Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu
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Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindi and Urdu pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-hns}}, {{IPA-hi}}, {{IPA-ur}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Hindustani phonology, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabet for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindi-Urdu.

Consonants
IPA Examples English Approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
b ? bacc? butter
b? ? bh?l? abhor
d d?l duck[1]
d? dh?p wide hearted
d? j?n jug
d ? jharn? hedgehog
? ? ?abb? guard[1]

(Rhotic dialects)

?hakkan hard headed

(Rhotic dialects)

f ? k?hil?f fuss
? g?l gut
ghar big headed
? ? b?? similar to a French r
? ham ahead
j y?d yuck
k kamz?r scab
k? ? kh?l cab
l lab leaf
m magar much
n ? nahim? not
? cara? burn
? ñ?y canyon
? bh??g bang
p pal spot
p? phal pot
q ? qar?b somewhat like c'aught
r ras Trilled R[2]
? zarra
? ? zar? American butter[2]
? ? la?n? garter (Rhotic dialects)
pa?h no English equivalent
s sab sun
? ? ? har? shrew
? k?? shoe
t t?l?b stub[1]
t? ? thail? tub[1]
t? c?r catch
t chn? choose
? ?am??ar carts[1]
? kan?h trip[1]
? ? vrat vat[3]
w pakwan well[3]
x ? k?har?b Scottish Loch
z ? kaz zoo
? azhdah? pleasure
Vowels
IPA Examples English Approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
a: k?m father
e: j?b say
? ? ? rêhn? pen[4]
?: ? kais? fairy
? kal about
? ? iml? sit
i: ?kh seat
o: ? ? b?l? border
?: ? kaun horse
? tum book
u: ? ?n moon
? ham?s nasal vowel faun
([ã:, õ:], etc.)
? mai?
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Notes
'? ['de:?li] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
?: ['?t: p'de:?] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Hindi and Urdu contrast dental and with apical postalveolar and (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like and to most English speakers.
  2. ^ a b /?/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /?:/ is always a trill.
  3. ^ a b Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair (1996), Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods), European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996, ISBN 978-1-901471-02-1, ... showed extremely regular patterns. As is not uncommon in a study of subphonemic detail, the objective data patterned much more cleanly than intuitive judgments ... [w] occurs when /? ?/ is in onglide position ... [v] occurs otherwise ...
  4. ^ [?] also occurs as an allophone of /?/ near an /?/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [?] preceding an /?/.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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