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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Turkish language pronunciations in resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to resource articles, see {{IPA-tr}} and Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

For a more in-depth coverage of the sounds of Turkish, see Turkish phonology.

IPA Orthography English
b b about
?[1] v like vase, but with both lips
c[2] k cure
d d ado
d? c jump
f f food
?[2] g ago
?[2] g argue
h h home
j y, ?[3] yet
k[2] k coal
l l late
?[2] l tail
m m much
n n not
?[4] n canyon
?[5] n wing
p p pan
? r AmE pretty or Scottish r
s s send
? ? shoe
t t table
t? ç change
v[1] v vase
z z zone
? j leisure
IPA Orthography English
a a father
æ[6] e cat
e e bed
i i creek
o o Leo
oe ö somewhat like bird
u u soup
? ? somewhat like roses
y ü somewhat like cue
IPA Examples
' torbal? [torba'] 'with bag'
Torbal? ['torba] (a place name)[7]
: â, î, û[8], ?[3] âlem [a:'lem] 'world'

See also


  1. ^ a b is the allophone of the sound around rounded vowels.
  2. ^ a b c d e ~, ~, ~ only contrast in loan words before ⟨â, û⟩ vs. ⟨a, u⟩; in native words, [c, ?, l] occur before the front vowels (, , , ), while [k, ?, ?] occur before the back vowels (, , , ).
  3. ^ a b In Turkish, the letter ⟨?⟩ (also called yumu?ak g, 'soft g') indicates a number of different sounds, depending on context:
    • in syllable-initial positions, is silent and indicates a syllable break, for example: ar ('heavy') [a'], a?a ('Agha') [a'a].
    • in other positions, indicates the lengthening of the preceding vowel, for example: da? ('mountain') [da:], do?ru ('true') [do:?u].
      • if the lengthened vowel is /e/, it sounds like [j], for example: e?lence ('fun') [ejlæn'd?e]
    • in proper names where it may appear following a consonant, it is treated as a ⟨g⟩, for example: Ol?un [o?'?un]
  4. ^ appears as an allophone of before the consonants and .
  5. ^ appears as an allophone of before the consonants and .
  6. ^ Allophone of before liquids [l, m, n, ?] in coda/syllable-final position, and in the suffix -mez
  7. ^ In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
  8. ^ Düzeltme i?areti (Turkish for "correction mark") ⟨^⟩ is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter ⟨k⟩ represents , if the letter ⟨g⟩ represents and the letter ⟨l⟩ represents before the back vowels and .
    Yet the düzeltme i?areti is primarily used for indicating palatalization instead of length. For example, the word katil means "murder" when pronounced as [ka'til], yet it means "killer" when pronounced as [ka:'til]. The letter ⟨a⟩ is left unmarked even if it is long, because the sound doesn't become in this case.
    ⟨î⟩ is an exception, as it only indicates the vowel length.

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