Help:IPA/Scottish Gaelic
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Help:IPA/Scottish Gaelic

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Scottish Gaelic pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-gd}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Scottish Gaelic phonology and Scottish Gaelic orthography for a more thorough look at the sounds of Scottish Gaelic.

Consonants[1]
Broad Slender English approximations
IPA Examples IPA Examples
f[2] fad, fead, pholl, pheann fade
? dhà, deireadh, ghaol, dragh ? dhiarr, dhinnis, gheall, ghin Spanish luego; yard (but stronger)
h[2] thonn, thig, shùil, sheòl haste
j eala, beò, theàrn, iolaire, piuthar, shiùbhlainn, gràidh yard
k gaol, beagan, caileag, amharc k? gille, fairrge, thig, chunnaic scat; askew
k?[3] còta k[3] cìr cup; cure
l làmh, balla, geal l mo leaba, cliathaich, baile, fuil health; lice
? leaba, slige, gille health; scallion
m[2] mac, mic, lampa, ìm main
n nàire, snàmh, clann ? nighean, sneachda, cinneadh, ròin tenth; onion
n mo nàire, anail, bean tenth; nice
? long aingeal think; angular
p[2] ball, nàbuidh, abair, corp space
p?[2][3] peann, poll pain
r? rud, riochd, oirre, orra Spanish rojo
? rud, mo riochd, crann, fear cridhe, fir crane; creed (both Scotland)
s? solas, speal, sgialachd ? seòl, stiùir, slighe, snìomh soot; shade
t? dall, fada, ad, falt t? dìleas, maide, thèid, fuilt stock; stew (RP)
t[3] tana t[3] tìr tide; tune (RP)
v[2] bhean, sàibh, mhàthair, deimhinn, làmh veil
x chòta, balach ç chì, balaich loch (Scotland); huge
Monophthongs
Short Long English approximations
IPA Examples IPA Examples
a mac, glaine a: làmh, àite, grr rat; rather (both Scotland)
e teth, fead, cheil e: glè, chèile, beud hit; hay (both Scotland)
? fear, each ?: cnàimh, sèimh let; flare (RP)
?[4] fada, baile viva
i mise, fios i: ìseal, pìobaire, cinn reef
?[4] uilig, capaill hit
o tobar, bodhar o: bò, còig load (Scotland)
? cnoc, sgoil, deoch ?: bròn, mòine, cl, còrr dog
u ugh, bun, sgioltachd, fliuch u: cùl, sùil, diombach, trr, cunntas pull; rule
? duine, uisge ?: craobh, aois good; roof
? dragh, coire ?: fadhlach ago; blur (both RP)
Diphthongs
IPA Examples English approximation
ai claidheamh, chaill, cainnt price
au amharc, abhainn, ball, gann loud
ei seinn, breill, peinnsean main
?u seall, theann, dream Spanish euro
ia Niall, pian, feur, beul he and she
i? fiacail, iasg, ceud, deug, sìos, fìon idea
?u toll, tonn, com low (GA)
ua uamhasach, suaineadh, uaine you and me
u? fuar, uair, buaidh bluer
?i chraoibh, ghaoith, tuill, tuinn two years
?i maighdean, greim, coibhneil, oighre, coilltean, broinn bite (Scotland)
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Explanation
' uinneag ['ak] primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
. naidheachd ['n.?xk] syllable break
samhradh ['s?ã?] nasal vowel

Varying IPA conventions

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. Most systems vary from pure IPA, particularly those used in Celtic Studies. The following table lists some of the variations commonly encountered. If an IPA symbol is not in the table below, the source uses the same symbol as above.

Borgstrøm (1937)[5]
(Barra)
Borgstrøm (1940)[6]
(Outer Hebrides)
Oftedal (1956)[7]
(Lewis)
Ó Murchú (1989)[8]
(East Perthshire)
Cox (2002)[9]
(Lewis)
Ó Maolalaigh (2008)[10]
(over-regional)
Black (2006)[11]
(over-regional)
Klevenhaus (2009)[12]
Bauer (2011)[13]
(both over-regional)
ç ç ç? ç x? ç ç ç ç
? j j? ? ? j j ?
k g?, k g?, k g ? g g g,[14] k[15] g
k? g, k? g, k? ? g?' g? g?,[14] k?[15] g?
k? k? k? k k k k k k
k k k ? k? k? k? k? k?
l L L L ? L L L
? L? L? L? N/A L? ? L? L?
l l? l? l l l l l l
n N N N N/A N N N
? N? N? N? N/A N? ? N? N?
p b?, p b?, p b b b b b,[14] p[15] b
p? p? p? p p p p p p
r? R R, ? R N/A R ? R R
? r r r r r r r r
r? r?, ð? ð N/A ð r? r? r?
s? s s s s s s s s
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
t? d?, t d?, t d d d d? d,[14] t[15] d
t? d?, d, t? d?, d, t? d? ? d? d? d?,[14] t?[15] d?
t t? t? t t t t? t t
t t?, t t?, t t? ? t? t? t? t?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ø ø ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ?, æ ?, æ ? ? ? ? ? ?
a a a a ? a a a a

Notes

  1. ^ Scottish Gaelic contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ?>, are pronounced with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents like RP and General American and in all positions in Scottish English. Slender consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ?>, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the sound in yes. In Scottish Gaelic orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters , , , while slender ones are surrounded by and .
  2. ^ a b c d e f Neither broad nor slender, slender positions instead having an on- or off-glide .
  3. ^ a b c d e In initial position, the aspirated stops /k?, k, p?, t, t/ are postaspirated [k?, k, p?, t, t]. In medial or final position after a stressed vowel, they are preaspirated [?k, ?k?, ?p, ?t?, ?t?].
  4. ^ a b [?] and [?] are never long and they only ever occur in unstressed position, the latter before a slender consonant.
  5. ^ Borgstrøm, Carl Hjalmar (1937). "The Dialect of Barra in the Outer Hebrides". Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap. 8: 71-242.
  6. ^ Borgstrøm, Carl Hjalmar (1940). The Dialects of the Outer Hebrides. A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, vol. 1 (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap suppl. vol. 1). Oslo: Aschehoug.
  7. ^ Oftedal, Magne (1956). The Gaelic of Leurbost. A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, vol. 3 (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap suppl. vol. 4). Oslo: Aschehoug.
  8. ^ Ó Murchú, Máirtín (1989). East Perthshire Gaelic. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-93-6.
  9. ^ Cox, Richard A. V. (2002). The Gaelic Place-names of Carloway, Isle of Lewis. School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 1-85500-192-6.
  10. ^ Ó Maolalaigh, Roibeard (2008). Scottish Gaelic in Twelve Weeks. Edinburgh: Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-643-4.
  11. ^ Black, Ronald (2006). Cothrom Ionnsachaidh. Edinburgh. ISBN 0906981336.
  12. ^ Klevenhaus, Michael (2009). Lehrbuch der schottish-gälischen Sprache. Hamburg: Buske. ISBN 978-3-87548-520-2.
  13. ^ Bauer, Michael (2011). Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Scottish Gaelic Pronunciation. Glasgow: Akerbeltz. ISBN 978-1907165009.
  14. ^ a b c d e Word-initial.
  15. ^ a b c d e Medial or final.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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