Heo Mok
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Heo Mok

Heo Mok
Heo Mok.jpg
Born(1595-12-11)December 11, 1595
DiedApril 27, 1682(1682-04-27) (aged 86)
NationalityKorean
OccupationPolitician, scholar, calligrapher
EraJoseon
FamilyYangcheon clan

Heo Mok (Hangul?; Hanja|?; December 11, 1595 - April 27, 1682) was a Korean politician, scholar, and calligrapher during the Joseon Dynasty. Heo was most commonly known by the pen name Misu.[1][2]

Mok was known as the best Chinese calligrapher of his time due to his unique style of calligraphy. He became a governor at the age of 81, and was the first person in Korean history to hold such a high-ranking position without taking the Gwangeo civil service exam.[1]

Life

Early life

Heo Mok was born at Changseonbang () in Hanseong (Seoul). His father, Heo Kyo, was a member of the lower bureaucracy, while his great-grandfather, Heo Ja, once served as the vice-prime minister of the Joseon Dynasty.

Heo Mok's maternal grandfather, Lim Je, was a student of Seo Gyeong-deok. His father, Heo Kyo, was a student of Park Ji-hwa. Seo Kyung-deok and Park Ji-hwa's more academic and ideologically-successful pupils were to join the Eastern Man Party (;) of the Joseon Court. However, a schism divided court politics between the newly-formed Southern Man Party(;) and the Northern Man Party(;), with the Eastern Man Party being assimilated into the Northern Man Party. Mok's family were thus members of the Northern Man Party.

Heo Mok's early years were spent as a disciple to both Yi San-hae and Lee Won-ik's distinct private scholarly institutions.[3]

Early career

In 1613, he married Lady Jeonju, who was the granddaughter of Ohri Lee Won-ik.[4] The marriage initially met opposition from his wife's family, but Lee Won-ik's support made it successful. In 1615, Heo Mok and his cousin Heo Hoo went to study at Hangang Jeong Gu's private educational institute, where they remained until 1620.

After the death of his master, Jeong Gu, Heo Mok went to Jeong Gu's best pupil, Yeo-hun Chang Hyon-kwang's private educational institute. In later years, Heo Mok went to Mountin,[clarification needed] known in ancient times as the place devoted to the reading and study of Confucianism. Jeong Gu had studied under Cho Shik and Yi Hwang. Yi Hwang's more academically and ideologically successful pupils joined the Eastern Man Party and later the Southern Man Party. Cho Shik's pupil and academic successor--Jeong Gu--was in the Eastern Man Party(;), and later the Northern Man Party. Cho Shik was Jeong Gu's one teacher Yi Hwang's relations for join to Southern Man Party.

In 1623, he was King Injo of Joseon's flatter scholars Park Ji-gyes hammering,[4] also angry, King Injo was deprivation to seize of his exam application eligibility[4] as he also renounced bureaucracy.

Political movements

In 1651, he was commended for his philosophical learning skill, and appointed to Naesikyokwan(?;?), but years later, he resigned. In 1656, Jojiseobyuljwa, that 7?, Gongjojwarang after that month, appointed Yonggunghyungam(?;?), he was resignations.[5] In 1657, Gongjojwarang(?;?), Saheonbu Jupyung(;), Saboksi Jubu(;). In 1658, he was reappointed to Saheonbu Jupyung, and he was to be the leader of the Southern Man Party, but he refused and chose to be the leader of the intra-parties clique, Blue Southern(;), a group of aggressive hardliners of the Western Man Party.

In 1659, Hyojong appointed him to Saheonbu Changryung(;) and Buhogun(;), and later that September, he became head of Jangakwon(?;?). In December, he was appointed leader of Sanguiwon (?;?), but, in 1659 King Hyojong's dropped dead, and even during Hyojong's funeral period, he was in conflict with Song Si-yeol and Song Jun-kil. At that time, living to King Injo's second wife Queen Jangryeol.[6] but King Hyojong's funeral time to Queen Jangryeol's funeral rite problem.

Yesong arguments

First Yesong argument

In early 1660, Song Si-yeol and Song Jun-kil, two header of Western Man Party(;) was King Hyojong's for Injo's second son, so become Great Queen Jaui's mourning was ather[clarification needed] many childs funeral time mourning. but Heo Mok and Yun Hyu was Hyojong was successor to Injo, then Hyojong for Injo's practically first sons. so Great Queen Jaui's mourning was three years.[5]

Heo Mok and two Song ideology Disputation for First of Yesong Ronjaeng(?1? ;?). ather Song Si-yeol's assert Joseon Dynastys to small Sinocentrism country also Heo Mok assert to Kingdom Joseon was the "special country"(?;?). original plan, that disputation was stand face to face, but Yun Seon-do said, "Song Si-yeol and Song Jun-kil was denial King Hyojongs right of King succession legitimacy" argument. afterwards, ideology disputation to generate electricity emotion fight and treason stricture.

Shortly Yun Seon-do to imprisonment and Heo was complicity to demotion, appointed to Mayor of Samcheok(?;?). In 1663 he was refusal Mayor of Samcheok. Later years he was more China and Japan, Korean classical books reading and Confucianism teaching.

Second Yesong argument

That times he was write to Ki eun(;) and Eastern history(;). Eastern history was Korean history book, that Eastern history was regulation for Korean national ancestor was Dangun. But collision to rush up against Western Man Party. they idea to Korean national ancestor was Gija.

In 1674, Hyojong's wife Queen Inseon's death. that time was growth to revive disputation, Queen Inseon of King Injo's first daughter-in-low or Second daughter-in-low. that time living to King Injos second wife Queen Jangryeol. but Queen Inseon's funeral time Queen Jangryeol's rite problem. Song Si-yeol was Queen Inseon's husband King Hyojong's for Injo's second son, So funeral mourning to 9 month. but Heo Mok and Yun Hyu was King Hyojong was successor to King Injo, then Queen Inseon for Injo's practically first daughter-in-law and also Funeral mourning for one year.[4]

But King Hyunjong felt unpleasant to 'King Hyojong's Second' title. That time, King Hyunjong was ruling party Western Man Party and that header to Song Si-yeol. King Hyunjong was cabinet reshuffle for seize power for Southern Man Party and also victory to Heo Mok and Yun Hyu. But King Hyunjong's drop death.

seize power

Heo Mok was taken into confidence, regardless of King Hyunjong's death. In November 1674 he was appoint to Yijochamui(?;?) and continuously Saheonbu Daesaheon(;). In 1675 he was successive for Yijochampan(?;?), Bibyungukdangsang(;), JwaChamchan(;), Yijopanseo(?;?), Wuchamchan(;). In 1676, Heo Mok was special promotion to right vice-prime minister of Joseon dynastys[7]

In 1679, a Party member and Prime minister Heo Juk's illegitimate son Heo Gyeon of abuse of power, Heo Mok was attack to Heo Juk, but King Sukjong and ather Southern Man Party member to take sidesof Heo Gyeon. Heo Mok was disappointment, recuse and go to Wangjing in Majeon. that years he was appoint to judge of Privy Council(;).

Ruin and death

In 1680, amidst party members bad and arrogation, King Sukjong was purge and cabinet reshuffle to Southern Man Party. He was take the expulsion to duties and title also he went to Wangjing in Majeon. In 1682, he died in a thatched house in Wangjing town, Majeon county in Gyeonggi Province, aged 87 or 89.[]

But Western Man Party attacked Heo Mok and Yun Hyu, the member of Western Man Party's politicians was called to Samunanjeok(?;?). also sarcastic to Heo Mok names to Hyung Mok(;) and the "poisonous". In 1689, he was rehabilitation to rehabilitate. that years, In 1692 he was posthumous conferment of honors to Prime minister. also award to a peerage, duke of Munjeong(;).[4]

Books

  • Gyeongnye yuchan (?, ?) (1647)
  • Dongsa [Eastern History] (, ) (1667)
  • Cheongsa yeoljeon [Blue Gentelmen List] (? ?) (1667)
  • Gyeongseol ( ) (1677)
  • Misu Cheonjamun ( )
  • Dangun sega Dangun's Family (? ?)
  • Misu Gieon (?, ?)
  • Sim Hakdo (, ) : art
  • Bangguk wangjorye(, )
  • Jeongche jeonjungseol (, )
  • Yosun ujeon susimbeopdo (, )?
  • Heo Mok sugobon (, )
  • Duta sangi (?, ?)

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Heo Mok (pen name Misu) (1595~1682)". Gangwon Province. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ [Heo Mok]. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Lee Won-ik was a member of Southern Man
  4. ^ a b c d e Heo Mok:Nate Korea Archived December 10, 2012, at Archive.today (in Korean)
  5. ^ a b Heo Mok (in Korean)
  6. ^ ather call Great Queen Jaui(?)
  7. ^ Joseon dynastys vice-prime minister was two peoples, left vice-prime minister call Jwauijung, right vice-prime minister call Wuuijung. Prime minister call Younguijung

External links


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