The leaves are basal, leathery, and usually three-lobed, remaining over winter.
Hepatica cultivation has been popular in Japan since the 18th century (mid-Edo period), where flowers with doubled petals and a range of colour patterns have been developed.
Noted for its tolerance of alkalinelimestone-derived soils, Hepatica may grow in a wide range of conditions; it can be found either in deeply shaded deciduous (especially beech) woodland and scrub or grassland in full sun. Hepatica will also grow in both sandy and clay-rich substrates, being associated with limestone. Moist soil and winter snowfall is a requirement; Hepatica is tolerant of winter snow cover, but less so of dry frost.
Propagation is done by seeds or by dividing vigorous clumps in spring. However, seedlings take several years to reach bloom size, and divided plants are slow to thicken.
Hepatica is named from its leaves, which, like the human liver (Greekhepar), have three lobes. It was once used as a medicinal herb. Owing to the doctrine of signatures, the plant was once thought to be an effective treatment for liver disorders. Although poisonous in large doses, the leaves and flowers may be used as an astringent, as a demulcent for slow-healing injuries, and as a diuretic.
The known hepatica species can be divided into two series with respect to the leaf shape. The leaves of the seriesTrilobaUlbr.Tamura: are three-lobed with an smooth leaf edge. The series Angulosa (Ulbr.) Tamura are three- to five-lobed and leaf margin is mostly serrated.
Between one and ten species of Hepatica are recognised, with some of the taxa more often treated as varieties:
Series with smooth leaf edge (Triloba)
Hepatica nobilis = common hepatica As sites, light beech and oak forests with calcareous, clay-rich soils are preferred. In the Alps it climbs to elevations of 2200 meters.
^Sara B. Hoot; Anton A. Reznicek; Jeffrey D. Palmer (Jan-Mar 1994). "Phylogenetic Relationships in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) Based on Morphology and Chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany. 19 (1): 169-200. doi:10.2307/2419720. JSTOR2419720.
^Shorter Oxford English dictionary. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN0199206872.
^Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker (2003). "Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa". Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
^Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker (2003). "Hepatica nobilis var. acuta". Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)