Hejazi Arabic
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Hejazi Arabic
Hejazi Arabic
Hijazi Arabic
West Arabian Arabic
Pronunciation['d?a:zi], [?e?'d?a:zi]
Native toHejaz region, Saudi Arabia
Native speakers
14.5 million (2011)[1]
Early form
Arabic alphabet
Language codes
Distribution of Hejazi Arabic in Saudi Arabia.png
  regions where Hejazi is the dialect of the majority
  regions considered as part of modern Hejaz region
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Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (Arabic: ‎, romanized?ij?z?), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia. Strictly speaking, there are two main groups of dialects spoken in the Hejaz region,[3] one by the urban population, originally spoken mainly in the cities of Jeddah, Mecca and Medina and another by the urbanized rural and bedouin populations.[4] However, the term most often applies to the urban variety which is discussed in this article.

In antiquity, the Hejaz was home to the Old Hejazi dialect of Arabic recorded in the consonantal text of the Qur'an. Old Hejazi is distinct from modern Hejazi Arabic, and represents an older linguistic layer wiped out by centuries of migration, but which happens to share the imperative prefix vowel /a-/ with the modern dialect.


Hejazi Arabic belongs to the western Peninsular Arabic branch of the Arabic language, which itself is a Semitic language. It includes features of both urban and bedouin dialects given its history between the historical cities of Jeddah, Medina and Mecca and the bedouin tribes that lived on the outskirts of these cities in addition to the external influences from the other urban Arabic dialects (e.g. Egyptian Arabic) and more recently the influence of Modern Standard Arabic and to a lesser extent the neighboring Saudi dialects, all of which made the urban Hejazi dialect distinct from other peninsular dialects.


Also referred to as the sedentary Hejazi dialect, this is the form most commonly associated with the term "Hejazi Arabic", and is spoken in the urban centers of the region, such as Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina. With respect to the axis of bedouin versus sedentary dialects of the Arabic language, this dialect group exhibits features of both. Like other sedentary dialects, the urban Hejazi dialect is less conservative than the bedouin varieties in some aspects and has therefore shed some Classical forms and features that are still present in bedouin dialects, these include gender-number disagreement, and the feminine marker -n (see Varieties of Arabic). But in contrast to bedouin dialects, the constant use of full vowels and the absence of vowel reduction plus the distinction between the emphatic letters ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ is generally retained.

Innovative features

  1. The present progressive tense is marked by the prefix /b/ or ? /ga:?id/ or ? /da:lis/ as in /bijidrus/ or ? ? /ga:?id jidrus/ ("he is studying"). In Meccan Arabic, the progressive is marked by ? /?amma:l/.[5]
  2. The future tense is marked by the prefix /?a/ as in /?ajidrus/. In Meccan Arabic, the future is marked by ? /ra:ji?/.[5]
  3. the internal passive form, which in Hejazi, is replaced by the pattern ( /anfa?al/, /jinfa?il/) or ( /atfa?al/, /jitfa?il/).[6]
  4. Loss of the final /h/ sound in the 3rd person masculine singular pronoun . For example, ? /be:tu/ ("his house"), /a?rifu/ ("I know him"), /ga:lo:/ ("they said it"), ? /?ale:/ ("on him") and /?ufna:/ ("we saw him").
  5. All numbers have no gender except for the number "one" which is ? m. /wa:?id/ and ? f. /wa?da/.
  6. The pronunciation of the interdental letters ⟨?⟩ ,⟨?⟩, and ⟨?⟩. (See Hejazi Arabic Phonology)
  7. loss of gender-specificity in plural verb forms, e.g. /jirkabu/ instead of masculine /jarkabu:na/ and feminine /jarkabna/.
  8. loss of gender-specificity in plural adjectives, e.g. ? /t?af?a:ni:n/ "bored" can be used to describe both feminine and masculine plural nouns.
  9. The verb forms V, VI and IIQ have an additional initial ⟨?⟩, e.g. /atkas:ar/ "it shattered" (V), ? /at?a:malat/ "she worked" (VI) and /atfalsafu/ "they babbled" (IIQ).
Approximate distribution of Arabic language around the 1st century in Hejaz and Najd

Conservative features

  1. Hejazi Arabic does not employ double negation, nor does it append the negation particles -sh to negate verbs: Hejazi ? /ma: a?rif/ ("I don't know"), as opposed to Egyptian /ma?raf?/ and Palestinian /ba?rafi?/.
  2. The habitual present tense is not marked by any prefixes as in ? /jidrus/ ("he studies"), as opposed to Egyptian /bijidrus/.
  3. The prohibitive mood of Classical Arabic is preserved in the imperative: ? /la: tiru:?/ ("don't go").
  4. The possessive suffixes are generally preserved in their Classical forms. For example, /be:takum/ "your (pl) house".
  5. The plural first person pronoun is ? / /ni?na/ or ? /i?na/, as opposed to the bedouin ? /nna/ or ? /?nna/.
  6. When indicating a location, the preposition /fi/ (also written as a prefix ) is preferred to /b/. In bedouin dialects, the preference differs by region.
  7. The pronunciation of the ⟨?⟩ is /d?/ as in Modern Standard Arabic.
  8. The hamzated verbs like /axad/ and /akal/ keep their classical form as opposed to /xaða/ and /kala/.
  9. The glottal stop can be added to final syllables ending in a vowel as a way of emphasising.
  10. the definite article is pronounced /al/ as opposed to Egyptian or Kuwaiti /il/.
  11. Compared to neighboring dialects, urban Hejazi retains most of the short vowels of Classical Arabic with no vowel reduction (ghawa syndrome), for example:
? [samaka] ("fish"), as opposed to bedouin [sm?ka], and [n?t?g] ("pronunciation"), as opposed to bedouin [n?t?g]
[de?:bana] ("our pocket"), as opposed to bedouin [de?:bna] and Egyptian [gebna].
[d?arabatu] ("she hit him"), as opposed to bedouin [ð?rab?tah].
? [waladu] ("his son"), as opposed to bedouin [wl?dah].
? [ndak?m] ("in your possession" pl.), as opposed to bedouin [nd?kum], Egyptian [?andoku], and Levantine [?andkon].
? [?alaj:a] ("on me"), as opposed to bedouin [?alaj].


The Arabic of today is derived principally from the old dialects of Central and North Arabia which were divided by the classical Arab grammarians into three groups: Hejaz, Najd, and the language of the tribes in adjoining areas. Though the modern Hejazi dialects has developed markedly since the development of Classical Arabic, and Modern Standard Arabic is quite distinct from the modern dialect of Hejaz. Standard Arabic now differs considerably from modern Hejazi Arabic in terms of its phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon,[7] such diglossia in Arabic began to emerge at the latest in the sixth century CE when oral poets recited their poetry in a proto-Classical Arabic based on archaic dialects which differed greatly from their own.[8]

Historically, it is not well known in which stage of Arabic the shift from the Proto-Semitic pair /k'/ q?f and /g/ g?m came to be Hejazi /g, d/?, ?⟩ g?f and j?m, although it has been attested as early as the eighth century CE, and it can be explained by a chain shift /k'/* -> /g/ -> /d/[9] that occurred in one of two ways:

  1. Drag Chain: Proto-Semitic g?m /g/ palatalized to Hejazi /d/ j?m first, opening up a space at the position of [g], which q?f /k'/* then moved to fill the empty space resulting in Hejazi /g/ g?f, restoring structural symmetrical relationships present in the pre-Arabic system.[10][11]
  2. Push Chain: Proto-Semitic q?f /k'/* changed to Hejazi /g/ g?f first, which resulted in pushing the original g?m /g/ forward in articulation to become Hejazi /d/ j?m, but since most modern q?f dialects as well as standard Arabic also have j?m, hence the push-chain of q?f to g?f first can be discredited,[12] although there are good grounds for believing that old Arabic q?f had both voiced and voiceless allophones; and after that g?m /g/ was fronted to /d/ j?m, possibly as a result of pressure from the allophones.[13]

The development of /q/ to /g/ have also been observed in languages like Azeri, in which the Old Turkic [q] is pronounced as a velar /g/ rather than /k/ as in Turkish or /q/ in Bashkir, Uyghur, Kazakh, etc.[14]

* The original value of Proto-Semitic q?f was probably an emphatic not .


In general, Hejazi native phonemic inventory consists of 26 (with no interdental /?, ð/) to 28 consonant phonemes depending on the speaker's background and formality, in addition to the marginal phoneme and two foreign phonemes /p/ ??? and /v/ ??? used by a number of speakers. Furthermore, it has an eight-vowel system, consisting of three short and five long vowels /a, u, i, a:, u:, o:, i:, e:/, in addition to two diphthongs /aw, aj/.[15][16]Consonant length and Vowel length are both distinctive and being a Semitic language the four emphatic consonants /s?, d?, t?, z?/ are treated as separate phonemes from their plain counterparts.[17]

The main phonological feature that differentiates urban Hejazi from other peninsular dialects is the pronunciation of the letters ⟨?⟩ ,⟨?⟩, and ⟨?⟩ (see Hejazi Arabic Phonology), while retaining the standard pronunciation of ⟨?/d?/. Another differential feature is the lack of palatalization for the letters ? /k/, ? /g/ and ? /d/, unlike in other peninsular dialects where they can be palatalized in certain positions[18] e.g. Hejazi ? 'new' [dadi:d] vs. Gulf Arabic [j?di:d] and Hejazi ? 'with you' [nd?k] vs. traditional Najdi [nd?t?s]. The marginal /?/ is only used in the word ? /a?:a:h/ 'god' (except when it follows an /i/ as in ? ? /bismil:a:h/ or /lil:a:h/) and in words derived from it, unlike other neighboring dialects where /l/ might be velarized allophonically in certain positions, as in pronounced [?a?e?l] in Hejazi and [?a] in other peninsular Arabic dialects.

A conservative feature that Hejazi holds is the constant use of full vowels and the absence of vowel reduction, for example ? 'we told them', is pronounced [g?lna:lah?m] in Hejazi with full vowels but pronounced with the reduced vowel [?] as [g?lna:l?h?m] in Najdi, in addition to that, the absence of initial consonant cluster (known as the ghawa syndrome) as in ? 'cow', ? 'coffee', ? 'we count' and ? 'she wrote' which are pronounced [bagara], [gahwa], [nr?f] and [s?m?at] respectively in Hejazi but [bgara], [ghawa], [n?ar?f] and [ktabat] in other peninsular dialects.


Phonetic notes:

  • due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic in the 20th century, has been introduced as an allophone of /?/?⟩ in a number of words and phrases as in ? ('Cairo') which is phonemically /al'ga:hira/ but can be pronounced as [al'qa:h?ra] or less likely [al'ga:h?ra] depending on the speaker, although older speakers prefer in all positions.
  • the marginal phoneme /?/ only occurs in the word ? /a?:a:h/ ('god') and words derived from it, it contrasts with /l/ in /wa?:a/ ('i swear') vs. /wal:a/ ('or').
  • the affricate /d/?⟩ and the trill /r/?⟩ are realised as a and a tap respectively by a number of speakers or in a number of words.
  • the reintroduced phoneme /?/?⟩ is partially used as an alternative phoneme, while most speakers merge it with /t/ or /s/ depending on the word.
  • the reintroduced phoneme /ð/?⟩ is partially used as an alternative phoneme, while most speakers merge it with /d/ or /z/ depending on the word.
  • is an optional allophone for ???. In general, urban Hejazi speakers merge it with /d?/ or pronounce it distinctly as /z?/ depending on the word.
  • /p/ ??? and /v/ ??? which exist only in foreign words, are used by a number of speakers and can be substituted by /b/ ??? and /f/ ??? respectively depending on the speaker.
  • /n/?⟩ has the velar allophone , which occurs before stop velars ⟨?, ?/k, ?/ as in ? [a?kab] ('it spilled') and [m???al] ('brazier') and is an allophone before ⟨?, ?/f, v/ as in /gurunful/ ('clove') which is pronounced [g?r??f?l].
  • Word-Initial /t?/ and other clusters occur only in few loanwords and it is not considered to be a phoneme but a cluster of /t/ ??? and /?/ ??? as in ? /'t?i:li/ or /t?i:le:/ ('Chile'). It has merged with /?/ in earlier loanwords that are more integrated e.g. /?aj:ak/ ('he checked'). The cluster also occurs phonetically in native words affected by syncope when connected, e.g. /'la: ti?i:li/ ('don't lift') pronounced ['la:.t?i:li] or ['la:.t??i:li].


Hejazi Arabic vowel chart, from Abdoh (2010:84)
Vowel phonemes of Hejazi
Short Long
Front Back Front Back
Close i u i: u:
Mid e: o:
Open a a:

Phonetic notes:

  • /a/ and /a:/ are pronounced either as an open front vowel or an open central vowel depending on the speaker, even when adjacent to emphatic consonants, except in some words such as ? [alm?:nja] ('Germany'), [ja:b?:n] ('Japan') and ? [b?:b?] ('dad') where they are pronounced with the back vowel .
  • /o:/ and /e:/ are pronounced as true mid vowels and respectively.
  • short /u/ (also analyzed as /?/) is pronounced allophonically as or in word initial or medial syllables e.g. ? [?kra:nja] ('Ukraine') and [m???t?] ('comb') and strictly as at the end of words e.g. [?a:fu] ('they saw') or before as in [huw:a] ('he') or when isolate.
  • short /i/ (also analyzed as /?/) is pronounced allophonically as or in word initial or medial syllables e.g. [?sla:m] ('Islam') and [g?s?m] ('section') and strictly as at the end of words e.g. ? [ndi] ('I have') or before as in [hij:a] ('he') or when isolate.
  • the close vowels can be distinguished by tenseness with /u:/ and /i:/ being more tense in articulation than their short counterparts [? ~ o?] and [? ~ e?], except at the end of words.


Most of the occurrences of the two diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ in the Classical Arabic period underwent monophthongization in Hejazi, and are realized as the long vowels /e:/ and /o:/ respectively, but they are still preserved as diphthongs in a number of words which created a contrast with the long vowels /u:/, /o:/, /i:/ and /e:/.

Example (without diacritics) Meaning Hejazi Arabic Modern Standard Arabic
? league /dawri/ /dawri/
my turn /do:ri/
turn around! /du:ri/ /du:ri/
search! /daw:iri/ /daw:iri/

Not all instances of mid vowels are a result of monophthongization, some are from grammatical processes /ga:lu/ 'they said' -> /ga:lo:laha/ 'they said to her' (opposed to Classical Arabic /qa:lu: laha:/), and some occur in modern Portmanteau words e.g. /le:?/ 'why?' (from Classical Arabic /li?aj/ 'for what' and /?aj?/ 'thing').


Hejazi vocabulary derives primarily from Arabic Semitic roots. The urban Hejazi vocabulary differs in some respect from that of other dialects in the Arabian Peninsula. For example, there are fewer specialized terms related to desert life, and more terms related to seafaring and fishing. Loanwords are uncommon and they are mainly of French, Italian, Persian, Turkish and most recently of English origins, and due to the diverse origins of the inhabitants of Hejazi cities, some loanwords are only used by some families. Some old loanwords are fading or became obsolete due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic and their association with lower social class and education,[19] e.g. /kun'de:?an/ "air conditioner" (from English Condition) was replaced by Standard Arabic /mukaj:if/. Most of the loanwords tend to be nouns, with a change of meaning sometimes as in: ‏?/kubri/ "overpass" from Turkish köprü / originally meaning "bridge" and /wa:jt/ "water tanker truck" from English white and ‏?/dazma/ "shoe" from Turkish çizme / ? originally meaning "boot", or it can be derived from a sentence as in ‏/'ro:d/ "lipstick" from French rouge à lèvres. Loaned verbs include ‏/hak:ar/ "to hack" from English "hack" and ‏?/narfaz/ "to agitate" from French "nerveux" or English "nervous".

Some general Hejazi expressions include /bit:awfi:g/ "good luck", ? /?i:wa/ "yes", /la?/ "no", /lis:a/ "not yet, still", /?id/ or /?i:d/ "already",[20]? /da?i:n/ or /da?e:n/ "now", ? /?ab?a/ "I want", ? /law sama?t/ "please/excuse me" to a male and /law sama?ti/ "please/excuse me" to a female. (see vocabulary list)


A common feature in Hejazi vocabulary is portmanteau words (also called a blend in linguistics); in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, it is especially innovative in making Interrogative words, examples include:

  • ? (/?i:wa/, "yes") : from (/?i:/, "yes") and ? (/wa/, "and") and ? (/a?:a:h/, "god").
  • (/ma?le:?/, is it ok?/sorry) : from (/ma:/, nothing) and ? (/?alajh/, on him) and (/?aj?/, thing).
  • (/?e:?/, "what?") : from (/aj/, "which") and (/?aj?/, "thing").
  • (/le:?/, "why?") : from (/li?aj/, for what) and (/?aj?/, "thing").
  • (/fe:n/, where?) : from (/fi:/, in) and (/?ajn/, where).
  • ? (/?ile:n/, "until") : from (/?ila:/, "to") and (/an/, "that").
  • ? (/da?i:n/ or /da?e:n/, "now") : from (/ða:/, "this") and (/al?i:n/, part of time).
  • (/ba?de:n/, later) : from (ba?d, after) and (?ayn, part of time).
  • or ? (/?ala?a:n/ or /?a?a:n/, "in order to") : from (/?ala:/, "on") and (/?a?n/, "matter").
  • ? (/kama:n/, "also") : from (/kama:/, "like") and (/?an/, "that").
  • ? (/ja?:a/, come on) : from (/ja:/, "o!") and ? (/a?:a:h/, "god").
  • ? or ? (/lis:a/, not yet, still) : from (/lis:a:?a/, "to the hour") also used as in ? ? /lis:a:?u s?a?i:r/ ("he is still young")


The Cardinal number system in Hejazi is much more simplified than the Classical Arabic[21]

numbers 1-10 IPA 11-20 IPA 10s IPA 100s IPA
1 ? /wa:?id/ 11 /i?da?a?/ 10 ? /?a?ara/ 100 /mij:a/
2 /itne:n/ or /i?ne:n/ 12 /it?na?a?/ or /i?na?a?/ 20 /?i?ri:n/ 200 /mijte:n/ or /mij:ate:n/
3 /tala:ta/ or /?ala:?a/ 13 /talat.t?a?a?/ or /?ala?.t?a?a?/ 30 /tala:ti:n/ or /?ala:?i:n/ 300 /tultumij:a/ or /?ul?umij:a/
4 /arba?a/ 14 ? /arba?.t?a?a?/ 40 /arbi?i:n/ 400 /urbu?mij:a/
5 ? /xamsa/ 15 /xamis.t?a?a?/ or /xamas.t?a?a?/ 50 /xamsi:n/ 500 /xumsumij:a/
6 /sit:a/ 16 /sit.t?a?a?/ 60 ? /sit:i:n/ 600 ? /sut:umij:a/
7 ? /sab?a/ 17 /saba?.t?a?a?/ 70 /sab?i:n/ 700 /sub?umij:a/
8 /tamanja/ or /?amanja/ 18 /taman.t?a?a?/ or /?aman.t?a?a?/ 80 /tama:ni:n/ or /?ama:ni:n/ 800 /tumnumij:a/ or /?umnumij:a/
9 ? /tis?a/ 19 /tisa?.t?a?a?/ 90 /tis?i:n/ 900 /tus?umij:a/
10 ? /?a?ara/ 20 /?i?ri:n/ 100 /mij:a/ 1000 /alf/

A system similar to the German numbers system is used for other numbers between 20 and above : 21 is ? ? /wa:?id u ?i?ri:n/ which literally mean ('one and twenty') and 485 is ? ? ? ? /urbu?mij:a u xamsa u tama:ni:n/ which literally mean ('four hundred and five and eighty').

Unlike Classical Arabic, the only number that is gender specific in Hejazi is "one" which has two forms ? m. and ? f. as in ? ? /kita:b wa:?id/ ('one book') or ? /saj:a:ra wa?da/ ('one car'), with ? being a masculine noun and a feminine noun.

  • for 2 as in 'two cars' 'two years' 'two houses' etc. the dual form is used instead of the number with the suffix ?n /e:n/ or t?n /te:n/ (if the noun ends with a feminine /a/) as in /kita:be:n/ ('two books') or /saj:arate:n/ ('two cars'), for emphasis they can be said as or .
  • for numbers 3 to 10 the noun following the number is in plural form as in /arba?a kutub/ ('4 books') or ? ? /?a?ara saj:a:ra:t/ ('10 cars').
  • for numbers 11 and above the noun following the number is in singular form as in :-
    • from 11 to 19 an [ar] is added to the end of the numbers as in ? /arba?t?aar kita:b/ ('14 books') or /i?daar saj:a:ra/ ('11 cars').
    • for 100s a [t] is added to the end of the numbers before the counted nouns as in ? /tultumij:at saj:a:ra/ ('300 cars').
    • other numbers are simply added to the singular form of the noun ? ? ? /wa:?id u ?i?ri:n kita:b/ ('21 books').


Subject pronouns

In Hejazi Arabic, personal pronouns have eight forms. In singular, the 2nd and 3rd persons differentiate gender, while the 1st person and plural do not. The negative articles include /la:/ as in ? /la: tiktub/ ('do not write!'), /ma:/ as in /ma: bijitkal:am/ ('he is not talking') and /mu:/ as in /mu: kida/ ('not like this')


Hejazi Arabic verbs, as with the verbs in other Semitic languages, and the entire vocabulary in those languages, are based on a set of three, four, or even five consonants (but mainly three consonants) called a root (triliteral or quadriliteral according to the number of consonants). The root communicates the basic meaning of the verb, e.g. k-t-b 'to write', '-k-l 'to eat'. Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as :

  • Two tenses (past, present; present progressive is indicated by the prefix (bi-), future is indicated by the prefix (?a-))
  • Two voices (active, passive)
  • Two genders (masculine, feminine)
  • Three persons (first, second, third)
  • Two numbers (singular, plural)

Hejazi has two grammatical number in verbs (Singular and Plural) instead of the Classical (Singular, Dual and Plural), in addition to a present progressive tense which was not part of the Classical Arabic grammar. In contrast to other urban dialects the prefix (b-) is only used for present continuous as in /bijiktub/ "he is writing" while the habitual tense is without a prefix as in /a?ubbik/ "I love you" f. unlike in Egyptian and Levantine dialects and the future tense is indicated by the prefix (?a-) as in /?anidri/ "we will run".

Regular verbs

The most common verbs in Hejazi have a given vowel pattern for past (a and i) to present (a or u or i). Combinations of each exist:[22]

Vowel patterns Example
Past Present
a a ra?am he forgave - yir?am ? he forgives
a u ?arab he hit - yi?rub ? he hits
a i ?asal he washed - yi?sil ? he washes
i a fihim he understood - yifham ? he understands
i i ?irif he knew - yi?rif ? he knows

According to Arab grammarians, verbs are divided into three categories; Past ?, Present and Imperative . An example from the root k-t-b the verb katabt/'aktub 'i wrote/i write' (which is a regular sound verb):

Verb Example (? ? ?) (k t b) "to write"
Tense/Mood Past "wrote" Present (Indicative) "write" Imperative "write!"
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ? (katab)-t (katab)-na ? 'a-(ktub) ? ni-(ktub)
2nd masculine ? (katab)-t (katab)-tu ? ti-(ktub) ti-(ktub)-u ? [a]-(ktub) [a]-(ktub)-u
feminine (katab)-ti ti-(ktub)-i [a]-(ktub)-i
3rd masculine (katab) (katab)-u ? yi-(ktub) yi-(ktub)-u
feminine ? (katab)-at ? ti-(ktub)

While present progressive and future are indicated by adding the prefix (b-) and (?a-) respectively to the present (indicative) :

Tense/Mood Present Progressive "writing" Future "will write"
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ? or ba-a-(ktub) bi-ni-(ktub) ? or ?a-a-(ktub) ?a-ni-(ktub)
2nd masculine bi-ti-(ktub) ? bi-ti-(ktub)-u ?a-ti-(ktub) ? ?a-ti-(ktub)-u
feminine bi-ti-(ktub)-i ?a-ti-(ktub)-i
3rd masculine bi-yi-(ktub) ? bi-yi-(ktub)-u ?a-yi-(ktub) ? ?a-yi-(ktub)-u
feminine bi-ti-(ktub) ?a-ti-(ktub)
    • The verbs highlighted in silver sometimes come in irregular forms e.g. ? (?abb?)-t "i loved", (?abb?)-na "we loved" but (?abb) "he loved" and (?abb)-u "they loved".
    • additional final ? to /-u/ in all plural verbs is silent.
  • The Active Participles ? /ga:?id/, /ga:?da/ and /ga:?di:n/ can be used instead of the prefix [b-] as in ? ? /ga:?id aktub/ ('i'm writing') instead of /ba?aktub/ or ? /baktub/ ('i'm writing') without any change in the meaning. The active participles ? /da:lis/, /da:lsa/ and /da:lsi:n/ are used in the same way.
  • The past tenses of the verbs /ga?ad/ ('he sat/remained') or /dalas/ ('he sat') can be used before present verbs to express a past continuous tense which is similar to the English usage of "kept" as in ? /ga?ad jiktub ?an:u/ ('he kept writing about him').
  • A way of emphasizing the past tense is by adding the verbs /ga:m/ ('he stood') or /ra:?/ ('went') and its derivatives before the past verbs which is similar to the English usage of "went", as in /ga:m diri:lu/ ('he went and ran to him') and /ra:? katab ?an:u/ ('he went and wrote about him').
  • the 3rd person past plural suffix -/u/ turns into -/o:/ (long o) instead of -/u:/ before pronouns, as in /ra:?u/ ('they went') -> /ra:?o:lu/ ('they went to him'), or it can be originally an -/o:/ as in /do:/ ('they came') and in its homophone /do:/ ('they came to him') since the word-final 3rd person masculine singular pronoun is silent.
  • word-final hollow verbs have a unique conjugation of either /i:t/ or /e:t/, if a verb ends in /i/ in its past simple form as in nisi 'he forgot' (present ? yinsa 'he forgets') it becomes ? nis?t 'I forgot' and ? nisyat 'she forgot' and ? nisyu 'they forgot' this rule is used in verbs ri?i, ?i?i, ligi. While if the verb ends in /a/ in its past simple form as in ?awa 'he grilled' (present ? yi?wi 'he grills') it becomes ?aw?t 'I grilled' and ?awat 'she grilled and ?awu 'they grilled'. Most of these verbs correspond to their Classical Arabic forms, but some exceptions include biki 'he cried', jiri 'he ran', mi?i 'he walked' and diri 'he knew' as opposed to the Classical baka, jara, ma?a, dara.

Example: katabt/aktub "write": non-finite forms

Number/Gender Active Participle ? Passive Participle ? Verbal Noun
Masc. Sg. k?tib ? makt?b kit?ba
Fem. Sg. k?tb-a makt?b-a
Pl. k?tb-?n makt?b-?n ?

Active participles act as adjectives, and so they must agree with their subject. An active participle can be used in several ways:

  1. to describe a state of being (understanding; knowing).
  2. to describe what someone is doing right now (going, leaving) as in some verbs like ("i went") the active participle ? ("i'm going") is used instead of present continuous form to give the same meaning of an ongoing action.
  3. to indicate that someone/something is in a state of having done something (having put something somewhere, having lived somewhere for a period of time).

Passive Voice

The passive voice is expressed through two patterns; ( /anfa?al/, /jinfa?il/) or ( /atfa?al/, /jitfa?il/), while most verbs can take either pattern as in /atkatab/ or /ankatab/ "it was written" and /jitkatib/ or /jinkatib/ "it is being written", other verbs can only have one of the two patterns as in /atwag:af/ "he was stopped" and /jitwag:af/ "he is being stopped".


In Hejazi, adjectives, demonstratives and verbs fully agree in gender and number,[23] e.g. ? /walad kabi:r/ "big boy" and /bint kabi:ra/ "big girl". But there are two exceptions;[24] First, there is no agreement in dual number; e.g. /binte:n/ "two girls" takes the plural adjective as in ? /binte:n kuba:r/ "two big girls". Second, and more importantly, gender agreement is syncretic in the plural, in which inanimate plural nouns take a feminine singular adjective e.g. /saj:a:ra:t kabi:ra/ "big cars" instead of the plural adjective, while animate plural nouns take the plural adjective as in ? ? /bana:t kuba:r/ "big girls". The plural feminine adjective /kabi:ra:t/ can be used as well but it is rather archaic.

Adjective Example "big"
Number/Gender Adjective Usage notes
Masc. Sg. kab?r ? with singular masculine nouns
Fem. Sg. kab?ra with singular feminine and inanimate plural nouns
Common Pl. kub?r ? or kab?r?n with dual (masculine or feminine) and animate plural (masculine or feminine) nouns


Enclitic pronouns

Enclitic forms of personal pronouns are suffixes that are affixed to various parts of speech, with varying meanings:

  • To the construct state of nouns, where they have the meaning of possessive demonstratives, e.g. "my, your, his".
  • To verbs, where they have the meaning of direct object pronouns, e.g. "me, you, him".
  • To verbs, where they have the meaning of indirect object pronouns, e.g. "(to/for) me,(to/for) you, (to/for) him".
  • To prepositions.

Unlike Egyptian Arabic, in Hejazi no more than one pronoun can be suffixed to a word.

  • ^1 if a noun ends with a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns) that is /u/ or /a/ then the suffix (-ya) is used as in /abu/ ('father') becomes /abu:ja/ ('my father') but if it ends with an /i/ then the suffix (-yya) is added as in /kursij:a/ ('my chair') from ? /kursi/ ('chair').
  • ^2 the colon between the parentheses -[:] indicates that the final vowel of a word is lengthened as in ? /kursi/ ('chair') -> /kursi:/ ('his chair'), since the word-final [h] is silent in this position. although in general it is uncommon for Hejazi nouns to end in a vowel other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns.
  • The indirect object pronouns are written separately from the verbs as per Classical Arabic convention, but they are pronounced as if they are fused with the verbs. They are still written separately by many writers as in ? /katabtal:u/ ('i wrote to him') but they can be written intact since Hejazi does not have a written standard.

General Modifications:-

  • When a noun ends in a feminine /a/ vowel as in /madrasa/ ('school') : a /t/ is added before the suffixes as in -> /madrasati/ ('my school'), /madrasatu/ ('his school'), ? /madrasatha/ ('her school') and so on.
  • After a word ends in a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns), the vowel is lengthened, and the pronouns in (vowel+) are used instead of their original counterparts :-
    • as in the noun ? /kursi/ ('chair') -> /kursi:/ ('his chair'), /kursi:na/ ('our chair'), /kursi:ki/ ('your chair' f.) and the verb /la:?agna/ ('we followed') -> ? /la:?agna:/ ('we followed him'), /la:?agna:ki/ ('we followed you' feminine).
    • the indirect object pronouns ? /ru?na/ ('we went') -> ? /ru?na:lu/ ('we went to him').
  • After a word that ends in two consonants, or which has a long vowel in the last syllable, /-a-/ is inserted before the 5 suffixes which begin with a consonant /-ni/, /-na/, /-ha/, /-hom/, /-kom/.
    • as in the noun ? /kita:b/ ('book') -> /kita:baha/ ('her book'), /kita:bahum/ ('their book'), /kita:bakum/ ('your book' plural), /kita:bana/ ('our book') or the verb ? /?irift/ ('you knew') -> /?iriftani/ ('you knew me'), /?iriftana/ ('you knew us'), /?iriftaha/ ('you knew her'), /?iriftahum/ ('you knew them').
    • When a verb ends in two consonants as in /ru?t/ ('i went' or 'you went') : an /-al-/ is added before the Indirect object pronoun suffixes -> /ru?tal:u/ ('i went to him') or in ? /katabt/ ('I wrote' or 'you wrote') becomes ? /katabtal:u/ ('i wrote to him'), ? /katabtal:ahum/ ('i wrote to them').
  • the 3rd person past plural suffix -/u/ turns into -/o:/ (long o) before pronouns, as in /?irfu/ ('they knew') -> /?irfo:ni/ ('they knew me'), /ra:?u/ ('they went') -> /ra:?o:lu/ ('they went to him') or /katabu/ ('they wrote') -> /katabo:li/ ('they wrote to me')

Hollow Verbs vowel shortening

Medial vowel shortening occurs in Hollow verbs (verbs with medial vowels ?, ?, ?, ?, ?) when added to Indirect object pronouns:[26]

Hollow Verb (? ? ?) (r w ?) "to go"
Tense/Mood Past "went" (ru?) Present (Indicative) "goes" (r) Imperative "go!" (r)
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ru?t ? ru?na ?? 'ar?? ?? nir??
2nd masculine ru?t ru?tu ?? tir?? tiru ??? r?? ru
feminine ? ru?ti tiri ? ri
3rd masculine ??? r?? ru ?? yir?? yiru
feminine ? rat ?? tir??
  • when a verb has a long vowel in the last syllable (shown in silver in the main example) as in ? /aru:?/ ('I go'), ? /jiru:?/ (he goes) or ? /niru:?/ (''we go'); the vowel is shortened before the suffixes as in ? /aru?lu/ (I go to him), /jiru?lu/ (he goes to him) and ? /niru?lu/ (we go to him) with the verbs resembling the Jussive ( majz?m) mood conjugation in Classical Arabic (shown in gold in the example), original forms as in or ? can be used depending on the writer but the vowels are still shortened in pronunciation.
  • This does effect past verbs as well but the form of the word does not change, as in /ra:?/ r ('he went') which is pronounced /ra?lu/ ('he went to him!') after adding a pronoun.
  • Other hollow verbs include ? /?a?i:d/ ('I repeat') or /gu:l/ ('say!') which become / ? /?a?idlak/ ('I repeat for you') and ? / /gul:aha/ ('tell her!')
Hollow Verb + Indirect Object Pronoun (-lu)
Tense/Mood Past "went" Present (Indicative) "write" Imperative "write!"
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ru?t-allu ? ru?n?-lu or ? 'aru?-lu or ? niru?-lu
2nd masculine ru?t-allu ru?t?-lu or ? tiru?-lu tir?-lu or ru?-lu r?-lu
feminine ? ru?t?-lu tir?-lu ? r?-lu
3rd masculine ra?-lu r?-lu or ? yiru?-lu yir?-lu
feminine ? rat-lu or ? tiru?-lu

Writing system

Hejazi does not have a standardized form of writing and mostly follows Classical Arabic rules of writing.[27] The main difference between classical Arabic and Hejazi are the alternations of the Hamza, some verb forms and the final long vowels, this alternation happened since most word-final short vowels from the classical period have been omitted and most word-final unstressed long vowel have been shortened in Hejazi. Another alternation is writing the words according to the phoneme used while pronouncing them, rather than their etymology which mainly has an effect on the three letters ⟨?⟩ ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩, for example writing ? instead of ? or instead of although this alternation in writing is not considered acceptable by most Hejazi speakers. The alphabet still uses the same set of letters as Classical Arabic in addition to two letters ??? /p/ and ??? /v/ which are only used in writing loanwords and they can be substituted by ⟨?/b/ and ⟨?/f/ respectively depending on the writer, in addition to that the vowels /o:/ and /e:/ which were not part of the CA phonemic inventory are represented by the letters ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ respectively.

Differences Between Classical and Hejazi writing

  • Hamza ⟨?⟩ :
    • Initial hamza holds no phonemic value in Hejazi but it can be used as per Classical Arabic convention, e.g. ? /isti?da:d/ "readiness" or /axad/ "he took" can be written as ? or but long initial /a:/ is more important to indicate, e.g. /a:sif/ "sorry" to differentiate it from / /asaf/ "regret".
    • Medial hamza is merged with the semi-vowels ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ as in /ra:ji?/ "going" from /ra:?i?/ and ? /lu:lu/ "pearl" from ? /lu?lu?/, or it can be completely elided as in /da:t/ "she came" from ? /da:?at/ or /do:/ "they came" from /da:?u:/, but other words keep the medial hamza as in /mas?u:l/ "responsible" and /masa:?il/ "issues".
    • Final hamza is deleted in most Hejazi words as in /?ada/ "lunch" from ? /?ada:?/, ? /xad?ra/ "green" from /xad?ra:?/, but some words keep the final hamza as in /mubtadi?/ "beginner" and /but?/ "slowness".
  • Added medial long vowels /a:, u:, o:, i:, e:/:
    • some words have elongated medial vowels in Hejazi as in ? /ma?a:k/ "with you" from /ma?aka/, /li:k/ "to you, for you" which could be from the classical ? /laka/ or ? /?ilajka/, and /mi:n/ "who" from /man/.
    • 2nd person masculine singular imperative in hollow verbs keep their long vowels as /ru:?/ "go!" as opposed to classical /ru?/ and /?u:f/ "see!" as opposed to classical /?uf/.
      • only few words have word-medial long vowels that are pronounced as short vowels, as in pronounced /daj/ rather than /da:j/ from classical ? /da:?in/.
  • Final added ⟨?⟩ appears in:
    • Masculine singular imperative in final-weak verbs, as in ? /am?i/ "go!, walk!" as opposed to classical /im?i/. The classical pair ? /im?i:/ (feminine) and /im?i/ (masculine) merged into ? /am?i/ used as a masculine and feminine singular imperative verb in Hejazi.
    • 2nd person feminine singular past verbs, as in /nisi:ti/ "you forgot" as opposed to classical ? /nasi:ti/. The classical pair ? /nasi:ti/ (feminine) and ? /nasi:ta/ (masculine) became /nisi:ti/ (feminine) and ? /nisi:t/ (masculine).
    • Feminine possessive and object pronoun which occurs after a long vowel, as in /ji?t?i:ki/ "he gives you" as opposed to classical /ju?t?i:ki/. The classical pair /ju?t?i:ki/ (feminine) and /ju?t?i:ka/ (masculine) became /ji?t?i:ki/ (feminine) and ? /ji?t?i:k/ (masculine).
    • Feminine pronouns, as in ? /inti/ "you", as opposed to classical /anti/. The classical pair /anti/ (feminine) and /anta/ (masculine) became ? /inti/ (feminine) and /inti/ (masculine), but the classical form can still be used in Hejazi.
  • Innovative forms:
    • Some verb forms are innovative and differ from their classical equivalents as in the common plural verb /?uftu/ "you saw" pl. as opposed to classical ? /?uftum/ (masculine) and /?uftunna/ (feminine), or the final-weak verbs as in ? /dirju/ "they ran" as opposed to classical ? /daraw/ and the doubled verbs /?ab:e:t/ "I loved" opposed to classical /?ababtu/.
    • The verb forms V, VI and IIQ have an additional initial ⟨?⟩ before ⟨?/t/, so that Hejazi forms /atfa?:al/, /atfa:?al/ and ? /atfa?lag/ correspond to classical forms /tafa?:al/, /tafa:?al/ and /tafa?laq/, e.g. ? /atkal:am/ "he spoke" (form V), ? /at?a:malat/ "she worked" (form VI) and /atfalsafu/ "they babbled" (form IIQ).
    • Portmanteau words have the most alternatives in their spelling since they did not occur in Classical Arabic, so the word for "still" /lis:a/ can be written or depending on the writer, all of these forms stemming from the classical (/lis:a:?a/, "to the hour").
    • Loanwords can have multiple spellings as well, which is the case for the word "also" /bard?u/ which can be written as ? or .
An Early Qur'anic manuscript written in Hijazi script (8th century AD)

Mistakes in Hejazi spelling

  • Final silent ⟨?⟩:
    • Writing ⟨?⟩ instead of final pronoun ⟨?⟩ as in /kita:bu/ "his book" which is mistakenly written .
    • Mixing final ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ as in ? /fat?a/ "opening" (/fat?at/ in construct state) and ? /fata?u/ "he opened it".
    • Missing the final ⟨?⟩ masculine pronoun which often indicates a final long vowel as /?aw:arti/ "you hurt" vs. /?aw:arti:/ "you hurt him", this can cause an ambiguity for the reader as in the homophones /da:/ "he came" and /da:/ "he came to him" if both were written mistakenly as .
  • Final :
    • Mixing final ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ as in the word /tara/ "by the way" which is mistakenly written .
    • Mixing final ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ as in the word /mar:a/ "time, once" which is mistakenly written .
    • Adding a final ⟨?⟩ to final 1st person singular possessive pronoun as in ? /?alaj:a/ "on me" written mistakenly written as even though Classical Arabic have the same form and pronunciation as in ? /?alaj:a/, other examples include ? /ma?a:ja/ "with me", /lij:a/ "to me" and /fij:a/ "in me".
    • Missing final silent ⟨?⟩ in plural verbs as in ? /rami:tu/ "you threw" or /?al:agu/ "they hanged" even though this practice is no longer needed but it follows the Classical Arabic form.

The table below shows the Arabic alphabet letters and their corresponding phonemes in Hejazi:

Letter Phonemes / Allophones (IPA) Example Pronunciation
? (see ⟨?⟩ Hamza). "he asked" /sa?al/
"door" /ba:b/
when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed it's /a:/) "we saw", ( m. "this") /'?ufna/, (/'da:/ or /'ða:/)
only when word-medial before indirect object pronouns e.g. , , and some words "he told me", ? "he went to her" /gal:i/, /ra?laha/
additional ? silent word-final only in plural verbs and after nunation "they knew", ? "thanks" /dirju/, /?ukran/
? "cat" /bis:a/
? "berry" /tu:t/
? or always/in some words as "snow" /tald/ or /?ald/
or "stable" /sa:bit/ or /?a:bit/
? ? "mobile phone" /daw:a:l/
? "courtyard" /?o:?/
? "rag" /xirga/
? "closet" /do:'la:b/
? or always/in some words as "tail" /de:l/ or /ðe:l/
or "taste" /zo:g/ or /ðo:g/
? "sand" /ramil/
? "slide" /zu?le:ga/
? "roof" /sagf/
? "loader" /?e:wal/
? "whistle" /s?u'f:e:ra/
? "molar" /d?irs/
? "corridor" /t?urga/
? or always/in some words as [ð?] (allophone) "shade" /d?il:/ or [ðl:]
or "envelope, case" /z?arf/ or [ð?arf]
? "eye" /?e:n/
? "crow" /?ura:b/
? "mouth" /fam:/
? (pronounced (allophone) in a number of words) "heart" ( "peak") /galb/ (/gim:a/ or [q?m:a])
? "dog" /kalb/
? (marginal phoneme only in the word ? and words derived from it) ? "why?", (? "god") /le:?/, (/a?:a:h/)
? "water" /mo:ja/
? "chandelier" /nadafa/
(silent when word-final in 3rd person masculine singular pronouns and some words) ? "air", (? "his book", "they saw him") /hawa/, (/kita:bu/, /?a:'fo:/)
? "rose" /warda/
"wake up!" /fu:g/
"above, up" /fo:g/
only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed it's either or ) ? "asthma", ( "is not", "they came") /'rabu/, (/'mu:/, /'do:/)
only when word-medial before indirect object pronouns e.g. , , "go to her" also written as /ru?laha/
? "hand" /jad:/
"whites pl." /bi:d?/
"eggs" /be:d?/
only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed it's either or ) ? "saudi", ( f. "this", ? "on him") /su'?u:di/, (/'di:/, /?a'le:/)
only when word-medial before indirect object pronouns e.g. , , ? "you bring me" also written as /tidibli/
Additional non-native letters
? (can be written and/or pronounced as ⟨?⟩ depending on the speaker) or "pizza" /pi:tza/ or /bi:tza/
? (can be written and/or pronounced as ⟨?⟩ depending on the speaker) ? or ? "virus" /vajru:s/ or /fajru:s/


  • Medial ⟨?⟩ is short only in 3rd person masculine past verbs before indirect object pronouns e.g. , , as in /?a:d/ "he repeated" becomes /?adlahum/ "he repeated to them" and in few words as in "I'm coming" pronounced /daj/ or /da:j/, the same "indirect object pronoun" vowel-shortening effect takes place with medial ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ for example "going to him" is mostly pronounced /ra:j?inlu/ with a shortened /i/ and rarely /ra:j?i:nlu/.
  • ?⟩ is only used at the end of words and mainly to mark feminine gender for nouns and adjectives with few exceptions (e.g. ; a male noun). phonemically it is silent indicating final /-a/, except when in construct state it is a /t/, which leads to the word-final /-at/. e.g. /risa:la/ 'message' -> ? /risa:lat ?a?mad/ 'Ahmad's message'.
  • ⟩ is silent only word-final in some words and in 3rd person masculine singular pronoun, as in /?uf'na:/ "we saw him" or the heteronym pronounced /le:/ 'why?' or /li:/ 'for him', but the can be added for emphasis if needed. The silent ⟨⟩ also helps in distinguishing minimal pairs with word-final vowel length contrast ? /tib?i/ 'you want f.' vs. /tib?i:/ 'you want him f.'. but it is still maintained word-final in most other nouns as in ? /fawa:kih/ "fruits", /kurh/ "hate" and ? /?ablah/ "idiot" where it is differentiated from ? /?abla/ "f. teacher".
  • ?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ are sometimes used to transcribe /g/ in foreign words. ⟨?⟩ is especially used in city/state names as in "Belgrade" pronounced /bilgra:d/ or /bil?ra:d/, this ambiguity arose due to Standard Arabic not having a letter that transcribes /g/ distinctively, which created doublets like /kata'lo:g/ vs. /kata'lo:d/ "catalog" and /ga:'lo:n/ vs. /da:'lo:n/ "gallon". newer terms are more likely to be transcribed using the native ⟨?⟩ as in /instagra:m/ "Instagram" and ? /g(u)ru:b, -u:p/ "WhatsApp group".
  • ?⟩ is pronounced /z?/ only in few words from the two trilateral roots ⟨? ? ?⟩ and ⟨? ? ?⟩, as in ("it worked") pronounced /z?abat?/ and not /d?abat?/.
  • The interdental consonants:
    • ?⟩ represents /t/ as in /to:b/ & ? /tawa:b/ or /s/ as in ? /sa:bit/, but the classical phoneme /?/ is still used as well depending on the speaker especially in words of English origin.
    • ?⟩ represents /d/ as in /de:l/ & /dakar/ or /z/ as in /zaki/, but the classical phoneme /ð/ is still used as well depending on the speaker especially in words of English origin.
    • ?⟩ represents /d?/ as in /d?ifir/ & /d?il:/ or /z?/ as in /z?arf/, but the classical [ð?] is still used as an allophone depending on the speaker.

Rural dialects

The varieties of Arabic spoken in the smaller towns and by the bedouin tribes in the Hejaz region are relatively under-studied. However, the speech of some tribes shows much closer affinity to other bedouin dialects, particularly those of neighboring Najd, than to those of the urban Hejazi cities. The dialects of northern Hejazi tribes merge into those of Jordan and Sinai, while the dialects in the south merge with those of 'Asir and Najd. Also, not all speakers of these bedouin dialects are figuratively nomadic bedouins; some are simply sedentary sections that live in rural areas, and thus speak dialects similar to those of their bedouin neighbors.


The dialect of Al-`Ula governorate in the northern part of the Madinah region. Although understudied, it is considered to be unique among the Hejazi dialects, it is known for its pronunciation of Classical Arabic ⟨?/k/ as a ⟨?/?/ (e.g. ? /takðib/ becomes ? /ta?ðib/), the dialect also shows a tendency to pronounce long /a:/ as (e.g. Classical /ma:?/ becomes [me:?]), in some instances the Classical /q/ becomes a as in /qa:jla/ becomes /da:jla/, also the second person singular feminine pronoun /ik/ tends to be pronounced as /i?/ (e.g. ? /ridlik/ ('your foot') becomes ? /ridli?/.[28]


The dialect of Badr governorate in the western part of the Madinah region is mainly noted for its lengthening of word-final syllables and its alternative pronunciation of some phonemes as in ? /su?a:l/ which is pronounced as ? /su?a:l/, it also shares some features with the general urban dialect in which modern standard Arabic /?al:a:da/ is pronounced /tal:a:da/, another unique feature of the dialect is its similarity to the Arabic dialects of Bahrain.

See also


  1. ^ "Arabic, Hijazi Spoken". Ethnologue. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hijazi Arabic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Alzaidi (2014:73) Information Structure and Intonation in Hijazi Arabic.
  4. ^ Il-Hazmy (1975:234)
  5. ^ a b Versteegh, Kees. The Arabic Language (PDF). p. 150.
  6. ^ Alqahtani, Fatimah; Sanderson, Mark (2015). "Generating a Lexion for the Hijazi dialect of Arabic". Generating a Lexion for the Hijazi Dialect of Arabic: 9. ISBN 9783030329594.
  7. ^ Watson, Janet (2002). The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic. Oxford university press. pp. 8, 9.
  8. ^ Lipinski (1997). Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar. p. 75.
  9. ^ Cantineau, Jean (1960). Cours de phonétique arabe (in French). Paris, France: Libraire C. Klincksieck. p. 67.
  10. ^ Freeman, Aaron (2015). "The Linguistic Geography of Dorsal Consonants in Syria" (PDF). The Linguistic Geography of Dorsal Consonants in Syria. University of Pennsylvania.
  11. ^ Öhrnberg, Kaj (2013). "Travelling Through Time". Studia Orientalia 114: 524.
  12. ^ Heinrichs, Wolfhart. "Ibn Khald?n as a Historical Linguist with an Excursus on the Question of Ancient g?f". Harvard University.
  13. ^ Blanc 1969: 11, Travelling Through Time, Essays in honour of Kaj Öhrnberg
  14. ^ Oztopchu, Kurtulush (1993). "A Comparison of Modern Azeri With Modern Turkish" (PDF). A Comparison of Modern Azeri with Modern Turkish.
  15. ^ Abdoh (2010:84)
  16. ^ Omar, Margaret k. (1975). Saudi Arabia, Urban Hijazi dialect. pp. x.
  17. ^ Omar (1975:xiv)
  18. ^ Owens, Owens. The Oxford Handbook of Arabic Linguistics. p. 259.
  19. ^ Alahmadi, Sameeha (2015). "Loanwords in the Urban Meccan Hijazi Dialect: An Analysis of Lexical Variation according to Speakers' Sex, Age and Education". Loanwords in the Urban Meccan Hijazi Dialect: An Analysis of Lexical Variation According to Speakers' Sex, Age and Education. Canadian Center of Science and Education.
  20. ^ Eifan, Emtenan (2017). "Grammaticalization in Urban Hijazi Arabic" (PDF). Grammaticalization in Urban Hijazi Arabic: 39.
  21. ^ Kheshaifaty (1997) "Numerals: a comparative study between classical and hijazi arabic"
  22. ^ Ahyad, Honaida; Becker, Michael (2020). "Vowel unpredictability in Hijazi Arabic monosyllabic verbs". Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics. 5. doi:10.5334/gjgl.814.
  23. ^ Sieny, Mahmoud (1978). "The Syntax of Urban Hijazi Arabic". The Syntax of Urban Hijazi Arabic: 33.
  24. ^ Kramer, Ruth; Winchester, Lindley. "Number and Gender Agreement in Saudi Arabic: Morphology vs. Syntax". Number and Gender Agreement in Saudi Arabic: Morphology Vs. Syntax: 41.
  25. ^ Omar (1975)
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  27. ^ Holes, Clive (2004). Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, Washington D.C. pp. 92.
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