Hohhot
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Hohhot

Hohhot

o

Huhehot; Kweisui
Clockwise from top: monument of Genghis Khan, Governor of Suiyuan General, Temple of the Five Pagodas, Zhaojun Tomb
Clockwise from top: monument of Genghis Khan, Governor of Suiyuan General, Temple of the Five Pagodas, Zhaojun Tomb
Location of Hohhot City jurisdiction in Inner Mongolia
Location of Hohhot City jurisdiction in Inner Mongolia
Hohhot is located in Inner Mongolia
Hohhot
Hohhot
Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia
Hohhot is located in China
Hohhot
Hohhot
Location of the city in China
Coordinates (Ulanhu Park): 40°48?47?N 111°38?38?E / 40.813°N 111.644°E / 40.813; 111.644Coordinates: 40°48?47?N 111°38?38?E / 40.813°N 111.644°E / 40.813; 111.644
CountryPeople's Republic of China
RegionInner Mongolia
County-level divisions10
Township divisions116
Established1580
Government
 o CPC Committee SecretaryWang Lixia
 o MayorFeng Yuzhen ()
Area
 o Prefecture-level city17,186.1 km2 (6,635.6 sq mi)
 o Urban
 (2018)[1]
466 km2 (180 sq mi)
 o Metro
2,065.1 km2 (797.3 sq mi)
Elevation
1,065 m (3,494 ft)
Population
(2012 estimate)[2]
 o Prefecture-level city2,866,615
 o Density170/km2 (430/sq mi)
 o Urban
 (2018)[3]
2,455,000
 o Urban density5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
 o Metro
1,980,774
 o Metro density960/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
 o Major ethnic groups
Han - 87.16%
Mongol - 9.98%
Hui - 1.45%
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (China Standard)
Postal code
010000
Area code(s)471
ISO 3166 codeCN-NM-01
License plate prefixes?A
GDP (2015)[2]CNY 309.05 billion
(US $49.62 billion)[4]
GDP per capitaCNY 101,492
(US $16,295)
Local DialectJin: Zhangjiakou-Hohhot dialect;Southern Mongolian
Administrative division code150100
Websitewww.huhhot.gov.cn
Hohhot
HHHTM.svg
Hohhot as written in Mongolian
HHHT name.svg
The Chinese name of Hohhot: H?héhàotè
Chinese name
Chinese?
Hanyu PinyinH?héhàotè
Literal meaning"Blue City" (in Mongolian)
Hushi
Chinese
Hanyu PinyinH?shì
Literal meaningHo[hhot] City
Kweisui
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu PinyinPRC Standard Mandarin: Gu?suí
ROC Standard Mandarin: Gu?su?
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic
Mongolian script
Russian name
Russian-?
RomanizationChuch-Choto

Hohhot (Mongolian: Mongolian script: Kökeqota.svg Kökeqota, Mongolian Cyrillic: Höh hot /x?x'x?t?/; Chinese: ?; pinyin: H?héhàotè), abbreviated Hushi (Chinese: ; pinyin: H?shì), formerly known as Kweisui (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: PRC Standard Mandarin: Gu?suí, ROC Standard Mandarin: Gu?su?), is the capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China,[5][6] serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center.[7] Its population was 2,866,615 inhabitants at the 2010 census, of whom 1,980,774 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made up of 4 urban districts.[8]

The name of the city in Mongolian means "Blue City", although it is also wrongly referred to as the "Green City."[9] The color blue in Mongol culture is associated with the sky, eternity and purity. In Chinese, the name can be translated as Q?ng Chéng (Chinese: ; literally: 'Blue/Green City')[10] The name has also been variously romanized as Kokotan, Kokutan, Kuku-hoton, Huhohaot'e, Huhehot, Huhot, or Köke qota.[6]

History

Early history

During Warring States period, the area around Hohhot was part of Zhao state. In most time of Imperial China, Hohhot area was under control of Chinese dynasties and played an important role in defense against northern nomadic people' invasion.

Ming and Qing era

In 1557, the Tümed Mongol leader Altan Khan began building the Da Zhao Temple on the Tümed plain in order to convince the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) government of his leadership of the southern Mongol tribes.[11] The town that grew up around this temple was called the "Blue Town" (Kokegota in Mongolian). The Ming had been blockading the Mongols' access to Chinese iron, cotton, and crop seeds, in order to dissuade them from attacking the North China plain. In 1570, Altan Khan successfully negotiated the end of the blockade by establishing a vassal-tributary relationship with the Ming, who changed Kokegota's name to Guihua (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Gu?huà; postal: Kweihua; literally: 'Return to Civilization') in 1575. The population of Guihua grew to over 150,000 in the early 1630s as local Mongol princes encouraged the settlement of Han Chinese merchants. There were occasional attacks on Guihua by Mongol armies, such as the total razing of the city by Ligdan Khan in 1631. Altan Khan and his successors constructed temples and fortresses in 1579, 1602 and 1727. The Tümed Mongols of the area had long since adopted a semiagricultural way of life. Hui merchants gathered north of the gate of the city's fortress, building a mosque in 1693.[12] Their descendants formed the nucleus of the modern Huimin district.

After the Manchus founded the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), the Kangxi Emperor (reigned 1661-1722) sent troops to control the region,[9] which was of interest to the Qing as a center of study of Tibetan Buddhism. Just northeast of Guihua the Qing built the strong garrison town of Suiyuan (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: PRC Standard Mandarin: Suíyu?n, ROC Standard Mandarin: Su?yu?n), from which they supervised the defense of southwestern Inner Mongolia against Mongol attacks from the north in 1735-39.[13]:13[14] Guihua and Suiyuan was merged into Shanxi province and became Guihua County (; ; Gu?huà Xiàn) of Qing China. French missionaries established a Catholic church in Guihua in 1874, but the Christians were forced to flee to Beijing during the antiforeign Boxer Rebellion of 1899-1901.

Republican era

Wanbu Huayanjing Pagoda (Baita Pagoda) in Hohhot, 1942

In 1913, the government of the new Republic of China united the garrison town of Suiyuan and the old town of Guihua as Guisui (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: PRC Standard Mandarin: Gu?suí, ROC Standard Mandarin: Gu?su?; postal: Kweisui). Guisui town was the center of Guisui County (; ; PRC: Gu?suí Xiàn, ROC: Gu?su? Xiàn) and the capital of Suiyuan Province in northern China. A bubonic plague outbreak in 1917 and the connection of Guisui to railway links in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Hebei, and Beijing helped renew the economy of Guisui town by forming links with eastern China and western China's Xinjiang province.[13]:15 In 1918, the American specialist on Inner Asia Owen Lattimore noted Guisui's ethnic composition as "a town purely Han Chinese except for the Lama monasteries ... the Tümeds are now practically nonexistent and the nearest Mongolians are to be sought at 50 or 60 miles distance on the plateau."[13]:15 During the progressive Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s, the Japanese created the puppet state of Mengjiang headed by Prince De, who renamed Guisui "Blue City" ("Hohhot"(Chinese: ) or Huheshi).[15] After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China changed the name back to Guisui.[13]:16 The Communist Party of China's forces drove out General Fu Zuoyi, the Republic's commander in Suiyuan, during the Chinese Civil War, and after the Chinese Revolution in 1949, Guisui was renamed Hohhot.[13]:16

People's Republic era

People's Republic 10th Anniversary Parade in Hohhot

During the Civil War, in order to gain the support of separatist Mongols, the Communists established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in Mongol-minority areas of the Republic's provinces of Suiyuan, Xing'an, Chahar, and Rehe. Guisui was chosen as the region's administrative centre in 1952, replacing Zhangjiakou. In 1954, after establishment of the People's Republic of China, the city was renamed from Guisui to Hohhot, though with a different Chinese pronunciation of Huhehaote.[13]:16

The city has seen significant development since China's reform and opening began. The city's far east side began development around 2000 and is now home to the municipal government, most of the Autonomous Region's administrative buildings,[16] an artificial lake called Ruyi He,[17] and a large number of condominiums, mostly built by the local real estate company Gold Horse International Inc. The Hohhot City Stadium, built on the city's north side, was finished in 2007.[18]

A city with a rich cultural background, Hohhot is known for its historical sites and temples and is one of the major tourist destinations of Inner Mongolia. It is also nationally known as the home of China's dairy giants Mengniu and Yili,[19][20] and was declared "Dairy Capital of China" by the China Dairy Industry Association and the Dairy Association of China in 2005.

Geography

Huhhot and vicinities, LandSat-5 satellite image, 2005-07-12

Located in the south central part of Inner Mongolia, Hohhot is encircled by the Daqing Shan (Chinese: ; literally: 'Great blue Mountains') to the north and the Hetao Plateau to the south.[21]

Climate

Hohhot features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), marked by long, cold, and very dry winters; hot, somewhat humid summers; strong winds (especially in spring); and monsoonal influence. The coldest month is January, with a daily mean of -11.0 °C (12.2 °F), while July, the hottest month, averages 23.3 °C (73.9 °F). The annual mean temperature is 7.33 °C (45.2 °F), and the annual precipitation is 396 millimetres (15.6 in), with more than half of it falling in July and August alone. Variability can be very high, however: in 1965 Hohhot recorded as little as 155.1 mm (6.11 in) but six years before that, as much as 929.2 mm (36.58 in), of which over a third (338.6 mm (13.33 in)) only in July.[22]

Hohhot is a popular destination for tourists during the summer months because of the nearby Zhaohe grasslands. More recently, due to desertification, the city sees sandstorms on almost an annual basis. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 58 percent in July to 71 percent in October, sunshine is abundant year-round, the city receives 2,862 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from -32.8 °C (-27 °F) on 6 February 1951 to 38.9 °C (102 °F) on 30 July 2010.[23]

Climate data for Hohhot (1981-2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
17.0
(62.6)
19.4
(66.9)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
35.7
(96.3)
38.5
(101.3)
36.8
(98.2)
32.4
(90.3)
26.5
(79.7)
20.4
(68.7)
11.6
(52.9)
38.9
(102.0)
Average high °C (°F) -4.9
(23.2)
0.4
(32.7)
7.5
(45.5)
16.7
(62.1)
23.4
(74.1)
27.7
(81.9)
29.1
(84.4)
26.7
(80.1)
21.9
(71.4)
14.5
(58.1)
4.5
(40.1)
-3.2
(26.2)
13.7
(56.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) -11.0
(12.2)
-6.1
(21.0)
0.9
(33.6)
9.6
(49.3)
16.6
(61.9)
21.3
(70.3)
23.3
(73.9)
21.0
(69.8)
15.4
(59.7)
7.6
(45.7)
-1.7
(28.9)
-9.0
(15.8)
7.3
(45.2)
Average low °C (°F) -15.8
(3.6)
-11.4
(11.5)
-4.9
(23.2)
2.5
(36.5)
9.2
(48.6)
14.5
(58.1)
17.3
(63.1)
15.4
(59.7)
9.3
(48.7)
1.8
(35.2)
-6.4
(20.5)
-13.4
(7.9)
1.5
(34.7)
Record low °C (°F) -30.5
(-22.9)
-29.4
(-20.9)
-19.4
(-2.9)
-11.5
(11.3)
-3.5
(25.7)
2.3
(36.1)
8.3
(46.9)
4.6
(40.3)
-2.0
(28.4)
-10.1
(13.8)
-20.2
(-4.4)
-26.4
(-15.5)
-32.8
(-27.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.1
(0.08)
4.3
(0.17)
10.6
(0.42)
14.4
(0.57)
32.4
(1.28)
48.9
(1.93)
101.6
(4.00)
101.8
(4.01)
52.0
(2.05)
20.6
(0.81)
4.4
(0.17)
3.3
(0.13)
396.4
(15.62)
Average precipitation days 2.5 2.8 3.4 3.7 6.0 8.9 12.9 12.7 8.3 4.5 2.4 1.8 69.9
Average relative humidity (%) 58 50 43 36 38 46 57 62 59 56 55 58 52
Mean monthly sunshine hours 180.7 198.3 245.5 268.6 294.5 291.3 264.9 255.2 252.1 244.8 195.3 171.0 2,862.2
Percent possible sunshine 61 66 67 68 66 65 58 60 68 71 66 60 65
Source #1: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000)[24][25]
Source #2: Weather China[26]

Administrative divisions

The city is administratively at the prefecture-level, meaning that it administers both its urban area and the rural regions in its vicinity. The administrative area includes 4 counties, 4 districts, and a county-level banner; they are further divided into 20 urban sub-districts, and 96 townships. The data here represented is in km² and uses data from the 2010 Census.

Map
English Name Mongolian Simplified Chinese Pinyin Area Population Density
City Proper
Huimin District
(Hodong'arad District)
? ?
(Qoto? Arad-un to?ori?)
Huímín Q? 194.4 394,555 2,030
Xincheng District
(Xinhot District)
? ?
(Sin-e Qota to?ori?)
X?nchéng Q? 660.6 567,255 859
Yuquan District ?
(Iui ?iuvan to?ori?)
Yùquán Q? 207.2 383,365 1,850
Saihan District ? ?
(Sayiqan to?ori?)
Sàih?n Q? 1,002.9 635,599 634
Rural
Togtoh County ?
(To?taqu siyan)
? Tu?kètu? Xiàn 1,407.8 200,840 143
Wuchuan County
(Ü?uvan siyan)
W?chu?n Xiàn 4,682.3 108,726 23
Horinger County
(Qorin Ger siyan)
Hélíngé'?r Xiàn 3,447.8 169,856 49
Qingshuihe County
(?i? ?üi h? siyan)
? Q?ngshu?hé Xiàn 2,859 93,887 33
Tumed Left Banner
(Tumed Jun Banner)

(Tümed Jegün qosi?u)
T?mòtè Zu? Qí 2,765 312,532 113

Demographics

The urban population of Hohhot has increased rapidly since the 1990s. According to the 2010 Census, the population of Hohhot had reached 2,866,615 people, 428,717 more inhabitants than in 2000 (the average annual demographic growth for the period 2000-2010 was of 1.63 percent).[8][27] Its built-up (or metro) area is home to 1,980,774 inhabitants (4 urban districts).

The majority of the population of Hohhot are Han Chinese, representing 87.16 percent of the total population in 2010. Most Han in Hohhot, if their ancestry is traced several decades back, have ancestors from Shanxi, northeast China, or Hebei. Most Mongols in the city speak Chinese. A 1993 survey conducted by Inner Mongolia University found that only 8 percent of Tümed Mongols (the majority tribe in Hohhot) could speak the Mongolian language.[13]:15 A significant portion of the population is of mixed ethnic origin. According to the anthropologist William Jankowiak, author of the book Sex, Death, and Hierarchy in a Chinese City (1993), there is "relatively little difference between minority culture and Han culture" in Hohhot, with differences concentrating around relatively minor attributes such as food and art, and similarities abounding over fundamental issues of ethics, status, life goals, and worldview.[13]:5

Ethnic groups in Hohhot, according to the 2000 census, were:

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han Chinese 2,115,888 88.42%
Mongol 204,846 8.56%
Hui Chinese 38,417 1.61%
Manchu 26,439 1.10%
Daur 2,663 0.11%
Korean 1,246 0.05%
Miao 443 0.02%

Economy

Hohhot is a major industrial center within Inner Mongolia. Together with Baotou and Ordos, it accounts for more than 60 percent of the total industrial output of Inner Mongolia.[28] After Baotou and Ordos, it is the third-largest economy of the province, with GDP of RMB 247.56 billion in 2012, up 11.0 percent year on year.[4] Hohhot accounted for approximately 15.5 percent of the province's total GDP in 2012.[29] It is also the largest consumer center in the region, recording ¥102.2 billion retail sales of consumer goods in 2012, an increase of 14.9 percent from 2011.[4] The city has been a central developmental target for the China Western Development project being pursued by the Central Government. There are many famous enterprises located in Hohhot, including China's largest dairy producer by sales revenue, the Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group, and the China Mengniu Dairy Co.[30][31]

As the economic center of Inner Mongolia, Hohhot's urban area has expanded greatly since the 1990s. CBDs have grown rapidly in all the city's major districts. The completion of a new office tower for the Municipal Government in Eastern Hohhot marked a shift of the city center to the east. Hailiang Plaza (?), a 41-floor tower constructed in the city center, became one of the few notable department stores for luxury merchandise in the city.

Major Development Zones

  • Hohhot Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Hohhot Export Processing Zone

Culture

A sign in Mongolian, Chinese, Tibetan, and Manchurian at the Dazhao temple in Hohhot.

Due to its relatively diverse cultural make-up, and despite its characteristics as a mid-sized Chinese industrial city, the Hohhot street scene has no shortage of ethnic minority elements. Tongdao Road, a major street in the old town area, is decorated with Islamic and Mongol exterior designs on all its buildings. A series of government initiatives in recent years have emphasized Hohhot's identity with ethnic minority groups, especially in increasing Mongol-themed architecture around the city. By regulation, all street signs and public transportation announcements are in both Chinese and Mongolian.[32]

Dialect

Older Hohhot residents mostly tend to converse in the Hohhot dialect, a branch of the Jin language from neighbouring Shanxi province. This spoken form can be difficult to understand for speakers of other Mandarin Chinese dialects. The newer residents, mostly concentrated in Xincheng and Saihan Districts, speak Hohhot-based Mandarin, the majority also with a noticeable accent and some unique vocabulary.

Cuisine

Food specialty in the area is mostly focused on Mongol cuisine and dairy products. Commercially, Hohhot is known for being the base of the nationally renowned dairy giants Yili and Mengniu. The Mongol drink suutei tsai ("naicha" in Chinese, "milk tea" in English), has become a typical breakfast selection for anyone living in or visiting the city.[33] The city also has rich traditions in the making of hot pot and shaomai, a type of traditional Chinese dumpling served as dim sum.[34]

Transport

Airport

Hohhot's Baita International Airport (IATA:HET) is located about 14.3 km (8.9 mi) east of the city centre by car. It has direct flights to larger domestic cities including Beijing, Tianjin,[35] Shanghai, Shenzhen, Chengdu, and others. It also has international flights to Taichung,[36]Hong Kong, and Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Railway

Hohhot lies on the Jingbao Railway from Beijing to Baotou, and is served by two railway stations: Hohhot railway station and Hohhot East railway station.[37] The line began operation in 1921.[38]Trains to Beijing link to destinations to the south and the northeast. The most prominent rail link with Beijing is the overnight K90 train, which has served the Hohhot-Beijing line since the 1980s and is referred to colloquially as the "9-0". Westbound trains go through Baotou and Lanzhou. There are also rail links to most major Inner Mongolian cities and to Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Because the quickest trip to Beijing takes around six and a half hours despite the relatively close proximity of the two cities, plans for high-speed rail were discussed extensively prior to the construction of a high-speed railway station beginning in 2008. The station was completed in 2011 and initially serviced only ordinary lines. In January 2015, CRH opened its first D-series (dongchezu) route in Inner Mongolia in the Baotou-Hohhot-Jining corridor, shortening travel time between Inner Mongolia's two largest cities to a mere 50 minutes.[39] This line reached a maximum speed of 200 km/h (124 mph) between Hohhot and Baotou. Another high-speed rail line linking Hohhot to Zhangjiakou and the planned Beijing-Zhangjiakou railway are due for completion in 2017, and are designed to operate at 250 km/h (155 mph). The section between Hohhot and Ulanqab (Jining) opened in August 2017; travel time between the two cities was shortened to 40 minutes.[40]

Expressways

An expressway built in 1997 (then known as the Hubao Expressway) links Hohhot with Baotou. In recent years this expressway has been expanded eastwards to Jining and Zhangjiakou, and on to Beijing as part of the G6 Beijing-Lhasa Expressway (Jingzang Expressway). The city is on the route of China National Highway 110, which runs from Yinchuan to Beijing. China National Highway 209 begins in Hohhot and carries traffic southbound towards southern China, with its terminus in Guangxi. Hohhot is connected to its northern counties by the Huwu Highway, which was completed in 2006. Previously, travel to the northern counties had required lengthy navigation through mountainous terrain.

Long distance buses connect Hohhot to outlying counties, the cities of Baotou, Wuhai, and Ordos, and other areas in Inner Mongolia.

Public transport

Hohhot's major north-south thoroughfares are called roads (Lu) and its east-west thoroughfares are called streets (Jie). This is roughly equivalent to dividing roads into "street" and "avenue" designations according to direction, as practiced in many North American cities. The largest elevated interchange is near the site of the city's Drum Tower (Gulou), after which it is named. Several major streets are named after Inner Mongolian leagues and cities; among these, Hulun Buir, Jurim (now Tongliao), Juud (Now Chifeng), Xilin Gol, and Xing'an run north-south, while Bayannaoer, Hailar, Ulanqab, and Erdos run east-west.

The city's public transit system is composed of nearly one hundred bus routes and a large fleet of taxicabs, which are normally green or blue. Bus fare is 1 yuan; taxi fares begin at 8 yuan.

The Hohhot Metro is under construction with Line 1 due to open in 2020.[41]

Education

Universities located in Hohhot include:

High Schools located in Hohhot include:

Sports

Hohhot lacked a professional soccer team until Shenyang Dongjin F.C. relocated to Hohhot, changing their name to Hohhot Dongjin, in 2012.[43] They played at Hohhot City Stadium, which was newly built in 2007.[18] The club finished in the bottom of the league in the 2012 season and was and relegated to League Two. After playing half a season at Hohhot in 2013, the team relocated to Liaoning and chose Benxi City Stadium as their new home court.[44]

On 14 January 2015, Taiyuan Zhongyou Jiayi F.C. moved to Hohhot and changed their name to Nei Mongu Zhongyou F.C.[45] The team play in China League One and chose Hohhot City Stadium as their home in 2015. The team had been first established as Shanxi Jiayi F.C. on 8 October 2011.[46]

Notable landmarks

There were over 50 Ming and Qing Buddhist temples and towers in Guihua and Suiyuan.

See also

Footnotes

Explanatory notes
Citations
  1. ^ Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 22.
  2. ^ a b ? (in Chinese). City of Hohhot. 12 April 2013.
  3. ^ Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 22.
  4. ^ a b c 2012. Hohhot Municipal Bureau of Statistics (in Chinese). 1 April 2013. Retrieved 2015.
  5. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 2014.
  6. ^ a b Solov?ev, Serge? Mikha?lovich (1998), History of Russia, 23, Academic International Press, p. 178
  7. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Edition (1977), Vol. I, p. 275.
  8. ^ a b ?, ?. 2010. Inner Mongolia News. [Inner Mongolia Post]. Retrieved 2015.
  9. ^ a b Perkins (1999), p. 212.
  10. ^ Chinese "qing" has traditionally been a color between "blue" and "green" in English, leading some modern sources to translate Qing Cheng into English as "Green City" instead of "Blue City," including, for example, the official website of Hohhot.
  11. ^ "Dazhao Temple". Travel China Guide. Retrieved 2013.
  12. ^ Zhang, Guanglin (2005). Islam in China. China Intercontinental Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-7-5085-0802-3. Retrieved 2012.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Jankowiak, William R (1993). Sex, Death, and Hierarchy in a Chinese City: An Anthropological Account. Columbia University Press. pp. 5, 11-16.
  14. ^ Traditional dwellings and settlements review: journal of the International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments. International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments. 1998. p. 12. Retrieved 2012.
  15. ^ Lin, Hsiao-ting (2010), Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West, Taylor and Francis, pp. 43, 49, ISBN 9780415582643
  16. ^ Wasserman, Adam. "Gold Horse International, Inc. Updates Status of Key Real Estate Development Projects for 2009". Gale, Cengage Learning. PR Newswire Association LLC. Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ Inc|url=http://www.realpennies.com/otc/GHII/%7Cwebsite=realpennies%7Caccessdate=20 July 2015}}
  18. ^ a b ?6 - . Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China.
  19. ^ "Background of Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co., Ltd". Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. Retrieved 2015.
  20. ^ "Profile of Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Company Limited". Archived from the original on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 2015.
  21. ^ Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Incorporated. April 2001. p. 510. ISBN 978-0-7172-0134-1. Retrieved 2012.
  22. ^ Huhehaote rainfall
  23. ^ ?. China Meteorological Administration.Archived 2 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ ?(1971-2000?) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 2009.
  25. ^ ? - WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2018.
  26. ^ ?. Weather China (in Chinese). Retrieved 2015.
  27. ^ (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China Archived 22 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ GDP (in Chinese).
  29. ^ "hktdc.com - Profiles of China Provinces, Cities and Industrial Parks". Tdctrade.com. Retrieved 2014.
  30. ^ "Programa Conjunto FAO/OMS Sobre Normas Alimentarias" (Archive). Food and Agriculture Organization. p. 30. Retrieved on July 10, 2014. "Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co. Ltd. No. 8, Jinsi Road, Jinchun Developing Zone 010080 Hohhot P.R. China"
  31. ^ Yili, Mengniu, Bright Dairy lose their status as 'national brands', China Central Television (22 September 2008)
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Bibliography

  • Perkins (1999). Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. Dorothy Perkins. 1st paperback edition: 2000. A Roundtable Press Book, New York, N.Y. ISBN 0-8160-4374-4 (pbk).

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