Help:IPA/Greek
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Help:IPA/Greek

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents the Ancient Greek (AG) and Modern Greek (MG) pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. The Ancient Greek pronunciation shown here is a reconstruction of the Attic dialect in the 5th century BC. Do not use the same symbols for other Ancient Greek dialects, such as Doric, Aeolic, or Koine Greek, as they may be inaccurate.

See Ancient Greek phonology and Modern Greek phonology for a more thorough look at their sounds.

Consonants[1]
IPA AG MG Example English approximation
c ? ?[2] skew
k ?, ? ?, ??[3][2] scar
k? ? ?[2] car
x ? similar to hat,
Scottish English: loch
ç ?[2] hue
j ? ???[4] toy yacht
? ? ??[2] yes
? ?[2] similar to woman,
but with spread lips
? ? again

??[2][5]
? ??[2][5] argue
p ?, ? ??, ?[3] spy
p? ? ? paint
f ? four
v ?, ?[6] ?? vet
b ? about
?[5]
w ? ??[4] well
t ? ?? stay
t? ? ? take
? ? thought
ð ? ?? the
d ? today
??[5]
h ?[7] hat
l ? ?? look
? ? ?? million
m ? ?? mole
n ? ? no
? ? onion
? ? ?? sing
r ? ??? trilled r like in Spanish
r? ? ? similar to train
s ?, ?
?, ?
??, ?, ??[3] sow, usually retracted
z ?, ? ?, ?[3] zoo, usually retracted
t?s cats, usually retracted
d?z ? pads, retracted in most cases
Dialectal segments
IPA English approximation
? shame
?
? vision
?
t check
t
d jam
d
æ cat
IPA Explanation
?: marks a consonant produced twice as long[1]
Vowels
Monophthongs
IPA AG MG Example English approximation
a ? ? ?? father, but shorter
a: ? ? father
?: ? ?[8] met, but longer
e ?[9] ?? met
e: [8] bay
i ? ?[8] ??? like neat
i: ? ??[8] like need
o: ? ?[9] boil
o ? similar to note (American English)
?[9] ????
u: ? similar to mood
u pool
y ? ??[8] few
y: ? ??[8] fume
Diphthongs[4]
IPA AG MG Example English approximation
ai? ?, , [9] tie
[10]
au? [6] how
ei? ?[8] hey
[11]
eu? [6] Italian and Spanish neutro
oi? , [8] toy
[12]
yi? [8]
a:i? ? ?, ?[13]
?:i? ? ??, ?[8][13]
?:i? ? ?, ?[13]
Suprasegmentals
IPA[14] AG MG Example Explanation
´ ?? [?ála] high tone
´ ? [e?:] rising tone
? ` ??? [men] mid tone
? ?? [?:] falling tone
' ? ?? ['a.los] stress
. syllable break

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ancient Greek had geminate consonants, pronounced longer than single ones, which may be transcribed by a double consonant letter ⟨ss⟩ or the length symbol ⟨s:⟩. Modern Standard Greek does not have geminate consonants, but some nonstandard dialects do.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h In Modern Greek, ⟨?; , ; ?; ?⟩ are pronounced as palatal [c, ?, ?, ç] before the front vowels [e i], and velar [k, g, ?, x] in other cases.
  3. ^ a b c d ?⟩ represented the cluster [zd] in Classical Attic, but it represents [z] in Modern Greek. In both Ancient and Modern Greek, ⟨?⟩ is pronounced as voiced [z] before a voiced consonant, and ⟨?, ?⟩ represent [ks ps].
  4. ^ a b c In Ancient Greek, a diphthong before a vowel was realised as a vowel and a double semivowel sequence: [jj, ww].
  5. ^ a b c d In Modern Greek, ⟨, , , ⟩ are pronounced as prenasalised voiced stops [mb, nd, , ] or voiced stops without nasalisation [b, d, ?, ?].
  6. ^ a b c In Modern Greek, ⟨?⟩, in ⟨ ⟩, is pronounced as [f] before a voiceless consonant and [v] otherwise. In Ancient Greek, ⟨ ⟩ were diphthongs [au? eu? ?:u?].
  7. ^ The rough breathing ⟨?⟩ represented [h] before a vowel, and the smooth breathing ⟨?⟩ represented the absence of [h].
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j In Modern Greek, ⟨?, ?, , ?, , ?, ⟩ all represent [i], but they were pronounced [?:, ?:i?, e:, ei?, i(:) oi?, y(:), yi?] in Ancient Greek. The large number of vowel mergers into [i] is called iotacism.
  9. ^ a b c d In Modern Greek, ⟨?, ⟩ represent [e], and ⟨?, ?⟩ represent [o]. In Ancient Greek, ⟨?, ?⟩ represented [e, o], ⟨?⟩ represented [?:] and ⟨⟩ represented the diphthong [ai?].
  10. ^ Also ? and sometimes ?.
  11. ^ Also ? and sometimes ?.
  12. ^ Also ? and sometimes ?.
  13. ^ a b c In early Ancient Greek, ⟨?, ?, ?⟩ were diphthongs, but the second element [i?] was lost soon after the Classical period, and they merged with ⟨?, ?, ?⟩.
  14. ^ The symbols used here for Ancient Greek pitch accent must be added as combining characters in some cases. Place the numeric character reference after the letter that on which the accent is to be put, press "Show preview" and copy the resulting accented character. ́ is the numeric character reference for combining acute tone mark (high tone), ̌ for combining caron (rising tone), ̂ for combining circumflex (falling tone).

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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