Help:IPA/Swedish
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Help:IPA/Swedish

The chart below shows how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-sv}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

The Sweden pronunciation is based primarily on Central Standard Swedish, and the Finland one on Helsinki pronunciation. Recordings and example transcriptions in this help are in Sweden Swedish, unless otherwise noted.

See Swedish phonology and Swedish alphabet § Sound-spelling correspondences for a more thorough look at the sounds of Swedish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Sweden

SWE

Swedish-speaking Finns

FIN

b About this soundbok book
? t? About this soundkjol, About this soundtjock, About this soundkön sheep or cheat
d About this sounddop dad
? rd About this soundnord[1] retroflex /d/
f About this soundfot foot
? About this soundgod good
h About this soundhot hat
? ? About this soundsju, About this soundstjärna, About this soundskör, About this soundstation, About this soundpension, About this soundgeni, About this soundchoklad[2] somewhat like Scottish loch or sheep (varies regionally)
j About this soundjord, About this soundgenom, About this soundGöteborg yoyo
k About this soundkon cone
l About this soundlov lack
? rl About this soundrl[1] retroflex /l/
m About this soundmod mode
n About this soundnod node
? rn About this soundbarn[1] retroflex /n/
? About this soundng long
p About this soundpol pole
r About this soundrov[3] somewhat like American water or Scottish rose
s About this soundsot soot
? rs About this soundtorsdag[1] retroflex , somewhat like shrine
t About this soundtok tool
? rt About this soundparti[1] retroflex /t/
v About this soundvåt vote
Rare sounds
IPA Examples English approximation
w Wales Wales
a: Zlatan, Bratislava father
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Sweden

SWE

Swedish-speaking Finns

FIN

a ? About this soundmatt cut
?: About this soundmat bra
æ About this soundvärk, About this soundverk[4] trap
æ: About this soundära[4] ham
e: About this soundfet mayor
? e About this soundhäll, About this soundfett sell
?: e: About this soundhäl RP pair
? i About this soundsill hit
i: About this soundsil leave
? o About this soundmoll[5] off
o: About this soundmål[5] floor
oe ø About this soundnött[5] somewhat like hurt
oe About this soundbörja[4][5]
oe: About this soundöra[4][5] somewhat like herd
ø: About this soundnöt[5]
? ? About this soundfull, About this soundmusik[5][6] moot
? duell,
känguru[5][6][7]
?: About this soundful[5][8] mood
? u About this soundbott[5] put
u: About this soundbot[5] fool
? y About this soundsyll[5][7] somewhat like cute
y: About this soundsyl[5][8] somewhat like cube
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
Sweden

SWE

Swedish-speaking Finns

FIN

' '? anden
['?n:d?n]
'the duck'
tone 1 / acute accent:[9]
' anden
['ân:d?n]
'the spirit'
tone 2 / grave accent:[9]
  • falling-falling tone in Stockholm:
  • falling-rising tone in Gothenburg: ['ân:dn]
  • rising-falling tone in Malmö: ['?n:dn]
? Oxenstierna
['ks?næ:?a]
secondary stress, as in intonation
: Helsingfors
geminated consonant: fresh shrimp[10]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive sandhi process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realisations: , , , , . In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish, they are [?d], [?l], [?n], [?s], [?t]. In Finland Swedish, retroflexion might only occur in some varieties, especially among young speakers and in fast speech.
  2. ^ Sweden Swedish /?/ varies regionally and is sometimes , , or .
  3. ^ /r/ varies considerably in different dialects: it is pronounced alveolar or similarly (a trilled r when articulated clearly or in slow or formal speech; in normal speech, usually a tapped r or an alveolar approximant) in virtually all dialects (most consistently [r] in Finland), but in South Swedish dialects, it is uvular, similar to the Parisian French r. At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative , similar to in English genre or vision.
  4. ^ a b c d Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: the unrounded vowels /?/ and /?:/ are lowered to and , whereas the rounded /oe/ and /ø:/ are lowered to open-mid and . For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid and the open-mid , with both being transcribed as ⟨oe⟩. Note that younger speakers use lower allophones and .
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m In Sweden, [?, o:, oe, oe:, ø:, ?, y:] are protruded vowels, while [?, ?, ?:, ?, u:] are compressed. Instead, [oe, oe:, ø, ø:, ?, ?:, y, y:] are compressed, while only [o, o:, u, u:] are protruded in Finland. This makes Finland Swedish [y] and [y:] sound closer to Sweden Swedish [?] and [?:], which are also fronted, rather than to their respective counterparts.
  6. ^ a b and are the Sweden Swedish unstressed allophones of a single phoneme /?/ (stressed /?/ is always realized as [?]):
    • [?] is used in all closed syllables (as in kultur ) but also in some open syllables, as in musikal [m?s?'k?:l]. Some cases involve resyllabification caused by retroflexion, which makes the syllable open, as in kurtisan [k's?:n];
    • [?] appears only in open syllables. In some cases, [?] is the only possible realization, as in känguru ['?:r?], such as when /?/ appears in hiatus, as in duell [d?'?l:];
    • In other cases, [?] is in free variation with [?] so musik can be pronounced as or [m?'si:k] (Riad 2014:28-9). For simplicity, only ⟨?⟩ will be used.
  7. ^ a b The distinction between compressed and protruded is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Sweden Swedish compressed [?] sounds very close to German compressed (as in müssen );
    • Sweden Swedish protruded [?] sounds more similar to English unrounded (as in hit) than to German compressed [?], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [?] (as in nytt [n?t:]).
  8. ^ a b The distinction between compressed and protruded is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Sweden Swedish compressed [?:] sounds very close to German compressed (as in üben );
    • Sweden Swedish protruded [y:] sounds more similar to English unrounded (as in leave) than to German compressed [y:], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [y:] (as in lys [ly:s]).
  9. ^ a b Finland Swedish, as well as a few accents of Mainland Sweden, have a simple primary stress (transcribed as ⟨'⟩) rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In such accents, a word like anden is always pronounced as ['?n:den] regardless of its meaning. The variety of Swedish spoken on the Åland Islands usually resembles phonetically speaking the dialects of the Uppland area rather than other Finland Swedish varieties, but the pitch accent is still largely missing.
  10. ^ Consonants always tend to geminate after a stressed short vowel in Sweden Swedish. In Finland, this is not always true and between vowels usually only happens when the short vowel is followed by an orthographic geminate.

Bibliography

  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140-142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Hedelin, Per; Elert, Claes-Christian (1997), Norstedts svenska uttalslexikon, Norstedts, ISBN 91-1-971122-0
  • Reuter, Mikael (1971), "Vokalerna i finlandsvenska: En instrumentell analys och ett försök till systematisering enligt särdrag", Studier i nordisk filologi (in Swedish), Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland, 46: 240-249
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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