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It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of Dutch in popflock.com resource articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them. Integrity must be maintained between the key and the transcriptions that link here; do not change any symbol or value without establishing consensus on the talk page first.
^ abcdefGenerally, the southern varieties preserve the /f/-/v/, /x/-/?/ and /s/-/z/ contrasts. Southern /x/, /?/ may be also somewhat more front, i.e. post-palatal. In the north, these are far less stable: most speakers merge /x/ and /?/ into a post-velar [x?] or uvular ; most Netherlandic Standard Dutch speakers lack a consistent /f/-/v/ contrast. In some accents, e.g. Amsterdam, /s/ and /z/ are also not distinguished./?/ often joins this neutralization by merging with /?/. In some accents, is also devoiced to . See also Hard and soft G in Dutch.
^ abcDutch devoices all obstruents at the ends of words (e.g. a final /d/ becomes ). This is partly reflected in the spelling: the voiced in plural huizen ('houses') becomes huis ('house') in singular, and duiven ('doves') becomes duif ('dove'). The other cases are always written with the voiced consonant, even though a devoiced one is actually pronounced: the voiced in plural baarden['ba:rd?(n)] ('beards') is retained in the singular spelling baard ('beard'), but pronounced as [ba:rt]; and plural ribben['r?b?(n)] ('ribs') has singular rib, pronounced as [r?p]. Because of assimilation, often the initial consonant of the next word is also devoiced, e.g. het vee ('the cattle') is [t 'fe:]
^ abcdeThe alveolo-palatal stops [c] and [?], the fricatives [?] and [?], and the nasal[?] are allophones of the sequences /tj/, /dj/, /sj/, /zj/ and /nj/. [?] and [?] occur only in loanwords. [?] also occurs as an allophone of /n/ before /tj/ (realized as [c]).
^ is not a native phoneme of Dutch and only occurs in loanwords, like goal or when /k/ is voiced, like in zakdoek['zduk].
^The glottal stop[?] is indicated sparingly in Dutch transcriptions on Resource: it is mandatorily inserted between [a:] and [?] and a syllable-initial vowel, both within words and at word boundaries. Often, it is also inserted before phrase-initial vowels and before any word-initial vowel. This is not indicated in most of our transcriptions.
^After the schwa, the final /n/ is frequently elided, so that maken is often pronounced ['ma:k?], especially in non-prevocalic environments. The nasal may be retained before vowels, yielding a linking /n/. An intrusive /n/ may also occur, as in the phrase red je 't?['r?c?n?t]. In stems ending in /?n/ (such as teken['te:k?n] 'I draw') and in the indefinite article een/?n/ the nasal is always retained, except when it is degeminated, but when an additional /?n/ is added to the stem (yielding the infinitive form or the present tense plural form), it behaves regularly, as in tekenen['te:k?n?(n)] 'to draw' or 'we/you/they draw'. Furthermore, an epenthetic schwa can be inserted between /l/ or /r/ and /m, p, k, f, x/ (in the case of /r/ alone also /n/) within the same morpheme. This is found in all types of Dutch, standard or otherwise. However, in Standard Dutch, it is limited to non-prevocalic clusters. In dialects, it can be generalized to all environments and it can also apply to the sequence /r?/, so that morgen 'morning', pronounced ['m?r(n)] in Standard Dutch, is pronounced ['m?r(n)].
^ abThe "checked" vowels , , , , and occur only in closed syllables, while their "free" counterparts , , , , and can occur in open syllables (as can the other vowels).
^ abcFor most speakers of Netherlandic Standard Dutch, the long close-mid vowels , and are realised as slightly closing diphthongs [e?], [ø?] and [o?], unless they precede /r/ within the same syllable. The closing diphthongs also appear in certain Belgian dialects, e.g. the one of Bruges, but not in Belgian Standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology#Monophthongs for more details.
^ abcThe exact quality of diphthongs varies; Netherlandic Standard Dutch has somewhat more open (in case of /?u/ and often /oey/ also unrounded) first elements: [æi], [?y], [?u]. In Belgian Standard Dutch, they begin in the open-mid region, and the last diphthong has a rounded first element: [?i], [oey], [?u]. In Belgium, the onset of /oey/ can also be unrounded to [?y]. Some non-standard dialects (e.g. many southern dialects) realise these diphthongs as either narrow diphthongs or (as in The Hague dialect) long monophthongs. See Dutch phonology § Diphthongs for more details.
Gussenhoven, Carlos (1999), "Dutch", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 74-77, ISBN0-521-65236-7
Rietveld, A.C.M.; Van Heuven, V.J. (2009), Algemene Fonetiek, Uitgeverij Coutinho