Help:IPA/Luxembourgish
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Help:IPA/Luxembourgish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Luxembourgish language pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-lb}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Luxembourgish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Luxembourgish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Native
b Been [be:n][1] ball
? liicht [li:?t], Bieg [bi][1][2] she, but more of a y-like sound
d Iddi ['idi][1] done
f Fësch [f][1] fuss
? Gitt [?it][1] guest
h hei [h] hut
j Jong [jo?] yard
k Kiischt [ki:?t][1] cold
l liesen ['liz?n] last
m Maul [mæ:l] must
n Nues [nus] not
? eng [e?] long
p Paart [pa:t][1] puck
? Rou [?], Comptoir ['kõ:twa:?][3] German Regen
? Kugel ['ku:l],[1][2]Parmesan ['pm?za:n][4] Scottish loch, but voiced; French rester
s Taass [ta:s][1] fast
? Schnéi [?n][1][2] shall
t Taart [ta:t], Jugend ['ju:nt][1] tall
ts Zuch [tsu?][1] cats, retracted in most cases
t? Brëtsch [bt?][1] match
v wëschen ['vn][1] vanish
? Sprooch [?p?o:?],[1][2]Force [fo?s][4] Scottish loch
z Summer ['zum?][1] hose
? Juli ['?u:li:][1][2] pleasure
Marginal consonants
bv Kampf opginn ['k?mbv?'op?in][5] obvious
dz spadséieren [?p?'dzn][1][6] heads
d? Jeans [d?i:ns][1] jeans
pf Pflicht [pfli?t] cupful
w zwee [tswe:], Comptoir ['kõ:twa:?][7] we
? héijen ['hn][1][2] measure, but more of a y-like sound
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
? Kapp [k?p] art
a: Kap [ka:p] Australian bad
æ Käpp [kæp] back
? Fësch [f][8] balance
e drécken ['d?ek?n][8] let
e: Been [be:n] Scottish pays
?: Stär [?t?:][9] bed
i Gitt [?it] cheer
i: siwen ['zi:v?n], Kiischt [ki:?t] Scottish and South African be
o So [zo], Sonn [zon] off
o: Sprooch [?p?o:?] story
oe ëffentlech ['oef?ntl] roughly like hurt
oe: Interieur [':tioe:?] roughly like herd
ø: Blöd [blø:t]
u Hutt [hut] put
u: Tut [tu:t], Luucht [lu:?t] true
y Hüll [hyl] roughly like shoe, but shorter
y: Süden ['zy:d?n] roughly like shoe
Diphthongs
Gebai ['b], deier ['d?] price
Mauer ['m?] RP mouth
æ: räich [?æ:] Australian day
æ: Maul [mæ:l] Australian now
Schnéi [?n] face
Schoul [?l] goat
o Euro ['oo:] boy
i liesen ['liz?n] RP pierce
u Buedem ['bud?m] traditional RP Kurt
Nasalized vowels
: Chance [:s] French vin blanc
: Dinde [d:t] French vin blanc
õ: Comptoir ['kõ:twa:?] French Mont Blanc
R-vocalization[4]
a: waarm [va:m] Australian bad
? Mauer ['m?] nut or sofa
?: Stär [?t?:] traditional RP square
i: wier [vi:] RP pier
o: Joer [jo:] traditional RP sure
u: kuerz [ku:ts]
ø: Föhr [fø:] roughly like herd
y: Bad Dürkheim [?ba:t 'dy:khm] roughly like traditional RP pure
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
' Kugel ['ku:l] primary stress, as in dearest /'dr?st/
? Méckebaatsch ['mekba:t?] secondary stress, as in as in commandeer /?k?m?n'dr/
? sech eens [z'e:ns] resyllabification and voicing of the final voiceless obstruent[5]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Word-finally, the voiceless-voiced distinction in the obstruent pairs [p-b, t-d, k-?, ts-dz, t?-d?, f-v, s-z, ?-?, ?-?, ?-?] is neutralized, mostly in favor of the voiceless obstruents, but see the table titled Suprasegmentals (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68)).
  2. ^ a b c d e f Both [?, ?] and [?, ?] are allophones of /?, ?/. [?, ?] occur after back vowels, and [?, ?] occur in all other environments, but the voiced occurs only in a few words. Speakers increasingly merge [?, ?] and [?, ?] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68-69)).
  3. ^ The /?/ phoneme is realized as a trill when it is prevocalic within the same word and often when it is non-prevocalic in French loanwords (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 71)).
  4. ^ a b c When it is non-prevocalic within the same word, the /?/ phoneme has many allophones:
    • after short vowels, the non-prevocalic /?/ is realized as a fricative, either voiced or voiceless , depending on whether the following consonant is voiced or voiceless;
    • /?/ is fully absorbed into the preceding /a:/ in the non-prevocalic sequence /a:?/ and so Paart, Taart and waarm are pronounced [pa:t], [ta:t] and [va:m], as if they were spelled Paat, Taat and waam;
    • after long vowels (excluding /a:/), non-prevocalic /?/ is vocalized to [], creating the centering diphthongs [?:, i:, o:, u:] and, in loanwords from Standard German, also [ø:, y:];
    • the unstressed, non-prevocalic orthographic sequence ⟨er⟩ corresponds to the marginal phoneme /?/, although this can also be analysed as simple a sequence of /e/ and /?/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 70-71)).
  5. ^ a b Apart from being the main realisation of phonemes /b, d, dz, ?, v, z, ?, d?/, [b, d, dz, ?, v, z, ?, d?] occur as word-final allophones of both /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ?, t?/ and /b, d, dz, ?, v, z, ?, d?/ (in this position, some scholars may analyse both of the sets as /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ?, t?/) if the next word begins with a vowel and is pronounced without a pause. [?, ?, bv] also occur as allophones of /?, ?, pf/ in the same environment, but does not occur in other circumstances. In this context, the final voiceless obstruents are not only voiced but also resyllabified, or moved to the onset of the first syllable of the following word. Therefore, a somewhat more phonetically-accurate transcription of sech eens would be [z?'?e:ns] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 72)), but it is transcribed [z'e:ns] instead so that it corresponds more closely to the spelling.
  6. ^ Phonemic /dz/ occurs only in a few words (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:72))
  7. ^ [w] is an allophone of /v/ occurring after /k, ?, ts/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:69)). It also occurs in loanwords as a marginal phoneme.
  8. ^ a b and are allophones of a single phoneme /e/. appears before velar consonants and elsewhere. Unlike in Standard German, appears in both stressed and unstressed syllables, and unstressed sequences of and a sonorant do not form syllabic sonorants (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 70)).
  9. ^ is an allophone of /e:/ before /?/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)).

Bibliography

  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013). "Luxembourgish" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 43 (1): 67-74. doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278.

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