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Employment of present tense when narrating past events
In linguistics and rhetoric, the historical present or historic present, also called dramatic present or narrative present, is the employment of the present tense when narrating past events. It is widely used in writing about history in Latin (where it is sometimes referred to by its Latin name, praesens historicum) and some modern European languages. In English, it is used above all in historical chronicles (listing a series of events). It is also used in fiction, for "hot news" (as in headlines), and in everyday conversation. In conversation, it is particularly common with quotative verbs such as say and go, and especially the newer quotative like. It is typically thought to heighten the dramatic force of the narrative by describing events as if they were still unfolding, and/or by foregrounding some events relative to others.
If the funeral had been yesterday, I could not recollect it better. The very air of the best parlour, when I went in at the door, the bright condition of the fire, the shining of the wine in the decanters, the patterns of the glasses and plates, the faint sweet smell of cake, the odour of Miss Murdstone's dress, and our black clothes. Mr. Chillip is in the room, and comes to speak to me.
"And how is Master David?" he says, kindly.
I cannot tell him very well. I give him my hand, which he holds in his.
Summaries of the narratives (plots) of works of fiction are conventionally presented using the present tense rather than the past tense. At any particular point of the story, as it unfolds, there is a now, and hence a past and a future, so whether some event mentioned in the story is past, present, or, future changes as the story progresses; the entire plot description is presented as if the story's now is a continuous present. Thus, in summarizing the plot of A Tale of Two Cities, one may write:
Manette is obsessed with making shoes, a trade he learned while in prison.
In other languages
In French, the historical present is used in journalism, and in historical texts for reporting events in the past.
The now extinct language Shasta appears to have had the option of the historical present in narratives.
^Tagliamonte, Sali A.; D'Arcy, Alexandra (2007-04-25). "Frequency and variation in the community grammar: Tracking a new change through the generations". Language Variation and Change. 19 (2). doi:10.1017/s095439450707007x. ISSN0954-3945.
^Revaz, Françoise (2002). "Le présent et le futur historiques : des intrus parmi les temps du passé ?" [The historical present and future: intruders among the past tenses?]. Le Français Aujourd'hui (in French). Paris: Armand Colin-Dunod. 4 (139): 87-96. doi:10.3917/lfa.139.0087.