The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115-1234) that subsequently ruled much of north China arose within the borders of modern Heilongjiang.

Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces on a 1734 French map

Heilongjiang as an administrative entity was created in 1683, during the Kangxi era of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, from the northwestern part of the Jilin province.[8] This Heilongjiang Province only included the western part of today's Heilongjiang Province, and was under the supervision of the General of Heilongjiang (Sahaliyan Ula i Jiyanggiy?n) (the title is also translated as the Military Governor of Heilongjiang; jiyanggiy?n is the Manchu reading of the Chinese word ji?ngj?n; "military leader, general" and is cognate with Japanese sh?gun), whose power extended, according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk, as far north as the Stanovoy Mountains. The eastern part of what's today Heilongjiang remained under the supervision of the General of Jilin (Girin i Jiyanggiy?n), whose power reached the Sea of Japan. These areas deep in Manchuria were closed off to Han Chinese migration.

The seal of Heilongjiang General

The original seat of the Military Governor of Heilongjiang, as established in 1683, was in Heilongjiang City (also known as Aigun or Heihe, or, in Manchu, Saghalien Ula), located on the Amur River. However, already in 1690 the seat of the governor was transferred to Nenjiang (Mergen) on the Nen River, and, in 1699, further south to Qiqihar. According to modern historians, the moves may have been driven by supply considerations: Nenjiang and Qiqihar are connected by a convenient waterway (Nen River) with southern Manchuria, whereas accessing Aigun (Heihe) would require either sailing all the way down the Sungari River until its confluence with the Amur and then up the Amur to Heihe, or using a portage over the Lesser Xing'an Mountains between the Nen River valley and the Amur valley. An additional advantage of Qiqihar may have been its location at the junction of a northbound road (to Nenjiang) and a westbound one (to Mongolia), enabling its garrison to defend both against the Russians and the Ölöt Mongols.[9]

Little Qing Military presence existed north of Aigun. According to the 18th- and early-20th-century European sources, and the reports of the Russians in the 1850s, the farthest Qing "advance guard" post was at Ulusu-Modon (Ulussu-Mudan) (Chinese: ), near the Amur River's famous S-shaped meander. (The post was actually on the left bank of the river, lost to the Russians in 1860.)

In 1858 and 1860, the Qing government was forced to give up all land beyond the Amur and Ussuri Rivers to the Russian Empire, cutting off the Qing Empire from the Sea of Japan and giving Heilongjiang its present northern and eastern borders. At the same time, Manchuria was opened to Han Chinese migration by the Qing government. By the early twentieth century, due to the Chuang Guandong, the Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group in the region.[10]

In 1931, Japanese forces invaded Heilongjiang. In 1932, the Japanese completed their conquest of the province, which became part of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

In 1945, Japanese forces in Manchuria were defeated by the Soviet Army. During the Chinese Civil War, Soviet forces aided the Chinese communists. Heilongjiang became the first province to be completely controlled by the communists and Harbin the first major city to be controlled by them.

At the beginning of communist rule, Heilongjiang included only the western portion of the present-day province, and had its capital at Qiqihar. The remaining area was the province of Songjiang; its capital was Harbin. In 1954, these two provinces were merged into present-day Heilongjiang. During the Cultural Revolution, Heilongjiang was also expanded to include Hulunbuir League and some other areas previously in Inner Mongolia; this has since mostly been reversed.


Heilongjiang is a land of varied topographies. Much of the province is dominated by mountain ranges such as the Greater Khingan Range and Lesser Khingan Range, Zhangguangcai Mountains, Laoye Mountains, and Wanda Mountains. The highest peak is Mount Datudingzi at 1,690 metres (5,540 ft), located on the border with Jilin province. The Greater Khingan Range contains China's largest remaining virgin forest and is an important area for China's forestry industry.

The east and southwest of the province, which are relatively flat and low in altitude, feature the Muling River, the Naoli River, the Songhua River, the Nen River, and the Mudan River, all tributaries of the Amur, while the northern border forms part of the Amur valley. Xingkai Lake (or Khanka Lake) is found on the border with Russia's Primorsky Krai.


A humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa or Dwb) predominates in the province, though areas in the far north are subarctic (Köppen Dwc).[11] Winters are long and bitter, with an average of -31 to -15 °C (-24 to 5 °F) in January, and summers are short and warm to very warm with an average of 18 to 23 °C (64 to 73 °F) in July. The annual average rainfall is 400 to 700 millimetres (16 to 28 in), concentrated heavily in summer. Clear weather is prevalent throughout the year, and in the spring, the Songnen Plain and the Sanjiang Plain provide abundant sources of wind energy.

The province's largest cities include Harbin, Qiqihar, Mudanjiang, Jiamusi, Daqing, Jixi, Shuangyashan, Hegang, Qitaihe, Yichun, and Heihe.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for some locations in Heilongjiang province of China
City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
Harbin 27.9/18.3 82.2/64.9 -12.5/-24.1 9.5/-11.4
Jiamusi 27.6/17.7 81.7/63.9 -12.7/-24 9.1/-11.2
Hegang 26.5/17.4 80/63.3 -12.7/-20.8 9.1/-5.4
Yichun 27.1/15.5 80.8/59.9 -14.5/-29.1 5.9/-20.4


A road and highway proposal was accepted in 2006; the project plans to develop 38,000 kilometres (24,000 miles) of new roads and expand Heilongjiang's total road network to 2,300,000 kilometres (1,400,000 miles).

There are 60 rail lines of around 5,300 kilometres (3,300 miles) including a section of the Asia-Europe Continental Bridge. The Harbin-Dalian High-Speed Railway, completed in 2012, stretches from Harbin, Heilongjiang's capital, to Dalian in Liaoning province via Changchun and Shenyang comprising 23 stops. It is expected to transport 37 million passengers per year by 2020 and 51 million by 2030.

Major airports include Harbin Taiping International Airport, Qiqihar Airport, Mudanjiang Airport, Jiamusi Airport and Heihe Airport. Harbin International Airport is capable of handling six million passengers every year and connects to over 70 domestic and international cities.

Tongjiang-Nizhneleninskoye railway bridge

The Tongjiang-Nizhneleninskoye railway bridge was proposed in 2007 by Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, the vice-chairman of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia. The railway bridge over the Amur River will connect Tongjiang with Nizhneleninskoye, a village in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[12]

The Chinese portion of the bridge was finished in July 2016.[13] In December 2016, work began on the Russian portion of the bridge. The bridge is expected to open in October 2019.[14]

Administrative divisions

Heilongjiang is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions: twelve prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and one prefecture:

Administrative divisions of Heilongjiang
Division code[15] Division Area in km2[16] Population 2010[17] Seat Divisions[18]
Districts* Counties Aut. counties CL cities
230000 Heilongjiang Province 454,800.00 38,312,224 Harbin city 54 45 1 21
230100 Harbin city 53,523.50 10,635,971 Songbei District 9 7 2
230200 Qiqihar city 42,205.81 5,367,003 Jianhua District 7 8 1
230300 Jixi city 22,488.46 1,862,161 Jiguan District 6 1 2
230400 Hegang city 14,679.98 1,058,665 Xiangyang District 6 2
230500 Shuangyashan city 26,483.00 1,462,626 Jianshan District 4 4
230600 Daqing city 22,161.00 2,904,532 Sartu District 5 3 1
230700 Yichun city 39,017.00 1,148,126 Yimei District 4 5 1
230800 Jiamusi city 31,528.00 2,552,097 Qianjin District 4 3 3
230900 Qitaihe city 6,221.42 920,419 Taoshan District 3 1
231000 Mudanjiang city 40,233.00 2,798,723 Dong'an District 4 1 5
231100 Heihe city 66,802.65 1,673,898 Aihui District 1 2 3
231200 Suihua city 34,964.17 5,416,439 Beilin District 1 6 3
232700 Daxing'anling Prefecture 46,755.00? 511,564 Jiagedaqi District** (de facto); Mohe city (de jure) 4** 2 1

* - including Ethnic districts
** - administrative districts not registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs (not included in the total Districts' count)
? - not including territories within Inner Mongolia (if included: 82,928.80 km2 or 32,018.99 sq mi)


(Additional information regarding the last prefecture can be found at Greater Khingan.)

These 13 prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 128 county-level divisions (65 districts, 20 county-level cities, 42 counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1,284 township-level divisions (473 towns, 400 townships, 58 ethnic townships, and 353 subdistricts).

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[19] District area[19] City proper[19] Census date
1 Harbin[a] 4,933,054 5,878,939 10,635,971 2010-11-01
(1) Harbin (new district)[a] 244,898 825,634 see Harbin 2010-11-01
2 Daqing 1,433,698 1,649,825 2,904,532 2010-11-01
3 Qiqihar 1,314,720 1,553,788 5,367,003 2010-11-01
4 Mudanjiang 790,623 965,154 2,798,723 2010-11-01
5 Jixi 746,889 862,959 1,862,165 2010-11-01
6 Yichun[b] 694,019 428,306 1,148,126 2010-11-01
7 Jiamusi 631,357 881,711 2,552,097 2010-11-01
8 Hegang 600,941 664,471 1,058,665 2010-11-01
9 Qitaihe 503,678 620,987 920,471 2010-11-01
10 Shuangyashan 481,110 501,827 1,462,626 2010-11-01
11 Suihua 364,225 877,114 5,418,153 2010-11-01
12 Zhaodong 358,606 903,067 see Suihua 2010-11-01
13 Shangzhi 269,699 585,386 see Harbin 2010-11-01
14 Wuchang 259,836 881,224 see Harbin 2010-11-01
15 Bei'an 248,471 436,444 see Heihe 2010-11-01
16 Tieli[b] 235,148 349,369 see Yichun 2010-11-01
17 Nehe 233,724 625,892 see Qiqihar 2010-11-01
18 Anda 223,486 472,826 see Suihua 2010-11-01
19 Hailin 216,633 400,859 see Mudanjiang 2010-11-01
20 Fujin 215,237 437,165 see Jiamusi 2010-11-01
21 Hulin 193,028 317,884 see Jixi 2010-11-01
22 Hailun 188,461 769,437 see Suihua 2010-11-01
23 Mishan 176,612 407,451 see Jixi 2010-11-01
24 Wudalianchi 148,465 326,391 see Heihe 2010-11-01
25 Heihe 147,042 211,313 1,673,899 2010-11-01
26 Jiagedaqi[c] 142,465 154,359 part of Daxing'anling Prefecture 2010-11-01
27 Ning'an 128,469 437,452 see Mudanjiang 2010-11-01
28 Suifenhe 128,363 132,315 see Mudanjiang 2010-11-01
29 Muling 112,882 293,271 see Mudanjiang 2010-11-01
(30) Dongning[d] 112,425 200,716 see Mudanjiang 2010-11-01
31 Tongjiang 99,829 179,791 see Jiamusi 2010-11-01
(32) Fuyuan[e] 74,435 126,694 see Jiamusi 2010-11-01
(33) Mohe[f] 71,307 83,414 part of Daxing'anling Prefecture 2010-11-01
  1. ^ a b New district established after census: Shuangcheng (Shuangcheng CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ a b The stats are reorganized after Yichun reorganization in July 2019.
  3. ^ Jiagedaqi Administrative Zone is a special urban area jurisdiction that is de jure part of Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia but, currently de facto under Daxing'anling Prefecture control.
  4. ^ Dongning County is currently known as Dongning CLC after census.
  5. ^ Fuyuan County is currently known as Fuyuan CLC after census.
  6. ^ Mohe County is currently known as Mohe CLC after census.


Heilongjiang Province People's Government

List of Secretaries of the CPC Heilongjiang Committee:

  1. Zhang Qilong (; 1949-1950)
  2. Zhao Dezun (; 1950-1953)
  3. Feng Jixin (; 1953-1954)
  4. Ouyang Qin (; 1954-1965)
  5. Pan Fusheng (; 1965-1971)
  6. Wang Jiadao (; 1971-1974)
  7. Liu Guangtao (; 1977)
  8. Yang Yichen (; 1977-1983)
  9. Li Li'an (; 1983-1985)
  10. Sun Weiben (; 1985-1994)
  11. Yue Qifeng (; 1994-1997)
  12. Xu Youfang (; 1997-2003)
  13. Song Fatang (; 2003-2005)
  14. Qian Yunlu (; 2005-2008)
  15. Ji Bingxuan (; 2008-2013)
  16. Wang Xiankui (; March 2013 - April 2017)
  17. Zhang Qingwei (; April 2017 - incumbent)

List of Governors:

  1. Yu Yifu (; 1949-1952)
  2. Zhao Dezun (; 1952-1953)
  3. Chen Lei (; 1953-1954)
  4. Han Guang (; 1954-1956)
  5. Ouyang Qin (; 1956-1958)
  6. Li Fanwu (; 1958-1966)
  7. Pan Fusheng (; 1967-1971)
  8. Wang Jiadao (; 1971-1974)
  9. Liu Guangtao (; February 1977 - December 1977)
  10. Yang Yichen (; December 1977 - 1979)
  11. Chen Lei (; 1979-1985)
  12. Hou Jie (; 1985-1989)
  13. Shao Qihui (; 1989-1994)
  14. Tian Fengshan (; 1994-2000)
  15. Song Fatang (; 2000-2003)
  16. Zhang Zuoji (; 2003 - December 2007)
  17. Li Zhanshu (; December 2007 - August 2010)
  18. Wang Xiankui (; August 2010 - March 2013)
  19. Lu Hao (; March 2013 - March 2018)
  20. Wang Wentao (; March 2018 - incumbent)


The agriculture of Heilongjiang, heavily defined by its cold climate, is based upon crops such as soybeans, maize, wheat and potatoes.[20][5] Commercial crops grown include beets, flax, sunflowers and even rice.[21]

Heilongjiang is also an important source of lumber for China. Pine, especially the Korean pine and larch are the most important forms of lumber produced in Heilongjiang. Forests are mostly found in the Greater Khingan Mountains and Lesser Khingan Mountains, which are also home to protected animal species such as the Siberian tiger, the red-crowned crane, and the lynx.

Herding in Heilongjiang is centered upon horses and cattle; the province has the largest number of milk cows and the highest production of milk among all the province-level divisions of China.

Petroleum is of great importance in Heilongjiang, and the Daqing oilfields are an important source of petroleum for China. Coal, gold, and graphite are other important minerals to be found in Heilongjiang. Heilongjiang also has great potential for wind power, with potential capacity for 134 gigawatts of power production.[22]

Heilongjiang is part of northeast China, the country's traditional industrial base. Industry is focused upon coal, petroleum, lumber, machinery, and food. Due to its location, Heilongjiang is also an important gateway for trade with Russia. Since a wave of privatization led to the closure of uncompetitive factories in the 1990s, Manchuria has suffered from stagnation. As a result, the government has started the Revitalize Northeast China campaign to deal with this problem, promoting the private sectors as the preferred method of economic reform.

At least five miners were killed after a coal mine fire in Heilongjiang it was reported on 21 September 2008.[23]

Its GDP has been rising steadily since 2003, growing 37% from 2003 to 2007. The value of the private economy reached RMB234 billion in 2006 and accounted for 37.6 percent of the GDP. In that year, the tax revenue from private enterprises hit RMB20.5 billion.

Private enterprises in Heilongjiang led the overall economic growth of the province. Many leading private enterprises have begun to emerge. The province's three major private enterprises, namely the Heilongjiang Sunflower Medicine Ltd, Qitaihe Yidaxin Coal Co., and Heilongjiang Yiyang Group, each contributed more than RMB100 million in tax revenue in 2007.[]

During the first decade of this century, many private investors were involved in large construction projects in Heilongjiang. In 2006, 928 large projects absorbed private capital of RMB5 million each, and 101 projects attracted RMB100 million each within the province. In line with the central government's policy to revitalize the Northeast, Heilongjiang also restructured its six pillar industries, namely equipment manufacturing, petrochemicals, food processing, energy, pharmaceuticals, and forest and timber processing.[]

In 2017, Heilongjiang's nominal GDP was 1.62 trillion yuan (ca. US$240 billion), with an annual growth rate of 12.2%. Its per capita GDP was 42,699 yuan (US$6,324). In 2006 the per capita disposable income of urban residents in Heilongjiang reached 11,581 yuan (US$1,667), a rise of 13% from the previous year. The per capita net income of rural residents in the province reached 4,856 yuan (US$700), a rise of 17.5% from 2007.[24]

Economic and technological development zones

  • Daqing New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Daqing New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was constructed in April 1992 and was then approved as a national high-tech zone by the State Council later that year. Its initial zone area is 208.54 km2, and it recently expanded the area by 32.45 km2.[25]
  • Heihe Border Economic Cooperation Area
  • Harbin Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Harbin New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Harbin High-tech Zone was set up in 1988 and was approved by the State Council as a national development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 34 km2 in the centralized parks, subdivided into Nangang, Haping Road and Yingbin Road Centralized Parks. The Nangang Centralized Park is designated for the incubation of high-tech projects and research and development base of enterprises as well as tertiary industries such as finance, insurance, services, catering, tourism, culture, recreation and entertainment, where the headquarters of major well-known companies and their branches in Harbin are located; the Haping Road Centralized Park is a comprehensive industrial basis for the investment projects of automobile and automobile parts manufacturing, medicines, foodstuffs, electronics, textile; the Yingbin Road Centralized Park is mainly for high-tech incubation projects, high-tech industrial development.[26]
  • Sino-Russia Dongning-Piurtaphca Trade Zone
Sino-Russia Dongning-Piurtaphca Trade Zone was approved by the State Council in 2000 and was completed in 2005. The zone has a planned area of 275.4 hectares. The Chinese part of the zone has a 22-hectare trade center with four subsidiary areas, A, B, C, and D, in which more than 6,000 stalls are already set up, mainly dealing with clothes, household appliances, food, construction materials, etc.[27]
  • Suifenhe Border Economic Cooperation Area
Suifenhe Border Economic Cooperation District (Suifenhe BECD) is located in the north of Suifenhe City, and borders Russia to the east. Suifenhe BECD is the largest among the three state-level border-trade zones of Heilongjiang, in terms of investor numbers. Suifenhe BECD has a convenient transport network. The Binzhou-Suifenhe Railway, which connects the Russian Far East Railway, is an important port for export. The railway distance between Suifenhe and Harbin is 548 km (341 mi). Buguranikinai, the corresponding Russian port city, is 21 km (13 mi) away.[28]


The majority of Heilongjiang's population is Han Chinese, while other ethnic minorities include the Manchus, Koreans, Mongols, Hui, Xibe, and Hezhen

Ethnic groups in Heilongjiang (2000 census)
Nationality Population Percentage
Han Chinese 34,465,039 95.20%
Manchu 1,037,080 2.86%
Koreans 388,458 1.07%
Mongol 141,495 0.39%
Hui 124,003 0.34%
Xibe 43,608 0.12%
Hezhe 8,886 0.03%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.


Ji Le Temple (Temple of Bliss), a Buddhist temple in Harbin

Most of Heilongjiang's residents are either non-religious or practice Chinese folk religions, including Taoism. Manchu shamanism is practiced by many Manchu people. Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism have an important presence in the province.


Heilongjiang's culture is part of a culture of Northeast China that is relatively homogeneous across this region, known in Mandarin Chinese as "Dongbei" (the northeast).


Heilongjiag Daily Press Group

Heilongjiang Television and Harbin Economy Radio serve as broadcasters.


Harbin, the provincial capital, is a city of contrasts, with Chinese, Russian, and eclectic worldwide influences clearly apparent. Bukui Mosque, a national heritage site, is the largest glazed-tile building in the province.[40]Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant churches as well as synagogues dot the city.[41]

The long, cold winter is the backdrop for its famed ice sculpture exhibitions. In 2007 already the 8th Ice and Snow World opened to visitors in Harbin. More than 2,000 ice sculptures were on display at the annual event.[42]

Wudalianchi Lakes are a series of five lakes formed between 1719 and 1721 when volcanic eruption shaped one section of a tributary of the Amur into five interconnected lakes. The second lake in particular is renowned for its irregular geological sights. Lake Jingbo, in Ning'an County, is a section of the Mudan River that has been narrowed and shaped by volcanic eruption into a series of sights, including the Diaoshuilou Falls.

The province has a zoological park called "Harbin Siberian Tiger Park".[43]

Colleges and universities


Heilongjiang is in the forefront of promoting winter sports and winter-featured sports industry in China.[44] For example, it is promoting bandy as an Olympic sport.[45]

Events and leagues

See also


  1. ^ "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ ?2017 [Statistical Communiqué of Heilongjiang on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development] (in Chinese). Heilongjiang Bureau of Statistics. 11 April 2018. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI" (PDF). 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Heilongjiang and China's Food Security". Stratfor. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ Origins of Minority Ethnic Groups in Heilongjiang Archived 2014-03-22 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ . iqh.net.cn (in Chinese).
  8. ^ Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. p. 6. ISBN 0-89065-118-3.
  9. ^ Edmonds (1985), pp. 115-117
  10. ^ Patrick Fuliang Shan, "Taming China's Wilderness: Immigration, Settlement, and the Shaping of the Heilongjiang Frontier, 1900-1931", Ashgate, 2014, ISBN 978-1-4094-6389-4
  11. ^ Updated Asian map of the Köppen climate classification system
  12. ^ Proposed bridge to boost bilateral trade, China Daily, 19 June 2007.
  13. ^ Andrew Higgins (16 July 2016). "An Unfinished Bridge, and Partnership, Between Russia and China". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016.
  14. ^ "Russia, China launch construction of bridge across Amur river". Russia certai. 25 December 2016.
  15. ^ ? (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs.
  16. ^ Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. ?2014? (in Chinese). China Statistics Print.|url=http://www.sztj.gov.cn/nj2014/indexce.htm Archived 2015-05-12 at the Wayback Machine |date=|accessdate=2015-05-29}}
  17. ^ Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 2010? (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  18. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 2014? (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  19. ^ a b c 2010. Compiled by ? [Department of Population Census of the State Council], ? [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics]. Beijing: China Statistics Print. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.CS1 maint: others (link)
  20. ^ (1990). . Encyclopedia of China. Encyclopedia of China Publishing House. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013.
  21. ^ "Harbin -- the capital city of China's high-quality rice". China Daily. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ Zhang, Yuning; Tang, Ningning; Niu, Yuguang; Du, Xiaoze (1 December 2016). "Wind energy rejection in China: Current status, reasons and perspectives". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 66: 322-344. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.08.008. ISSN 1364-0321.
  23. ^ "50 dead in Chinese mining accidents". CNN. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
  24. ^ 20063552? 10.3%. northeast.cn (in Chinese). 18 January 2007. Archived from the original on 13 November 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  25. ^ RightSite.asia | Daqing New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  26. ^ RightSite.asia | Harbin New & Hi-Tech Industrial Zone
  27. ^ RightSite.asia | Sino-Russia Dongning-Piurtaphca Trade Zone
  28. ^ RightSite.asia | Suifenhe Border Economic Cooperation District
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  40. ^ Bukui Mosque, a popular tourist attraction
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  42. ^ Ice and Snow Festival in Harbin
  43. ^ DK (2 June 2014). DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: China. Penguin Books. p. 457. ISBN 978-1465430939.
  44. ^ "2018 World Bandy Championship Men's Group B will be held in Harbin on 27th". Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ Heilongjiang Province Promotes Bandy as Olympic Sport!

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