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House of Balliol
Balliol arms: Gules an orle argent
The House of Balliol (de Bailleul) was a noble family originating from the village of Bailleul in Picardy. They held estates in England, granted during the reign of King William Rufus. Through marriage, they had claims to the Throne of Scotland. One member of the family, John Balliol, was named King of Scotland after the disputed succession following extinction of the Dunkeld line. John was deposed, leading to the First War of Scottish Independence. His son, Edward Balliol, also briefly controlled the Scottish throne during the Second War of Scottish Independence. Edward had no issue, and the direct line went extinct with him.
List of heads of the Balliol estates
- Guy I de Balliol (died before 1130 × 1133), established lordship in northern England in 1090s
- Bernard I de Balliol (died 1154 x 1162), nephew of Guy
- Guy II de Balliol (died early 1160s x 1167), son of Bernard
- Bernard II de Balliol (died c. 1190), brother of above
- Eustace de Balliol (died c. 1209), cousin of above
- Hugh de Balliol (died 1229), son of above
- John I de Balliol (died 1268), son of above, the founder of Balliol College
- John II de Balliol (died 1314), son of above, ruled from 1292 to 1296, and claimed the throne as great-great-great-grandson of David I of Scotland of the House of Dunkeld.
- Edward de Balliol (died 1364), eldest son of John, who from 1332 to 1356 was a pretender to the Scottish throne in opposition to David II of Scotland with support of the English.
Both Balliols had English support for their claims; both were deposed. Edward died without issue, but the Balliol descent continued through his cousin Christine de Lindsay (granddaughter of John II), who married Enguerrand V, Lord of Coucy, to the lords of Coucy and ultimately the Bourbon kings of France and Spain.
- Stell, G. P., "Balliol, Bernard de (d. 1154x62)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 , accessed 24 Jan 2008
- Stell, G. P., "Balliol, Bernard de (d. c.1190)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 , accessed 24 Jan 2008
- Stell, G. P., "Balliol , John de (b. before 1208, d. 1268)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 , accessed 24 Jan 2008