Hekla 3 Eruption
Get Hekla 3 Eruption essential facts below. View Videos or join the Hekla 3 Eruption discussion. Add Hekla 3 Eruption to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Hekla 3 Eruption
Hekla 3 eruption
DateCirca 1000 BC
63°59?N 19°42?W / 63.983°N 19.700°W / 63.983; -19.700Coordinates: 63°59?N 19°42?W / 63.983°N 19.700°W / 63.983; -19.700
ImpactCaused worldwide temperatures to drop for 18 years
Hekla is located in Iceland
Hekla on the map of Iceland

The Hekla 3 eruption (H-3) circa 1000 BC is considered the most severe eruption of Hekla during the Holocene.[1] It threw about 7.3 km3 of volcanic rock into the atmosphere,[2] placing its Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) at 5. This would have cooled temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere for several years afterwards.

An eighteen-year span of global cooling that is recorded in Irish bog oaks has been attributed to H-3.[3][4] The eruption is detectable in Greenland ice-cores, the bristlecone pine sequence, and the Irish oak sequence of extremely narrow growth rings. Andy Baker's team of researchers dated it to 1021 BC ±130.[5]

A "high chronology" (earlier) interpretation of the above results is preferred by Baker, based also on growth of stalagmites. In Sutherland, northwest Scotland, a spurt of four years of doubled annual luminescent growth banding of calcite in a stalagmite is datable to 1135 BC ±130.[6]

A rival, "low-chronology" interpretation of the eruption has been made by Andrew Dugmore: 2879 BP (929 BC ±34).[7] In 1999, Dugmore suggested a non-volcanic explanation for the Scottish results.[8] In 2000 skepticism concerning conclusions about connecting Hekla 3 and Hekla 4 (probably 2310 BC ±20) with paleoenvironmental events and archaeologically attested abandonment of settlement sites in northern Scotland was expressed by John P. Grattan and David D. Gilbertson.[9] Some Egyptologists have firmly dated the eruption to 1159 BC, and blamed it for famines under Ramesses III during the wider Bronze Age collapse.[10] Dugmore has rebutted this dating.[11] Other scholars have held off on this dispute, preferring the neutral and vague "3000 BP".[12]


  1. ^ Eiríksson, Jón; et al. (2000). "Chronology of late Holocene climatic events in the northern North Atlantic based on AMS 14C dates and tephra markers from the volcano Hekla, Iceland". Journal of Quaternary Science. 15 (6): 573-580. Bibcode:2000JQS....15..573E. doi:10.1002/1099-1417(200009)15:6<573::AID-JQS554>3.0.CO;2-A. Archived from the original on 2012-12-17.
  2. ^ "Hekla". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
  3. ^ Baillie, Mike (1989). "Hekla 3: how big was it?". Endeavour. New Series. 13 (2): 78-81. doi:10.1016/0160-9327(89)90006-9.
  4. ^ Baillie, Mike (1989). "Do Irish bog oaks date the Shang dynasty?". Current Archaeology. 10: 310-313.
  5. ^ Baker, Andy; et al. (1995). "The Hekla 3 volcanic eruption recorded in a Scottish speleothem?". The Holocene. 5 (3): 336-342. doi:10.1177/095968369500500309. S2CID 130396931.
  6. ^ Dated by uranium-thorium thermal ionization mass spectrometry to 1135 BC ±130 in Baker, Andy; et al. (1995). "The Hekla 3 volcanic eruption recorded in a Scottish speleothem?". The Holocene. 5 (3): 336-342. doi:10.1177/095968369500500309. S2CID 130396931.
  7. ^ Dugmore, AJ; G. T. Cook, J. S. Shore, A. J. Newton, K. J. Edwards and Guðrún Larsen (1995). "Radiocarbon Dating Tephra Layers in Britain and Iceland". Radiocarbon. 37 (2): 379-388. doi:10.1017/S003382220003085X. Archived from the original on 2008-10-13.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Andrew Dugmore, Geriant Coles, Paul Buckland, "A Scottish speleothem record of the H-3 eruption or human impact? A comment on Baker, Smart, Barnes, Edwards and Farrant" The Holocene 9.4 501-503 (1999).
  9. ^ Grattan; Gilbertson (2000). "Prehistoric 'settlement crisis', environmental changes in the British Isles, and volcanic eruptions in Iceland: An explorarion of plausible linkages". In McCoy, Floyd W.; Heiken, Grant (eds.). Volcanic Hazards and Disasters in Human Antiquity. GSA Special Paper. 345. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America. ISBN 0-8137-2345-0.
  10. ^ Yurco, Frank J. (1999). "End of the Late Bronze Age and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause". In Teeter, Emily; Larson John (eds.). Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. 58. Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. pp. 456-458. ISBN 1-885923-09-0.
  11. ^ Late Holocene solifluction history reconstructed using tephrochronology, Martin P. Kirkbride & Andrew J. Dugmore, Geological Society, London, Special Publications; 2005; v. 242; p. 145-155.
  12. ^ TOWARDS A HOLOCENE TEPHROCHRONOLOGY FOR SWEDEN Archived 2009-04-07 at the Wayback Machine, Stefan WastegÅrd, XVI INQUA Congress, Paper No. 41-13, Saturday, July 26, 2003.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes