Helian Xia
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Helian Xia
Xia

?
407-431
Helian Xia in 423
Helian Xia in 423
CapitalTongwan (418-427)
Shanggui (427-428)
Pingliang (428-430)
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
o 407-425
Helian Bobo
o 425-428
Helian Chang
o 428-431
Helian Ding
History 
o Established
407
Helian Bobo's claim of imperial title
418
o Fall of Tongwan
11 July 427[1][2]
o Disestablished
431
Helian Ding's death
13 May 432[3][4]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Today part ofChina

Xia (Chinese: ?; pinyin: Xià), known in historiography as Hu Xia (), Northern Xia (), Helian Xia () or the Great Xia (), was a dynastic state of Xiongnu origin established by Helian Bobo during the Sixteen Kingdoms period in northern China. Prior to establishing the Xia, the imperial clan existed as a tribal entity known as the Tiefu (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Ti?fú).[5]

Although the Xia only lasted from 407 to 431, its capital Tongwan situated in the Ordos Desert was a heavily fortified and state-of-the-art city that served as a frontier garrison until the Song dynasty. Its ruins were discovered during the Qing dynasty and can still be seen in present-day Inner Mongolia.

The Book of Wei also records that Liu Kuren's tribe, the Dugu, were descended from the Xiongnu. Yao Weiyuan () suggested in the past that 'Dugu' was an alternate form of 'Tuge' (), the Xiongnu aristocratic clan that had adopted the Han Chinese surname of Liu (?), members of which also ruled the Former Zhao state. This writer further suggests that 'Tuge' is an alternate form of 'Tuhe' (), which is the branch of the Xianbei from which the Murong () were descended. The Liu (Dugu) were also known as 'Tiefu' (), a term which meant that they had Xiongnu fathers and Xianbei mothers. Thus it is reasonable to say that the Dugu were at least half Xianbei.

All rulers of the Xia declared themselves "emperors".

Chieftains of the Tiefu and rulers of the Xia

Temple name Posthumous names Personal name Durations of reign Era names
Chieftains of the Tiefu
- Liu Qubei 260-272 -
- Liu Gaoshengyuan ? 272-309 -
- Liu Hu 309-341 -
- Liu Wuheng 341-356 -
- Liu Eloutou ? 356-358 -
- Liu Xiwuqi ? 358-359 -
- Liu Weichen 359-391 -
- Liu Bobo 391-407 -
Rulers of the Xia
Shizu Wulie Helian Bobo
(same person as Liu Bobo)
407-425 Longsheng () 407-413
Fengxiang () 413-418
Changwu () 418-419
Zhenxing () 419-425
- Helian Chang 425-428 Chengguang () 425-428
- Helian Ding 428-431 Shengguang () 428-431

Rulers family tree

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%ABe%A7%BA&king=%A4%E5%AB%D2&reign=%A4%B8%B9%C5&yy=4&ycanzi=&mm=6&dd=&dcanzi=%A5%D2%A8%B0
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 120.
  3. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%ABe%A7%BA&king=%A4%E5%AB%D2&reign=%A4%B8%B9%C5&yy=9&ycanzi=&mm=3&dd=&dcanzi=%A4%D0%A5%D3
  4. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 122.
  5. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.

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