Help:IPA/Mandarin
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Help:IPA/Mandarin

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Mandarin pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-cmn}}, {{IPAc-cmn}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Standard Chinese phonology for more detail on the sounds of Mandarin Chinese.

Consonants
IPA Pinyin Wade-Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
f f ? ? fan
j y-/-i- ? ? yes
k g k ? ? skin
k? k k' ? ? kin
l l ? ?(?) leaf
m m ? ? moon
n n ?,?,? ? noon
? -ng ?,? ? song
p b p ? ?(?) span
p? p p' ? ? pan
?[a] r- j ? ? row
s s ? ? same
? sh ? ? show
t d t ? ? stop
t? t t' ? ? top
ts z ts ? ? buds
ts? c ts' ? ? cats
t? j ch ? ? somewhat like jean[b]
t q ch' ? ? somewhat like cheese[b]
? x hs ? ?(?) somewhat like sheep[b]
zh ch ? ? jar
ch ch' ? ? church
w w-/-u- ? ? water
x h ? ? horror
? yu-/-ü-[c] yü-/-ü- ? ? no English equivalent; like French huit
Vowels
IPA Pinyin Wade-Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
a a ?,?,? ?,?,? car
er êrh ? ?
? e ê / o[d] ? ? wood
? or æ yan/-ian yen/-ien ? set or sat
yuan/-üan ?
e ye/-ie, yue/-üe eh ? ?,? hey
? en,[e]eng ên, êng ?,? ?,? atop
? er êrh ? ? far [f]
i yi/-i ? ? city
o wo/-uo[g] o[h] ? ? boy
zhi, chi, shi, ri ih ?[i] ?,?,?(?),? somewhat like American sir[j]
zi, ci, si û ?,?,? thousand, cousin
u wu/-u ? ? cool
? -ong -ung , ?,? book
y yu/-ü[c] yü/-ü ? ? somewhat like meet, with lips rounded
Diphthongs
ai ai ? ? time
au ao ? ? somewhat like out
ei ei[e] ? ? face
ou ou[e] ? ?(?) show
Tones
IPA Pinyin Wade-Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example Tone number Description
á ? a1 ? ? tone 1 high level [?]
? á a2 ? tone 2 mid rising []
à ? a3 ? tone 3 medially, low [?]; initially, mid falling []; finally, low rising []; in isolation, dipping []
â à a4 ?` ? tone 4 high falling []
a a a0 ? tone 0 or 5
(toneless)
mid [?] after all tones but 4, where it is low [?]
Note: Pinyin uses the same diacritics as IPA but with different values.

Notes

  1. ^ Also transcribed as ? in older literature.
  2. ^ a b c [?, t?, t] are always followed by [i], [j], [y], or [?].
  3. ^ a b ü is spelled u after j, q, x in pinyin since cannot occur after them.
  4. ^ This sound is spelled ?o? after ?k, k', h? in Wade-Giles.
  5. ^ a b c wei, you/yu, wen/wên are spelled respectively ui, iu, un in Pinyin and Wade-Giles but are pronounced identically when they are preceded by a consonant.
  6. ^ The rhotic vowel also appears in erhua.
  7. ^ This sound is spelled ?o? after ?b, p, m, f? in Pinyin.
  8. ^ is spelled as ?o?, except for ?k, k', h, sh? (as ?kuo, k'uo, huo, shuo?) in Wade-Giles.
  9. ^ This symbol is rarely used and usually omitted during writing.
  10. ^ Voiced continuants (also transcribed [?, ?] or [, z?]) reflecting the character of the preceding consonant[clarification needed]

References

  • Duanmu, San (2007). The Phonology of Standard Chinese (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Lee, Wai-Sum; Zee, Eric (2003). "Standard Chinese (Beijing)" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 33 (1): 109-112. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001208.
  • Lin, Yen-Hwei (2007). The Sounds of Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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