Hypocorism
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Hypocorism

A hypocorism ( hy-POK-?r-iz-?m; from Ancient Greek: ? (hypokorisma), from ? (hypokorizesthai), 'to use child-talk'[1]), also called a hypocoristicon, is a diminutive form of a name. Hypocorisms include pet names or calling names,[2] often a diminutive or augmentative form of a word or given name when used as a nickname or term of endearment.

Examples of hypocoristic proper names

Afrikaans

  • Johannes -> Jan, Jannie, Jonnie, Hans, Hannes
  • Stefan -> Steve, Stef, Fanie
  • Gerhardus -> Gert, Gerrie, Gêr, Hardus, Gerhard
  • Peter -> Piet, Pieta
  • Jakobus -> Jak, Jako, Kobus, Kobie

Armenian

  • Andranik -> ? Ando
  • Hovhannes -> ? Hovo
  • Tigran -> ? Tiko
  • ? Hayk -> Hayko

Assyrian

  • Adam -> Ado, Adu
  • Abdisho, Awdisho, Odisho -> Disho, Dishu
  • Abraham, Awraham, Oraham -> Awraha, Oraha
  • Awshana, Oshana -> Awsheh, Osheh, Oshay
  • Benyamin -> Binno, Binnu
  • Caroline -> Carro, Kahro, Kahru
  • Daniel, Daniyal -> Danniye, Danno, Dannu
  • Dawid, David -> Dodo, Dudu
  • Dinkha, Denkha -> Deeno, Deenu
  • Edward, Adwar -> Addo, Eddo
  • Elham -> Hammo, Hammu
  • Elyas, Elias -> Ousseh
  • Emmanuel, Ammanuel -> Ammoh, Ammu
  • Francis -> Fransu, Franzu
  • Gewargis -> Gaggo, Gaggu
  • Hassam, Haytham -> Hayso, Haysu
  • Ismael, Ismail -> Isse, Isseh
  • Jibrail, Gabriel -> Jibbo, Jibbu, Gawrea
  • Khoshaba, Khochaba -> Shabo, Sheba, Shabeh, Chaba
  • Khoshebo -> Bebo, Bebu
  • Mariam -> Maru
  • Mary -> Mehreh
  • Michael, Mikhail -> Meekho, Meekhu, Mikho, Mikhu
  • Pethion, Pithyou -> Pitto, Pittu
  • Sanharib -> Sankho, Sankhu
  • Shimun, Shamoun -> Shimmo, Shimmu
  • Solaka, Sulaqa -> Chaka, Chaqa
  • Theodoris, Tedoris -> Tehdeh
  • Theresa, Teresa -> Tresu, Trehzu
  • William -> Illo, Illu
  • Yacob, Yacoub, Yakob -> Yako, Yaku
  • Youkhanna, Yokhana -> Nannah, Kanno, Kenno, Kennu
  • Younan, Yonan -> Nonu

Azerbaijani

  • Af?t, Afaq, Arif? -> Afa
  • Asif -> Aska
  • Ayt?n, Aynur, Aydan, Ayb?niz, Aysel, -> Ayka
  • B?hruz -> Beka
  • El?ad, Eldar, Elçin, Eln, Elmir -> Eli?
  • Fir?ngiz -> Fira
  • Gülnaz, Gülnar, Gült?kin, -> Gülia
  • ?smay?l -> ?sí
  • Leylá -> Leylu?
  • Mehin -> Meka
  • M?tan?t -> M?ti?
  • Nazil?, N?zak?t, N?zrin -> Naza
  • P?rvan? -> P?ri
  • Sevil, Sevda, Sevinc -> Seva
  • To?rul -> Totu

Bengali

  • Anirban -> Ani
  • Debmalya -> Debu
  • Mitalee -> Mita

Bulgarian

The traditional hypocoristic forms of Bulgarian masculine names end with "-cho", for example: Ivan - Ivancho - Vancho, Stoyan - Stoyancho, Petur - Peturcho, Angel - Angelcho. The traditional hypocoristic forms of Bulgarian feminine names end with "-ka", for example: Ivana - Ivanka, Snezhana - Snezhanka, Bozhana - Bozhanka. In recent times, however, the hypocoristic forms of many Bulgarian names receive English and Russian endings, for example:

  • ? Aleksandar -> ? Sasho, Aleks, Sando, Sande
  • ? Aleksandra -> Sashka, ? Sasha, Aleks'
  • Angel -> Acho
  • Angelina -> Ani
  • ?/? Anna/Anka -> Ani
  • / Anton/Antoaneta -> ? Tony
  • ? Apostol -> Apo
  • Atanas -> Nasko, Tanas
  • Blagovest -> Blago
  • ? Blagovesta -> Blaga
  • ? Bogomil -> ? Bogo
  • ? Bozhidar -> ? Bozho, ? Bogo
  • Boris -> Borko, ? Bobi
  • Borislav -> ? Bobi
  • Valentin -> Valyo
  • Valentina -> ? Valya
  • Vasil -> Vasko
  • Veselina -> ? Vesi
  • ? Violeta-> ? Vili
  • Vladimir -> Vlado
  • Gabriela -> ? Gabi
  • Galina -> ? Galya
  • Georgi -> ? Gosho, ? Gotse, Zhorka, ? Zhoro
  • ? Gergana -> ? Geri
  • Grigor -> Grisho, Grisha
  • Damyan -> ? Dame
  • /? Daniel/a-> ? Danny
  • Denitsa -> ? Deni
  • Desislava -> ? Desi
  • ? Dimitar -> Mitko, Mityo, Mitak, ? Dimo
  • ? Evgeniya-> ? Zheni, Nia, Eva
  • Ekaterina -> ? Katya
  • Elitsa -> Eli
  • ? Emil -> Emo
  • ? Ivan -> Vanko, Vancho, Vanka, Vanyo
  • Ivaylo -> Ivo, ? Ivcho
  • Ivanka -> ? Vanya
  • Ivelin -> Ivo
  • ? Ivelina -> Iva
  • Yordan -> Dancho, ? Dany
  • Yordanka -> Danche, ? Dany
  • Kaloyan -> ? Kalo, ? Kala
  • Kirli -> ? Kiro, Kircho
  • ? Kliment -> Klime
  • ? Konstantin -> Kosyo, ? Kotse, ? Koko
  • /? Krasimir/a -> Krasi
  • Liliya -> ? Lili
  • Lilyana -> ? Lili
  • Lyubov -> ? Lyuba
  • ? Lyubomir -> ? Lyubo, Lyubcho
  • Lyubomira -> ? Lyuba
  • ? Lachezar -> ? LLacho
  • Mariya -> ? Mima, ? Mara
  • ? Mariyana -> ? Mima, Ani
  • Margarita -> ? Mima, Margo
  • Martin -> Marto
  • (?) Metodi(y)-> ? Meto
  • Miroslav -> ? Miro
  • Miroslava -> ? Mira
  • Mihayl -> ? Misho
  • ? Nadezhda -> ? Nadya
  • Nevena -> ? Veni
  • ? Nikolay -> ? Nicky, Kolyo
  • Pavel -> Pavka
  • Plamen -> ? Patso
  • Petko -> Petyo, ? Petsa
  • Petar -> ? Pesho, ? Pepi
  • / Radostina/Radoslava -> ? Radi, Radka, Radost
  • Rositsa -> ? Rosi
  • Rumyna -> ? Rumi
  • Svetoslav -> ? Svetlyo, Slavi
  • Svetlozar -> ? Svetlyo
  • ? Silviya -> ? Sisa
  • Simeon -> ? Moni, ? Simo
  • Simona -> ? Moni
  • Stanimir -> ? Miro
  • Stanimira -> ? Mira
  • Stanislav -> Slavi, Stancho
  • Stefan -> Stefo, ? Steve
  • Stoyan -> Tenyo
  • Tatyana -> ? Tanya
  • ?/? Teodora/Todorka -> ? Dora
  • ? Tihomir -> ? Tisho, ? Tiho
  • Hristo -> Itso
  • Hristina -> ? Tina, Hrisi
  • / Tsvetelin/Tsvetomir -> ? Tsetso
  • ? Yavor -> ? Yavka

Catalan

  • Anton -> Tono
  • Antoni -> Toni
  • Bartomeu -> Tomeu, Xumeu
  • Benet -> Neto
  • Carme -> Carmina
  • Concepció -> Ció, Conxita
  • Cristòfor, Cristòfol -> Tòfol
  • Dolors -> Dolo
  • Elisabet -> Bet
  • Ferran -> Rano
  • Francesc -> Cesc, Cesco, Xesc, Xisco, Cisco, Siscu, Quico
  • Francesca -> Xesca, Xisca, Cisca
  • Gabriel -> Biel
  • Ignasi -> Nasi
  • Isabel -> Bel
  • Jacint -> Cinto
  • Jesús -> Suso, Xuso
  • Joan -> Jan, Chuano
  • Joaquim -> Quim, Ximo
  • Josefina -> Fina -> Fineta
  • Josep -> Pep, Pitu, Jep
  • Magdalena -> Malena, Magda
  • Maria -> Mariona
  • Maria Isabel -> Maribel
  • Meritxell -> Txell
  • Miquel -> Quel, Quelo
  • Montserrat -> Montse
  • Narcís -> Narciset -> Ciset
  • Rafel -> Felo
  • Salvador -> Vador, Voro
  • Vicent -> Sento

Croatian

  • Andrija -> Andro, Andre Andrijica, Ja?o
  • Antun -> Ante, Anti?a, Ton?i, Toni, Tunja
  • Danijel -> Dane, Danko
  • Davorin -> Davor, Dado, Rino, Darko
  • Dominik -> Domo, Domko
  • Franjo -> Frane, Frano, Fran, Francek
  • Ivan -> Ivica, Ivo, Ivek, Ico, Ivko, I?o, Iko, Iva
  • Jerolim -> Jerko, Jere, Jerkan
  • Josip -> Joso, Jo?a, Jozo, Jo?ko, Joco, Jole, Joko, Joza
  • Juraj -> Jure, Jura, Juko, Jurica, Jurko, Juri?a, Jure?ko
  • Luka -> Luk?a, Lukica, Luketa
  • Marko -> Maro, Markec, Markan, Markica, Marketa
  • Matej -> Mate, Mato, Matan, Matko, Mata
  • Mihovil, Mihael -> Miho, Mijo, Mi?o, Mi?ko
  • Miroslav -> Miro, Mirko
  • Nikola -> Niko, Nik?a, Nikica, Ni?o
  • Pavao, Pavle -> Pavo, Pave, Pavko, Pajo
  • Petar -> Pero, Perica, Petko, Peko, Peran, Perko
  • Robert -> Robi, Robo
  • Stjepan, ?tefan -> Stipe, Stipo, Stipko, Stipica, ?tef, ?tefek, ?tefko, Stipa
  • ?imun -> ?ime, ?imunica, ?ima
  • Tomislav -> Tomo, Tomek, Tomica, Tomi?a
  • Vladimir -> Vlado, Vlatko, Vladan, Vlada
  • Zvonimir -> Zvone, Zvonko

Czech

Male

  • Adam -> Á?a
  • Alexandr, Alexander -> Sa?a
  • Bohuslav, Bohumil -> Bohu?, Bob
  • ?en?k -> ?enda
  • Daniel -> Dan
  • Denis -> Deni, Deník
  • Eduard -> Eda
  • Ferdinand -> Ferda
  • Franti?ek -> Fanda, Fany, Franta
  • Gabriel -> Gaby, Gáb
  • Jakub -> Kuba
  • Jan -> Honza, Jenda
  • Jaromír, Jaroslav -> Jára, Jarek, Jája
  • Jind?ich -> Jindra
  • Ji?í -> Jirka, Jura
  • Joná? -> Jon
  • Josef -> Pepa, Jo?in
  • Karel -> Kája, Karlík
  • Kristián, Kry?tof -> Kris
  • Leopold, Leo? -> Leo
  • Lubomil, Lubomír, Lubor, Luboslav, Lubo? -> Luba
  • Mat?j -> Maty, Mates
  • Maxmilián -> Max
  • Michael, Michal -> Mí?a
  • Mikulá? -> Miky
  • Miroslav -> Mirek, Mira
  • Old?ich -> Olda, Olin
  • Ond?ej -> Ondra
  • Otakar -> Ota
  • Pavel -> Pája
  • Petr -> Pé?a
  • Radoslav, Radimír, Radomil, Radomír, Radek, Radovan -> Radek
  • Richard -> Rí?a
  • Robert -> Rob, Bob, Bert
  • Rudolf -> Ruda
  • Samuel -> Sam
  • Stanislav -> Standa
  • Tomá? -> Tom
  • Václav -> Va?ek, Venda, Vincek
  • Vladimír, Vladislav, Ladislav -> Vlá?a, Lá?a
  • Vlastimil, Vlastislav, Vlasta -> Vlasta
  • Vojt?ch -> Vojta
  • Zden?k -> Zdena, Zdenda

Female

  • Adéla -> Á?a, Adina
  • Al?b?ta -> B?tka, Bety
  • Anastázie -> Any, Stáza
  • Andrea -> Andy, Andrejka
  • Barbora -> Bára
  • Dagmar, Dagmara -> Dá?a
  • Daniela -> Daninka, Dani, Dan?a
  • Denisa -> Deni, Denda, Den?a
  • Doubravka -> Dobra
  • Eli?ka -> Eli, Ela
  • Franti?ka -> Fany
  • Gabriela -> Gábi, Gabka, Gábina
  • Ivana, Iveta -> Iva, Iv?a
  • Jarmila, Jaroslava -> Jarka, Jarina
  • Jind?i?ka -> Jindra
  • Karla, Karolína -> Kája, Karol
  • Katarína, Kate?ina -> Katka, Ká?a
  • Kristýna -> Kiki, Týna
  • Libu?e, Lib?na -> Liba
  • Liliana -> Lili
  • Ludmila, Lýdie -> Lída
  • Lucie -> Lucy, Lucka
  • Magdaléna -> Magda, Majda
  • Marie, Mariana, Marina, Marika -> Maru?ka, Mája, Majka
  • Matylda -> Maty, Tylda
  • Michaela -> Mí?enka, Michalka
  • Milena, Milu?e, Milada, Miloslava -> Míla, Milka
  • Miroslava -> Mirka
  • Nadda -> Na?a
  • Pavla, Pavlína -> Pája
  • Petra -> Pé?a
  • Rena, Rozálie, Rosita -> Róza
  • Stanislava -> Stá?a
  • Ta?ána, Tatiana -> Tá?a
  • Vendula -> Vendy
  • Zde?ka -> Zdena
  • Zuzana -> Zuzka
  • ?ofie -> ?ofka

Danish

  • Alexander -> Alex, Sander
  • Alexandra -> Alex, Sandra
  • Amalie -> Malle
  • Andrea -> Drea
  • Andreas -> Dres
  • Anne-Marie -> Anmaj (South Jutland dialect)
  • Anne-Sofie -> Anso
  • Benedikte/Benedicte -> Dikte/Dicte
  • Camilla -> Milla
  • Caroline -> Caro, Line
  • Cecilie -> Cille
  • Christian -> Kedde (South Jutland dialect), Kesse (South Jutland dialect), Ian
  • Christina -> Chris, Stina, Tina
  • Christine -> Chris, Stine, Tine
  • Emilie -> Mille
  • Frederik -> Frede, Fidde (South Jutland dialect)
  • Frederikke -> Frede, Rikke, Frikke
  • Georg -> Geo
  • Henriette -> Henry
  • Henrik -> Henne
  • Isabella -> Isa, Bella
  • Julie -> Julle
  • Jørgen -> Jønne
  • Karen-Marie/Karen-Margrethe -> Kamma, Kamse
  • Katrine -> Kat, Trine
  • Kirsten -> Kisse
  • Kristian -> (see Christian)
  • Laura -> Lau
  • Leonora -> Leo, Nora
  • Malene -> Malle
  • Marie -> Mie, Rie, Misse
  • Marie-Louise -> Malou, Misse
  • Margrethe -> Grethe, Maggie
  • Mat(h)ilde -> Mat, T(h)ilde
  • Mogens -> Mogge
  • Nat(h)alie -> Nat
  • Nikolaj -> Nik, Niko, Kloj (South Jutland dialect)
  • Oliver -> Oli
  • Olivia -> Oli
  • Poul -> Pøjse (South Jutland dialect)
  • Rebekka/Rebecca -> Bekka/Becca
  • Sofie -> Sof, Fie
  • Ulrikke -> Rikke
  • Valdemar -> Valde

Some male names with one syllable are lengthed:

  • Hans -> Hasse
  • Ib -> Ibber, Ibbermand
  • Karl -> Kalle
  • Lars -> Lasse
  • Poul -> Polle, Pelle, Palle

Some female names have an -s or -se added to the hypocorism:

  • Amanda -> Mans, Manse
  • Anna/Anne -> Ans, Anse
  • Emma -> Ems, Emse
  • Frederikke -> Frikke -> Friks, Frikse
  • Freja -> Frejs, Frejse
  • Frida -> Frids, Fridse
  • Inge/Ingrid -> Ingse
  • Julie -> Juls, Julse
  • Maja -> Majs, Majse
  • Milla/Mille -> Mils
  • Naja -> Najs, Najse
  • Nanna -> Nans, Nanse
  • Rebekka/Rebecca -> Beks/Becs, Bekse/Becse
  • Rikke -> Riks
  • Yrsa -> Ysse

Dutch

Increasingly, the official form of Dutch given names as registered at birth is one that originally was hypocoristic. For many of the hypocorisms listed below, a diminutive may be used (e.g. Jan -> Jantje, Lotte -> Lotje), in particular for children and women. The English forms Johnny or Johnnie and Bobby or Bobbie are quite common in the Netherlands.

English

English also forms nicknames in a variety of manners.

Shortening, often to the first syllable:

  • Abigail -> Abby, Abbie, Abi, Gail
  • Abraham -> Abe, Bram
  • Adelaide -> Addie
  • Alan, Allan, Allen -> Al, Len
  • Albert -> Al, Bert, Bertie
  • Alexander -> Al, Alec, Alex, Lex, Sandy, Xander
  • Alexandra, Alexandria -> Alex, Alexa, Lex, Lexa, Lexi, Sandra, Sandy, Xandra
  • Alfred -> Alf, Alfie, Fred, Freddy
  • Alice, Alicia, Alison, Allison -> Allie, Aly, Ali, Cya
  • Amanda -> Amy, Mandy, Manda
  • Annalisa, Annelise, Anneliese -> Ana, Annie, Lisa
  • Andrew -> Andy, Drew
  • Andrea -> Andi, Andie, Drea
  • Angela -> Angie
  • Ann, Anne, Anna -> Annie
  • Anthony -> Tony, Ant
  • Antonia -> Toni
  • Antoinette -> Toni, Nettie
  • Archibald -> Archie, Archy
  • Arthur -> Art, Artie, Arty
  • Audrey -> Aud, Dre
  • August, Augustus, Augustine -> Auggie, Gus, Gussie
  • Bartholomew -> Bart, Barry, Barty, Bat
  • Barbara -> Barb, Barbie, Babs
  • Benjamin, Benedict -> Ben, Benji, Benny
  • Bernard -> Bernie
  • Bradford, Bradley -> Brad
  • Brian, Bryan -> Bri, Ian
  • Bridget -> Bee
  • Cameron -> Cam
  • Caroline, Carolyn -> Carol, Lynn, Carrie, Caro, Care
  • Cassandra -> Cass, Cassie, Sandra, Sandy
  • Catherine -> Cat, Cate, Cath, Cathy, Catie
  • Charles -> Chad, Char, Charlie, Chas, Chuck[3]
  • Charlotte -> Char, Charlie, Lottie
  • Christina, Christine -> Chris, Chrissy, Christy, Tina
  • Christopher -> Chris, Kit, Topher
  • Clifford -> Cliff
  • Clinton -> Clint
  • Colton -> Colt
  • Columbus -> Lum
  • Cynthia -> Cindy
  • Daniel, Danielle -> Dan, Danny, Dani
  • David, Davis, Davidson -> Dave, Davy
  • Deborah -> Deb, Debbie
  • Demetria -> Dem, Demi, Metra
  • Desmond -> Des, Dez
  • Dominic, Dominique -> Dom, Domi
  • Donald -> Don, Donny, Donnie
  • Dorothy, Dorothea -> Dot, Dottie, Dolly
  • Douglas -> Doug
  • Dudley -> Dud, Lee, Leland
  • Earnest, Ernest -> Earnie, Ernie
  • Edwin, Edgar, Edwina, Edward, Edmund -> Ed, Eddy, Eddie, Ned, Ted
  • Eleanor -> Ellie, Nora
  • Elizabeth -> Eliza, Elisa, Beth, Liz, Liza, Lizzie, Bess, Betty, Libby, Ellie
  • Emma, Emanuel, Emmanuel, Emmanuelle, Emilia, Emily -> Em, Emmy, Manuel
  • Eugene, Eugenie -> Gene, Genie
  • Ezekiel -> Zeke
  • Florence -> Flo, Florrie, Flossie
  • Frances -> Fran, Frannie, Frankie
  • Francis -> Frank
  • Franklin -> Frank, Frankie
  • Frederick -> Fred, Freddy, Rick, Eric
  • Fiona -> Fi, Fifi
  • Gabriel, Gabrielle, Gabriella -> Gab, Gabe, Gabs, Gabby, Gabbie
  • Genevieve -> Jen, Jenny, Gen, Genny, Evie, Evey, Viv, Vivvy
  • Geoffrey -> Geoff
  • Gerald, Jeremy -> Gerry, Jerry, Jermo, Jezz
  • Gertrude -> Gertie, Trudy
  • Gilbert -> Gil, Bert, Bertie
  • Gillian -> Jill
  • Gregory -> Greg
  • Gwendolen -> Gwen
  • Harriet -> Hatty, Hattie, Hetty, Riette, Harry
  • Harold -> Harry, Hal
  • Henrietta -> Hetty
  • Henry -> Harry, Hal, Hank
  • Hubert -> Hugh, Huey, Hubie, Bert, Bertie
  • Isaac -> Isa, Zac, Izzy
  • Isabel, Isabella -> Izzy, Bella
  • Israel -> Izzy
  • Jackson -> Jack
  • Jacob -> Jake, Jace
  • James -> Jamie, Jim, Jay Jimbo, Jimmy, Jem
  • Jane -> Janie, Janet, Jenny
  • Janet, Janette, Janice, Janis -> Jan
  • Jason -> Jay, Jase, Jace
  • Jeffrey -> Jeff
  • Jennifer -> Jen, Jenn, Jenny
  • Jeremiah, Jeremy, Jerome -> Jerry, Jezz, Jermo, "Jezza," "Jem", Jay
  • Jessica -> Jess, Jessie, Jessy, Sica
  • Joan, Joanna -> Jo, Ann, Anna, Annie
  • Jocelyn -> Joss
  • Jonathan -> Jon, Jonny, John, Johnny, Ian
  • Joseph -> Joe, Joey, Josey, Seph, Sep, Seth
  • Josephine -> Jo, Josie
  • Joshua -> Josh, Joshy
  • Judith -> Judy
  • Julius -> Jules
  • Katherine, Kathleen -> Katie, Kate, Katy, Kath, Kathy, Kat, Kay, Kitty
  • Katrina -> Kat, Trina
  • Kelly -> Kel
  • Kenneth, Kendrick, Kendall -> Ken, Kenny
  • Kevin -> Kev
  • Kristen, Kristin, Kristyn -> Kris, Kristy, Krissy, Kitty
  • Lawrence, Laurence -> Larry, Laurie, Law, Lars
  • Leland -> Lee
  • Leonard -> Len, Lennie, Lenny, Leo
  • Leslie, Lester -> Les
  • Lewis-> Lew
  • Lillian -> Lil, Lily
  • Louis -> Lou, Louie
  • Lucille -> Lucy, Lulu
  • Lucas -> Luke
  • Lucinda -> Cindy, Lucy, Lulu
  • Madeleine, Magdalene, Magdalena -> Maddie, Magda, Lena
  • Margaret, Marjorie -> Madge, Maggie, Margie, Marge, Megan, Meg, Meggie, Peg, Peggy, Molly
  • Martin -> Mart, Marty
  • Mary -> Molly, Polly
  • Matthew -> Matt, Matty
  • Maximilian -> Max, Milan, Ian
  • Megan -> Meg, Peg, Peggy
  • Melanie, Melissa, Melody, Melinda -> Mel, Linda, Lissa
  • Melvin, Melvyn -> Mel, Melv
  • Michael -> Mick, Micky, Mike, Mikey
  • Millicent -> Millie, Milly
  • Mitchell -> Mitch
  • Morrissey -> Moz, More, Morry
  • Moses -> Moe, Mo
  • Nancy -> Nan
  • Natalie, Nathalie, -> Nat
  • Nathan, Nathaniel -> Nate
  • Nicholas -> Nick, Nicky
  • Nicola, Nicole -> Nikki, Nicki, Niki, Nikky
  • Norman -> Norm
  • Oswald -> Oz, Ozzie, Ozzy
  • Patricia -> Pat, Patty, Patsy, Trish, Tricia
  • Patrick -> Pat, Patty, Paddy
  • Penelope -> Penny
  • Peter -> Pete, Petey
  • Philip, Phillip -> Phil, Philly, Phillie, Pip, Flip, Fip
  • Priscilla -> Cilla, Priss, Prisca, Prill
  • Prudence -> Pru, Prue
  • Rachel -> Rach, Rachelle
  • Randolph -> Rand, Randy
  • Reginald -> Reg, Reggie, Rex
  • Rebecca -> Becca, Becky, Reba
  • Raymond -> Ray
  • Richard -> Dick, Rick, Richie, Rich, Ricky
  • Robert -> Rob, Bob, Bobby, Robbie, Robin, Bert, Hob, Nob
  • Roberta -> Bobbie, Robbie
  • Roderick, Rodney -> Rod, Roddy
  • Roger -> Rodge, Hodge
  • Ronald -> Ron, Ronnie
  • Rudolf, Rudolph -> Rudy
  • Russell -> Russ
  • Samuel, Samson, Samantha -> Sam, Sammy, Sammie
  • Sandra -> Sandy
  • Sarah, Sara -> Sadie, Sally
  • Sebastian -> Seb, Ian
  • Seymour -> Sy
  • Sidney, Sydney -> Sid, Syd
  • Simon -> Si
  • Stanley -> Stan
  • Stephanie -> Steph, Fanny, Stephy, Stevie
  • Stephen, Steven -> Steve, Stevie
  • Sylvester -> Sly
  • Taylor -> Tay
  • Terence -> Terry
  • Thaddeus -> Thad, Tad
  • Theodore -> Theo, Ted, Teddy, Tad
  • Theresa, Teresa -> Teri, Terri, Tess, Tessa, Resa, Tarry,
  • Thomas -> Tom, Tommy
  • Timothy -> Tim, Timmy
  • Valentine, Valerie -> Val
  • Veronica -> Ronnie, Ronni
  • Victor -> Vic, Vik, Vick
  • Victoria -> Tory, Tori, Vicky
  • Vincent -> Vince, Vinnie, Vinny
  • Viola, Violet -> Vi
  • Virginia -> Ginger, Gina, Ginny
  • Vivian, Vivien, Vivienne -> Viv, Ian
  • Walter -> Wally, Walt
  • William -> Will, Willie, Bill, Billy, Liam, Lee
  • Winifred -> Winnie
  • Zachariah, Zachary -> Zac, Zak, Zach, Zack
  • Zebadiah, Zebedee -> Zeb

Addition of a diminutive suffix, usually -ie or -y, often to an already shortened name. This suffix connotes smallness or endearment. Although most often applied to the names of children, it is not uncommon for an adult to be referred to by the diminutive, especially by family, friends and close acquaintances:

  • Agnes -> Aggie
  • Allison -> Allie, Ally
  • Alexander, Alexandra -> Sandy; Lex -> Lexi
  • Alfred -> Alf -> Alfie
  • Amanda -> Amy, Mandy
  • Anne -> Annie; Nan -> Nancy
  • Arthur -> Art -> Artie
  • Andrew -> Andy
  • Barbara -> Barb -> Barbie
  • Barnaby -> Barney
  • Benjamin -> Ben -> Benny
  • Charles -> Charlie -> Chuck -> Chucky
  • Daniel -> Dan -> Danny
  • David -> Dave -> Davy
  • Deborah -> Deb -> Debbie
  • Dennis -> Denny
  • Dorothy -> Dot -> Dottie
  • Edwin, Edward, Edmund -> Ed -> Eddie; Ned -> Neddy
  • Elaine -> Lainie
  • Frances -> Fran -> Franny
  • Franklin-> Frank -> Frankie
  • Gabrielle -> Gabs -> Gabby
  • Gerald-> Jerry
  • George -> Georgie
  • Gillian -> Jill -> Jilly
  • Grace -> Gracie
  • Herbert -> Herb, Bert -> Herbie, Bertie
  • Isabella -> Izzy
  • Jack -> Jackie, Jacky
  • Jacqueline -> Jackie
  • James -> Jamie, Jim ->Jimmy
  • Jane -> Janey
  • Jessica -> Jess -> Jessie
  • Joseph -> Joe -> Joey
  • John -> Johnny
  • Jonathan -> Jon -> Jonnie, Jonny
  • Katherine -> Kate -> Katie, Katy
  • Kimberly -> Kim -> Kimmy
  • Kenneth -> Ken -> Kenny
  • Lawrence -> Larry
  • Leonard -> Len -> Lenny
  • Lillian -> Lil -> Lily
  • Louis -> Lou -> Louie
  • Mary -> Moll -> Molly
  • Michael -> Mick -> Micky, Mike -> Mikey
  • Nell -> Nellie, Nelly
  • Nicholas -> Nick -> Nicky
  • Oliver -> Ollie
  • Oswald -> Oz -> Ozzie
  • Patricia -> Pat -> Patty
  • Peter -> Pete -> Petey
  • Priscilla -> Cilla -> Cilly
  • Richard -> Rick -> Ricky, Dick -> Dickey
  • Robert -> Bob -> Bobby, Rob -> Robbie
  • Ronald -> Ron -> Ronnie
  • Rose -> Rosie
  • Rosemary -> Rose -> Rosie
  • Sharon -> Sher -> Sherrie -> Sherry
  • Stephen -> Steve -> Stevie
  • Susan -> Sue -> Susie, Suzy
  • Thomas -> Tom -> Tommy
  • Timothy -> Tim -> Timmy
  • Tobias -> Toby
  • Victoria -> Tor ->Tori, Vick -> Vickie, Vicky
  • Wallace -> Wall -> Wally
  • William -> Will, Bill -> Willie, Willy, Billy, Lee
  • Zebadiah -> Zeb -> Zebby

A short form that differs significantly from the name:

  • Ann, Anne, Anna -> Nan (from the phrase "mine Ann", an archaic form of "my Ann")[4]
  • Barbara -> Babs
  • Charles -> Chuck, Chaz, Chip
  • Christopher, Christine -> Kit
  • Dorothy -> Dot, Dottie
  • Edward -> Ed -> Ned,[4]Ted, Teddy
  • Eleanor, Ellen, Helen -> Nell, Nellie[4]
  • Elizabeth -> Bess, Bessie, Betsy, Betty, Libby
  • Helen -> Nellie, Nelly
  • Henry -> Hal, Hank, Harry
  • Adelaide -> Heidi
  • James -> Jim -> Jimbo, Jimmy
  • John -> Jack, Jackie, Jock, Ian
  • Katherine -> Katie, Kitty
  • Margaret -> Meg -> Peg, Peggy; Maggie, Marge, Mags, Moll, Greta, Rita
  • Mary -> Mae, Minnie, Molly -> Polly
  • Nicholas -> Nico, Nikko
  • Philippa -> Pippa, Pip, Pippy
  • Richard -> Rick, Dick
  • Robert -> Rob -> Bob, Rob -> Robin
  • Sarah -> Sally
  • Stephen -> Sly
  • Thaddeus -> Thad, Todd, Toddy, Ted, Teddy
  • Theodore -> Ted, Teddy, Theo
  • Veronica -> Ronnie
  • Virginia -> Ginger, Ginny
  • William -> Will, Willy -> Bill, Billy
  • William Earl -> Merle

Also, initials of complex names are often used as the hypocorism, e.g.: Brandon William -> B W -> B Dub

Esperanto

Esperanto forms nicknames by suffixing -njo (for females) and -?jo (for males) to the first letter(s) of the basic name or word.[5] This is the only situation in Esperanto in which a word stem is shortened or otherwise changed in word-building. Usually 1 to 5 letters are preserved.

In addition, there's also the suffixes -pjo for non-binary people and the gender-neutral -jo for everyone.[6]

Finnish

In Finland people may have both Finnish and Swedish names. Younger people and females have more international or unique names, whereas older names may also revive. Hypocorisms of short names tend to extend and long names are shortened in multiple ways with certain patterns. Some official names were originally hypocorisms like male names Riku (originally Rikhard), Rami (from Raimo) or Vilppu (originally Greek Filippos, in English Philip). Minttu is a female name in its own right, referring to plant genus Mentha, as well as it is hypocorism of the name Minna-Maria. Some old names in their official form were actually Swedish like Carl -> Kalle or Amanda -> Manta. The letters B, C, F, Q, W, X, Z, and Å are not native to the Finnish language and are used only for words of foreign origin.

Male examples

Female examples

Some of the hypocoristic names do not derive from first names but last names, like Kaippa from surname Kaivola, Koippari from Koivusaari, Hissu from Hietalahti Holle from Holopainen, Vode from Voutilainen or Purtsi from Pursiainen. This style is more common to men's names.

Also, hypocorisms occur in common language, and "-is" is a very usual ending added. Metro station is metroasema -> metris, Coca-Cola -> Kokis, Töölö Sports Hall i.e. Kisahalli -> Kisis and Hakaniemi -> Hakis or Hagis. Another common ending is "-ari". Examples: motorcycle is moottoripyörä -> motskari, living room is olohuone -> olkkari, shoping center is ostoskeskus -> ostari, vacuum flask is termospullo -> termari, and swimsuit is uimapuku -> uikkari. Television is televisio -> telkkari, but there are a lot of other hypocorisms for that appliance as well, like telkka, telkku, telsu, töllö, töllötin etc. The word töllötin comes from the verb töllöttää, meaning to gawp. That's the same as in German Die Glotze (TV-set) comes from the verb glotzen. One of the endings is -(t)ski, -(t)sku. Ice cream is jäätelö -> jätski, art museum Ateneum -> Atski, a boat (in Swedish båt) is laiva or vene -> botski (also paatti), zipper is vetoketju -> vetsku, vetskari.

French

Informal French has a number of diminutive nicknames, although not as systematically as in English.

In French, for both male and female names, hypocorisms are most commonly formed by dropping the last syllable:

  • Catherine -> Cathy
  • Christelle -> Chris
  • Christophe -> Chris
  • Frédéric, Frédérique -> Fred
  • Grégory, Grégoire -> Greg
  • Jean-Michel -> Jean-Mi
  • Joannie -> Jo
  • Marie-Charlotte -> Macha
  • Marie-Josée -> Marie-Jo
  • Maxime -> Max
  • Michaël -> Mic
  • Philippe -> Phil
  • Stéphane -> Steph
  • Stéphanie -> Steph

Dropping the first syllable is also attested:

  • Christophe -> Tophe

Sometimes, only central syllables are kept:

  • Augustin -> Gus
  • Emmanuel -> Manu
  • Emmanuelle -> Manu

Another method commonly used is doubling one syllable of the name:

  • André -> Dédé
  • Annie -> Nini
  • Augustin -> Tintin
  • Christine -> Kiki, Kikine
  • Christophe -> Totophe
  • Joseph -> Jojo
  • Julie -> Juju
  • Louise -> Loulou
  • all female names ending in -tine -> Titine

For male names, the ending -ot is attested, although its use is rather dated:

  • Charles -> Charlot
  • Jean -> Jeannot
  • Jules -> Julot
  • Pierre -> Pierrot

It was also sometimes (but rarely) used for females:

  • Marguerite -> Margot

The ending -et for males was used around the Renaissance, and is now obsolete:

  • Henri -> Henriquet
  • Jacques -> Jacquet

For female names, the ending -ette was used in the first half of the 20th century, and even often given as the official name:

  • Anne -> Annette
  • Jeanne -> Jeannette
  • Marie -> Mariette
  • Paule -> Paulette

Some names in -ette are not actual hypocorisms, but the only existing feminized form of a male name:

  • Antoine (male) -> Antoinette (female)
  • Pierre (male) -> Pierrette (female)
  • Nicolas (male) -> Nicolette (female) (rare and dated) -> Colette

The ending -on is rarer, often dated or obsolete, used for both genders:

  • Antoinette -> Toinon
  • Françoise -> Fanchon
  • Henri -> Riton
  • Marie -> Marion
  • Louis -> Louison
  • Louise -> Louison

The ending -ou is also rare:

  • Anne -> Nanou

A special case is the ending in -ick/ -ic, which is the French writing for the hypocoristic form in Breton "-ig", used for both genders. The "-ig" form in Breton means "little (x).". This diminutive, in its French form of "ick" or "ic", became in vogue for official names in the second half of the 20th century:

  • Annick (original in Breton: Annaig), from Anne
  • Soizic (original: Soazig), from Frañsoaz, the Breton writing for the French "Françoise"
  • Loïc, probably from the French Louis
  • Yannick (original: Yannig), from Yann, meaning "John" in Breton

In Breton, the diminutive form "ig" can be given to any kind of names, nouns, or adjectives, (un tammig, a few), while in French it relates only to given names.

The name Soazig shows more than the ending -ig. Often in Breton a hypocoristic form of a given name can be made by putting away the first syllable. "Frañsoaz" becomes a familiar "Soaz" then, given to a child, the name is "Soazig", but not as an official name. This is also a difference between French and Breton: the diminutive ending -ig in Breton is only used as a temporary form for young children, while "-ick" is official and permanent in French names, and has lost his sense of a diminutive.

For words, French often produces hypocorisms either by truncating a word after the letter o, or by chopping off the end of the word and adding an o: McDo from McDonald's; gynéco from gynécologue; dico from dictionnaire; dodo (childish word for sleep, from dormir, to sleep); écolo from écologiste; coco from communiste; catho from catholique; psycho from psychologie.

The ending -oche (with or without an intervening consonant or phoneme to make it easier to pronounce) is also sometimes used: téloche (telly, from télévision), cinoche (cinéma), MacDoche (McDonald's), fastoche (easy-peezy, from facile, easy). Words or names may also be shortened or abbreviated without an o: fixs from fixations, 'ski bindings'; Jean-Phi from Jean-Philippe; amphi from amphithéatre (large classroom or lecture hall); ciné (another informal word for cinéma). These words are familiar/informal versions of the underlying words.

German

Hypocorisms of first names are commonly based on truncation, only keeping the first (Max) or last (Hans) syllable(s), sometimes in contracted form as these examples show. Often the ending -i is added to these truncated nameforms. The name might also undergo a sound shift (Sepp). Further diminutives can be added with the suffixes -lein, -(e)l or -chen, e. g. Gretel or Gretchen as a diminutive for Grete.

  • Anna, Anne -> Anni, Änni
  • Angela, Angelika -> Geli, Angie (with an English-leaning pronunciation)
  • Anton -> Toni
  • Elisabeth -> Elsa, Elsie, Ilsa, Liesl, Lisbeth, Lissi, Sissi
  • Franziska -> Franzi, Sissi, Fanni
  • Gabriela, Gabriele -> Gaby
  • Georg -> Schorsch (mostly Bavarian and Swiss German)
  • Helene -> Leni
  • Ignatz, Ignaz -> Nazi (Bavarian; out of use), Nazl (mostly Bavarian German, still in use)
  • Johanna -> Hanna
  • Johannes -> Hannes -> Hans -> Hansi
  • Josef, Joseph -> Sepp (Bavarian), Jupp (Rhinelandic), Pepi
  • Karl -> Kalle, Kalli, Karli
  • Katharina -> Kathi,
  • Margarete -> Grete, Gretel, Gretchen
  • Maria -> Mitzi
  • Maximilian -> Max
  • Michael -> Michi, Michl/Michel
  • Siegfried, Sigrid -> Siggi
  • Sabine -> Bini, Bine
  • Stefanie -> Steffi
  • Susanne, Susanna, Susann -> Susi
  • Therese, Theresia -> Resi (mostly Bavarian & Austrian)
  • Ulrich -> Uli (Ueli in Swiss German)
  • Wilhelm -> Willi

Sometimes female names may have the ending -el instead of -i, or any other shortening, especially in southern Germany:

  • Barbara -> Babsi -> Bärbel
  • Ursula -> Uschi, Ulla, Ursel
  • Christina, Christine -> Trina, Trine (northern Germany), Tina, Tine -> Christel

An ending for nicknames, sometimes considered "typical German" is -z:

  • Friedrich -> Fritz (but compare Fidi from northern Germany)
  • Heinrich -> Heini, Heinz, Hinz
  • Konrad -> Kunz

Hebrew

See #Yiddish/ Modern Hebrew

Hungarian

Hypocorisms of first names are commonly based on truncation, only keeping the first (Kat-; Jul-) syllable, sometimes in contracted form as these examples show. Often the ending -i is added to these truncated nameforms (Kati, Laci, Julcsi, Ági, Feri). Further diminutives can be added with the suffixes -ka, -ke, -kó, -csi, etc., e. g. Lacika, Ferike, Palkó and Julcsi as a diminutive respectively for László, Ferenc, Pál and Júlia.

  • Anna (Anne) -> Ani(ka), Annácska, Anci(ka), Annus(ka), Panni(ka), Panna, Panka, Nusi(ka)
  • Erzsébet (Elisabeth) -> Erzsi(ke), Bözsi(ke), Böske
  • György (George) -> Gyur(i)(ka)
  • István (Steven) -> (P)isti(ke), Istvánka, Pityu(ka)
  • János (John) -> Jan(cs)i(ka), Jankó(ka)
  • József (Joseph) -> Józsi(ka), Jocó(ka), Jozsó(ka), Joci(ka)
  • Károly (Charles) -> Karcsi(ka), Karesz(ka), Károlyka
  • Margit (Margaret) -> Manyi(ka), Manci(ka), Margó(ka), Gitta
  • Mária (Mary) -> Mar(cs)i(ka), Máriácska, Mári(ka), Mara, Marácska, Manci(ka), Ria, Riácska
  • Péter (Peter) -> Peti(ke), Petya
  • Terézia (Theresa) -> Trézsi(ke), Terka, Teri(ke), Terézke, Terus(ka), Teréziácska
  • Vilmos (William) -> Vili(ke), Vilmos(ka)
  • Zsuzsa (Susan) -> Zsuzsi(ka), Zsuzska, Zsu

Icelandic

Hypocorisms often consist of the first syllable of the name with a diminutive suffix ending in -i (masculine) or -a or ý (feminine). There are exceptions, however; for example, Nonni is an alternative form for Jón.

  • Guðmundur -> Gummi, Gvendur
  • Guðríður -> Gurrý
  • Guðrún -> Gunna
  • Jón -> Jónsi, Nonni
  • Magnús -> Maggi
  • Sigfús -> Fúsi
  • Sigríður -> Sirrý
  • Sigurður -> Siggi
  • Sólfríður -> Solla
  • Þorbjörg -> Tobba

Italian

In the Italian language there are various ways of composing a hypocoristic:

  • Doubling of an internal syllable to the name; this phenomenon is typical of childhood language:
    • Antonio -> Totò; Salvatore -> Totò; Alfonso -> Fofò
  • Fall of all the proton syllables of the name, that is, those that precede the tonic accent:
    • Alberto -> Berto; Vincenzo -> Enzo; Giovanni -> Vanni; Matteo -> Teo; Francesco -> Cesco
  • Truncation of syllables following the tonic accent, usually used to address the person directly:
    • Andrea -> Andrè; Giulia -> Giù; Antonio -> Antò
  • Doubling of the final syllable of the name, using the last consonant as initial:
    • Giuseppe -> Beppe; Luigi -> Gigi; Daniele -> Lele
  • Contraction of the name, due to the fall of one or more internal consonants and vowels:
    • Giovanni -> Gianni; Durante -> Dante
  • The contraction is widespread even in the case of double or compound names:
    • Maria Luisa -> Marisa; Maria Gabriella -> Mariella; Pier Luigi -> Pigi
  • Truncation to the first or second syllable of the name, with displacement of the tonic accent on the penultimate:
    • Daniele -> Dani; Simonetta -> Simo;

Japanese

In Japan, diminutive names are made by adding an honorific suffix to a person's name, or to part of the name. The suffix -chan is typically added to a girl's name as a term of endearment. The suffix -kun is added to a male's name. Outside of family, the suffix -kun typically implies a relationship between an authority (the caller) and a subordinate. Thus, it is often used by teachers calling on male students, and a boss or supervisor calling on male employees.

The term -chan is occasionally added to the name of an effeminate boy or man. While the addition of -chan to a girl's name is endearment and intimacy, when applied to a male's name, it may be either a term of endearment or it may be added as a derogatory taunt, depending on the context and the nature of the relationship.

Female names
  • Ayaka -> Ayaka-chan -> Aya-chan
  • Mako -> Mako-chan -> M?-chan or Macchan
  • Mao -> M?-chan
  • Reina -> Reina-chan -> Rei-chan
Male names
  • Keita -> Keita-kun
  • Kentar? -> Kentaro-kun -> Kenta-kun
  • Tar? -> Taro-kun -> Takkun
  • Tatsuya -> Tatsuya-kun -> Tatsu-kun

Marathi

  • Ramchandra->Ram

Nepali

  • R?m -> ? R?m?
  • ? P?rvat? -> ? P?ru
  • / Bishnu/Bisnu -> Bishn?
  • ? Rukman? -> ? Ruku

Norwegian

Male:

  • Karl -> Kalle
  • Lars -> Lasse
  • Halvor -> Habben

Female:

  • Gunhild -> Golla
  • Ingebjørg -> Imma
  • Tone -> Tulla
  • Synnøve -> Nøva

Persian

In Persian some of the most used personal names have hypocorisms. Many of these hypocorisms are formed by truncating the name and adding an -i to the end, or by using just a part of a composed name.

Polish

In Polish, there are multiple affixes used to create the diminutive. Some of them are -ka, -sia, -cia, -unia, -enka, -?ka, -lka for feminine nouns and -ek, -u?, -ciek, -czek, -u?, -e?ki, -lki for masculine (among others). Some of the stems change, particularly to more archaic forms of the name (e.g. Andrzej -> J?drek or Agnieszka -> Jagusia). Some masculine names take an -o suffix that is considered archaic form, present in Polish since pagan times. Masculine names occasionally take an -a suffix, which is an archaic Slavic form[] as in Russian (e.g. Jakub -> Kuba). Here is a list of common names with some of them:

  • Adam -> Ada?
  • Agnieszka -> Aga, Agniesia, Agusia, Agunia, Jagusia
  • Aleksandra -> Ola, Ole?ka, Oleczka, Olusia, Olka, Olcia
  • Aleksander -> Olek, Alek, Aleks, Olu?, Oleczek, Oleniek
  • Andrzej -> Andrzejek, J?drek, J?dru?, J?drulek
  • Anna -> Ania, Anka, Anusia, Aneczka, Andzia, Anulka, Anu?ka
  • Antoni -> Antek, Anto?, Antosiek, Tosiek, To?cio, Toni
  • Antonina -> Antonia, Anto?cia, Antonieczka, Tosia, Tola, To?ka
  • Arkadiusz -> Arek, Aru?, Areczek
  • Barbara -> Basia, Ba?ka, Basie?ka, Basieczka, Basiulka, Basiu?ka, Basiunia
  • Bart?omiej -> Bartek, Bartu?, Barteczek
  • Bartosz -> Bartek, Bartu?, Barteczek
  • Dariusz -> Darek, Daru?, Dareczek
  • Edward -> Edek, Edzio, Edzik, Edu?
  • El?bieta -> Ela, El?unia, Elunia, El?unieczka
  • Emilia -> Emilka, Emilusia, Emileczka, Emilunia
  • Eugeniusz -> Genek, Gienek, Genio
  • Ewa -> Ewka, Ewusia, Ewcia, Ewunia
  • Ewelina -> Ewcia, Ewelinka, Ewu?ka, Ewusia, Ewunia
  • Felicja -> Fela, Felka, Felcia, Felisia
  • Gabriel -> Gabry?, Gabrynio
  • Genowefa -> Gienia, Gienka
  • Grzegorz -> Grzesiek, Grze?, Grzesio
  • Hanna -> Hania, Hanka, Haneczka
  • Helena -> Helenka, Helenia, Helenieczka, Helka
  • Halina -> Halinka, Halka, Haleczka
  • Henryka -> Henia, He?ka, Henieczka, Heniusia
  • Henryk -> Henio, Heniek, Henieczek, Henryczek
  • Iwona -> Iwonka, Iwunia, Iwonia Iwoneczka
  • Irena -> Irka, Irusia, Ireczka, Irulka, Irutka
  • Jadwiga -> Jadzia, Jagoda, Jadwisia, Jad?winia, Jagna, Jagusia, Jagienka, Jadziulka, Jadziunia
  • Jakub -> Kuba, Kubu?, Kubeczek, Jakubek, Jakubeczek
  • Jaros?aw -> Jarek, Jaru?, Jareczek
  • Jan -> Ja?, Janek, Jasiek, Jasieczek, Jasiulek
  • Janusz -> Januszek, Januszeczek
  • Jerzy -> Jurek, Jerzyk, Juru?, Jureczek
  • J?drzej -> J?drzejek, J?dru?, J?drulek
  • Joanna -> Joasia, Asia, A?ka, Joa?ka, Joasie?ka, Joasieczka,
  • Julia -> Julka, Julcia, Jula, Juleczka
  • Karolina -> Karolinka, Karolcia, Karoli?cia, Karolineczka
  • Karol -> Karolek, Karoleczek, Karoleniek, "Lolek"
  • Katarzyna -> Kasia, Ka?ka, Kasie?ka, Kasiunia, Kasiunieczka, Kasiulek, Kasiuleczek
  • Kazimierz -> Kazek, Kazio, Kazik, Kaziulek
  • Krzysztof -> Krzysiek, Krzysieczek, Krzysieniek, Krzy?, Krzysio, Krzychu, Krzycho
  • Lech -> Leszek, Lechu, Lesio (Leszek may also appear as a given name)
  • Leszek -> Lech, Lechu, Lesio
  • Maciej -> Maciek, Maciu?, Ma?ko, Maciejek, Maciejeczek
  • Magdalena -> Madzia, Magdalenka, Magdzia, Magdusia, Magda, Magdzie?ka
  • Ma?gorzata -> Ma?gosia, Ma?go?ka, Go?ka, Gosia, Gosie?ka, Ma?gocha
  • Maria -> Marysia, Mary?ka, Mania, Marysie?ka, Marysieczka, Marycha, Majka, Majeczka
  • Marek -> Maru?, Mareczek, Marko
  • Micha? -> Micha?, Micha?ek, Misiek
  • Miros?aw -> Mirek, Mireczek, Mirko, Miru?
  • Pawe? -> Pawe?ek, Pawcio
  • Piotr -> Piotrek, Piotru?
  • Roman -> Romek, Romeczek, Romu?
  • Ryszard -> Rysiek, Rysio, Ryniek
  • S?awomir -> S?awek, S?awu?
  • Tadeusz -> Tadek, Tadzio, Tadzik, Tadziu
  • Tomasz -> Tomek, Tomu?, Tomcio, Tomaszek, Tomeczek
  • Urszula -> Ula, Ulka, Urszulka, Uleczka, Usia, Ule?ka
  • W?adys?aw -> W?adek, W?adzio, W?adzik
  • W?odzimierz -> W?odek, W?odzik
  • Witold -> Witek, Witu?
  • Wojciech -> Wojtek, Wojtu?, Wojteczek
  • Zofia -> Zosia, Zo?ka, Zocha
  • Zbigniew -> Zbyszek, Zbyszko, Zbychu, Zbycho, Zby?

Portuguese

In Portuguese, abbreviations of the name are common, as are suffixes for diminutive and augmentative. For males, the suffixes -inho (diminutive) and -ão (augmentative) are the most used. In several parts of Brazil, -inho is informally replaced by -im in diminutive words. The same occurs with hypocorisms as, for example, Luisim instead of Luisinho. For females, -inha (diminutive) is the most used in Portuguese; augmentatives are uncommon. In compound names some mixed forms can occur, such as José Carlos being called Zeca, or Maria Luísa being called Malu.

The phenomenon also occurs with terms of address other than personal names; for example, a cachorro or cão (both meaning "dog") can be affectionately called cachorrinho or cãozinho (the most common translations of the English word puppy).

Romanian

  • Adrian -> Adi
  • Alexandru -> Ale, Alex, Alecu, Sandu
  • Ana -> Ani?a, Anica
  • Anton -> Toni
  • Andreea -> Deea
  • Bogdan -> Bog, Bogdi, Bogd?, Bog?
  • C?t?lin(a) -> C?t?
  • Claudiu -> Claudel, Clau, Diu, Diu?u
  • Constantin -> Costic?, Costel, Titi, Dinu
  • Cristian -> Cristi
  • Daniel -> Dan, Dani, D?nu?
  • Dorina -> Dori, Dana
  • Dumitru -> Mitic?
  • Elena -> Ema, Lena, Lenu?a
  • Eugen -> Jenic?; Eugenia -> Jeni
  • Fernanda -> Anda
  • Florentina -> Ina, Flori
  • Gabriel -> Gabi
  • Georgeta -> Geta
  • Georgina -> Gina
  • Gheorghe -> Georgic?, Gic?, Gigi, Gu, Ghio
  • Hora?iu -> Hori
  • Ileana -> Nu?i
  • Ion, Ioan -> Ionel, Ionu?, Nelu, Nelu?u, Nu?u
  • Marilena -> Mari
  • Maria -> M?rioara, Mioara
  • Mihai -> Mi?u, Mih?i, Mi
  • Mihaela -> Mela, Ela, Elu?a, Mica
  • Monica -> Moni
  • Nicolae -> Nicu, Nicu?or, Nae, Niki
  • Octavian -> Tavi, Vivi
  • Ovidiu -> Ovi
  • Petre -> Petric?, Petru?, Petri?or
  • Raluca -> Ralu, Uca
  • ?tefan -> Fane, F?nel, F?nic?, ?tef?nel
  • Teodor -> Teo
  • Valentin -> Vali
  • Vasile -> Lic?, Vasilic?, Sile
  • Viorel -> Relu
  • Victoria -> Victori?a, Vica
  • Vlad -> Vl?du?, Du?u

Russian

Russian has a wide variety of diminutive forms for names, to the point that for non-Russian speakers it can be difficult to connect a nickname to the original. Diminutive forms for nouns are usually distinguished with - (-ik), - (-ok), - (-yok) (masculine gender), --/-- (-chk-/-shk-) and -?-/-?- (-on'k-/-en'k-) suffixes. Names can be somewhat more arbitrary, but still follow a loose pattern. A list of common names and their diminutive forms:

  • Aleksey -> Alyosha, Alyoshen'ka, Alyoshka, Lyosha, Lyoshka, Lyoha
  • Aleksandr, Aleksandra -> Sasha, Sashen'ka, Sashechka, Sashka, Sanya, San'ka, Shura, Shurka, Shurik, Shurochka
  • Alyona -> Alyonka, Alyonooshka
  • Anastasiya -> Nastas'ya, Nastya, Nasten'ka, Nastyushka, Nastyona, Nast'ka, Natasha, Asya, Stasya
  • Anatoly -> Tolik, Tolya, Tolyushka, Tolechka, Tolchik
  • Andrey -> Andryusha, Andryukha, Dyusha, Dyukha, Andron, Dron
  • Anna -> Anya, Anyuta, Anyutka, Anechka, Annushka, Nyuta, Nyura, Nyurka, Nyusha
  • Artyom -> Tyoma, Tyomych
  • Avdotya -> Dunya, Dunyasha
  • Boris -> Borya, Boren'ka, Boryusha, Bor'ka
  • Dmitry -> Dima, Dimas, Dimka, Dimochka, Dimulia, Dimon, Dimych, Mitya, Miten'ka, Mit?nka, Mityusha, Mit'ka
  • Eduard -> Edik, Edichka, Ed'ka, Edya, Edyun
  • Elena -> Lena, Lenka, Lenochka, Lenochek, Lenok, Elenchyk, Lenyusya
  • Galina -> Galya, Galka, Galechka
  • Gennady -> Gena, Gesha, Genka, Genych, Genchik, Genochka
  • Georgiy -> Zhora, Gosha, Goga
  • Gleb -> Gleba, Glebochka, Glebka
  • Grigoriy -> Grisha, Grinya, Grikha
  • Igor -> Igoryok, Igoryochek, Gosha, Garik
  • Irina -> Ira, Irochka, Irunya, Irisha, Irishka, Irka, Irinka, Irusya
  • Ivan -> Vanya, Ivanushka, Vanechka, Van'ka, Vanyusha
  • Kirill -> Kiryusha, Kirya
  • Konstantin -> Kostya, Kosten'ka, Kostik, Kost'ka, Kotya, Koka
  • Kseniya, Oksana -> Oksanka, Ksana, Sana, Ksyuha, Ksyusha
  • Larisa -> Lora, Lorka, Larochka
  • Leonid -> Lyonya, Lyonechka, Lyon'ka, Lyonchik
  • Lev -> Lyova, Lyovochka, Lyovka
  • Lyudmila -> Lyuda, Lyusya, Mila
  • Lyubov -> Luba, Lyuba, Lyubochka
  • Margarita (given name) -> Rita, Ritka, Ritusya, Ritunya, Ritik
  • Mariya -> Masha, Manya, Man'ka, Manyunya, Mashen'ka, Mashechka, Mashka, Marushka, Marusya, Makha
  • Mikhail -> Misha, Mishen'ka, Mischechka, Mishanya, Mishka, Mishutka, Mikha
  • Nadezhda -> Nadya, Nad'ka, Naden'ka, Nadyusha
  • Nataliya -> Natasha, Nata, Natashen'ka, Natakha, Natusyen'ka, Natusik, Natashka
  • Nikolay -> Kolya, Kolen'ka, Kolyunya, Nikolen'ka, Nikolasha, Kol'ka, Kolyan
  • Oleg -> Olezhka, Olezha, Olezhek, Olegushka, Lega, Lyoka
  • Olga -> Olya, Olen'ka, Olechka
  • Pavel -> Pasha, Pashka, Pashen'ka, Pavlik, Pakha, Pakhan, Pavlusha, Poshik
  • Pyotr -> Petya, Pet'ka, Peten'ka, Petrusha, Petruha, Petyunya
  • Radimir -> Radya, Mira
  • Roman -> Roma, Romka, Romochka, Romych
  • Sergey -> Seryozha, Seryoga, Seryozhen'ka, Seryozhka, Seriy, Sega
  • Stepan -> Styopa, Styopan'ka, Stepan'chik, Styopushka, Styopka
  • Stanislav-> Stasya, Stas, Stasik, Stasen'ka
  • Sofiya -> Sonya, Sonechka, Sofa, Sofochka
  • Svetlana -> Sveta, Svetochka, Svetyushka, Svetka
  • Svyatoslav, Vyacheslav -> Slava, Slavik, Slavochka
  • Taisiya -> Tasya, Taya
  • Tatyana -> Tanya, Tanechka, Tanyusha, Tan'ushka, Tan'ka, Tan'chik, Tata, Tatochka
  • Vadim -> Vadik, Vadimka, Vadya, Vadisha, Vadyusha
  • Valentina -> Valya
  • Valeriy -> Valera, Valerka, Valerik
  • Valeria -> Lera, Lerusha, Lerka, Valera
  • Varvara -> Varya, Var'ka, Varyechka
  • Vasiliy -> Vasya, Vasyok, Vasen'ka, Vasilyok
  • Viacheslav -> Slava, Slavik, Vyachik, Slavyan, Slavutich
  • Viktor -> Vitya, Viten'ka, Vit'ka, Vityok, Vityay
  • Vitaly -> Vitalik, Vitalya
  • Viktoriya -> Vika, Vita, Vikulechka, Vikusik
  • Vladimir -> Volodya, Volod'ka, Voloden'ka, Vova, Vovka, Vovochka, Vovan
  • Vladislav -> Vlad, Vladik, Vladyusha, Vladya, Slava, Slavik
  • Yaroslav -> Yarik, Yaroshka, Slava, Slavik, Slavochka
  • Yefim -> Fima, Fimochka
  • Yekaterina -> Katerina, Katya, Katechka, Katen'ka, Katinka, Katyukha, Katyusha, Kat'ka
  • Yevgeny -> Zhenya, Zhen'ka, Zheka, Zhenyok, Zhenechka
  • Yevgenia -> Zhenya, Zhenechka, Zhen'ka
  • Yuriy -> Yura, Yurka, Yurik, Yurok

Some names can also be modified with a -ka ending to add a further level of familiarity, but are not normally used for adults who are not family members.

Scottish Gaelic

In Scottish Gaelic names, the most common diminutives involve -an for male names and -ag or -aid for female names.

Serbian

  • Aleksandar -> Aca, Aco, Sale, Sa?a, Aleks, Aleksa
  • Aleksandra -> Sandra, Sanja, Sa?a, Sa?ka, Aleks, Aleksi?, Aleksinka, Aleksica, Acika
  • Ana -> Anica, Anka, An?i, Anu?ka
  • An?elka, An?elija -> An?a
  • Arsenije, Arsen -> Arsa, Arso
  • Biljana -> Bilja, Biki
  • Blagoje -> Bla?a, Bla?o, Blago, Blagi
  • Bogdan, Bogoljub, Bogoje -> Bogi, Bo?a, Bo?a, Boki, Bogo, Bole
  • Bojan -> Boki, Bole
  • Borislav, Bori?a, Borivoje -> Bora, Boro
  • Bosiljka -> Bosa, Boska
  • Bo?idar -> Bo?a, Bo?o, Bo?ko, Bole, Boki
  • Branislav, Branimir, Branko -> Bane, Brana, Brano, Brane
  • Branislava, Branka -> Brana
  • Budimir -> Buda, Budo
  • ?edomir -> ?eda, ?edo
  • Danica -> Dana, Danka, Danju?ka
  • Danilo, Danko -> Da?a, Da?o
  • Darko -> Dare, Darun
  • Dejan -> Deki, Dejo, Deks
  • Desanka -> Desa
  • Dimitrije -> Mita, Mito, Mitar
  • Dragana -> Gaga
  • Dragan -> Gaga, Gagi
  • Dragica, Dragojla -> Draga
  • Dragi?a -> Dragi, Gidra, Gi?a
  • Dragoljub, Dragoslav, Dragomir -> Dra?a, Drak?e, Dragi, Gidra, Gagi
  • Dra?en -> Dra?a, Dra?o, ?odra, Drale
  • Du?an -> Du?ko, Dule, Duki, Duda, Duks, Du?a
  • ?or?e, ?or?ije -> ?oka, ?oko, ?ole
  • ?ura?, ?ur?e -> ?ura, ?uro
  • Filip -> Fi?a, Fi?o
  • Goran -> Goksi, Go?a, Gogi
  • Gordana -> Goga, Goca
  • Ivan, Ivica -> Ivke, Ivo, Ivko, I?a, I?o, I?lo, Ivek
  • Ivana, Ivanka -> Iva, Ivka, Ika
  • Katarina -> Ka?a, Kata, Kale, Keti, Ket
  • Kosta, Konstantin -> Kole, Ko?a
  • Lena -> Len?e, Lenka
  • Ljiljana -> Ljilja
  • Ljubomir, Ljubi?a, Ljubisav, Ljubodrag -> Ljuba, Ljubo
  • Jasna, Jadranka -> Jaca
  • Jelena, Jelica -> Jela, Jeca, Jecika
  • Jovan, Jovica -> Jova, Jovo, Joca, Jole
  • Jovana, Jovanka -> Joka, Joksi, Joksimovi?, Joksimka, Joksica, Jocika, Jokica, Joca
  • Lazar -> Laza, Lazo, Laki
  • Leposava, Lepava -> Lepa
  • Maksim, Maksimilijan -> Maks, Maksa, Makso
  • Marija, Marica, Marijana -> Mara, Ma?a, Maca, Maki
  • Marko -> Mare
  • Milan, Milo?, Mihailo, Mihajlo, Miljan, Milovan, Miodrag, Milivoje, Milorad, Milutin, Milun, Milenko, Milojko, Milisav, Milomir, Miomir, Mili? -> Mi?ko, Mi?a, Mi?o, ?omi, Mi?ko, Mi?a, Mi?o, ?omi, Mile, Milo, Mija, Mijo
  • Milena, Milica, Milijana, Milka -> Mica, Mila
  • Mirjana, Miroslava -> Mira, Mirka
  • Miroslav, Miroje -> Mika, Miki, Miro, Mirko
  • Mladen, Mla?an -> Mla?a, Mla?o, ?omla
  • Mom?ilo, Momir -> Moma, Momo
  • Nade?da, Nadica -> Nada
  • Nata?a, Natalija -> Nata
  • Neboj?a -> Ne?a, Ne?o, ?one, Nebo
  • Nemanja, Nenad -> Ne?a, Neca, Ne?o, ?one, Nele, Neno
  • Nikola -> Nid?a, Nid?o, D?oni, Nino
  • Ninoslav, Nino -> Nind?a
  • Nikolina, Nikoleta, Ninoslava -> Nina
  • Ognjen -> Ogi
  • Pantelija -> Panta, Panto
  • Pavle -> Paja, Pajo
  • Petar, Perica -> Pera, Pero
  • Predrag -> Pe?a, Pre?a, Predo
  • Radmila, Radojka -> Rada, Rajka
  • Radomir, Radoslav, Radislav, Radisav, Radi?a, Rado?, Rada?in, Radovan, Radoje, Radojica, Radivoje, Radenko -> Rade, Ra?a, Ra?o, Rajko
  • Ratimir, Ratibor, Ratko -> Rato
  • Ru?ica -> Ru?a, Ru?ka
  • Sandra, Sanja -> Saki, Saki?, Sakinka, Sakica
  • Sla?ana -> Sla?a, ?osla
  • Slavoljub, Slavomir, Slavi?a, Slaven -> Slavko, Slave
  • Slobodan -> Sloba, Slobo, Boba, Bodo
  • Sne?ana, Snje?ana -> Sne?a, Snje?a, Sne?ka, Sneki
  • Srboljub, Srbislav -> Srba, Srbo
  • Sreten -> Sreta, Srele
  • Sr?an -> Sr?a, Sr?o, Srle, Srki
  • Stanislav, Stanimir, Stanoje, Stanko -> Stane
  • Stevan, Stevica, Stefan -> Steva, Stevo
  • Svetislav, Svetozar, Svetomir, Svetolik -> Sveta, Sveto
  • Svetlana, Svjetlana -> Ceca, Seka
  • Tanasije -> Tasa, Ta?ko
  • Tatjana, Tamara -> Tanja, Tami, Taca, Ta?a
  • Tihomir -> Tika, Tiho
  • Todor -> To?a
  • Tomislav -> Toma, Tomo, Tole
  • Uro? -> Urke
  • Vasilije, Vasilj -> Vasa, Vaso, Vasko
  • Velibor -> Bora, Boro, Velja, Veljo
  • Velimir, Veljko -> Velja, Veljo, Veki
  • Veroljub, Veroslav -> Verko
  • Veselin -> Vesa, Veso, Vesko
  • Vesna -> Veca, Veki
  • Violeta -> Viki
  • Vitomir -> Vita, Vito
  • Vladimir, Vladan -> Vlada, Vlado, Vlatko
  • Vlastimir -> Vlasta
  • Vojislav, Vojin -> Voja, Vojo
  • Vuk, Vuka?in, Vukan -> Vule, Vu?ko, Vu?ina, Vuk?a, Vuksa, Vuki
  • Zvonimir -> Zvonko
  • Zoran -> Zoki, Kiza, Zoksi
  • Zorica, Zorana -> Zoka
  • ?elimir -> ?eljko
  • ?ivorad, ?ikica, ?ivojin, ?ivko -> ?ika, ?ile

Sinhala

  • Kasun -> Kassa
  • Madushanka, Madhuranga, Madhumaali -> Madhu
  • Ravindra, Ravinaatha -> Ravi
  • Tharindu -> Thariya
  • Amandhi -> Amaa
  • Dushmantha, Dushan -> Dush
  • Aravindha -> Araa
  • Arjuna -> Arju
  • Kaluwithaarana -> Kalu
  • Chamindha, Chaamikara -> Chami

Slovak

In Slovak, feminine diminutives usually end in -ka and masculine in -ko.

  • Alexandra -> Sa?a, Sa?ka
  • Mária -> Marika, Majka
  • Jakub -> Jakubko, Kubo, Kubko
  • Jozef -> Jo?o, Jo?ko
  • Kristína -> Kika, Kristínka
  • Martin, Matej -> Ma?o, Ma?ko
  • Matú? -> Matú?ko
  • Natália -> Natálka
  • Rastislav -> Ras?o, Rastík
  • Stanislav -> Stano, Stanko
  • ?tefan -> Pi?ta, ?tevko

Slovene

In Slovene, diminutives are very common. In many cases they have almost completely replaced their originals (such is the case of ?pela for Elizabeta, Branko for Branislav, or Alenka, Majda, and Magda for Magdalena). Especially among female names, the etymological link of the diminutive with the original name has been lost and the diminutive is perceived by most speakers to be a separate name (such is the case for Mojca, deriving from Marija, or Maja and Alenka deriving from Magdalena). In other cases, especially among male names, this link has been kept, but frequently boys are given diminutives as their given names (such as Miha instead of Mihael, Ivo instead of Ivan, or Nejc instead of Jernej etc.)

  • Albert -> Bert, Berti, Berto
  • Aleksander -> Sandi, Sa?a, Sa?o, Aleks, Sanja
  • Aleksandra -> Sandra, Sa?a
  • Aleksej -> Ale?, Aleks
  • Alojzij, Alojz -> Lojze, Lojz
  • Amalija -> Malija, Mal?i
  • Ana -> Anica, Anka, An?ka, Anita, Anja
  • Andrej -> Drejc, Drejko
  • Angela -> Angelca, Angelika
  • Anton -> Tone, Toni (regional)
  • Antonija -> Ton?ka
  • Avgu?tin -> Gu?ti, Gu?tin (regional)
  • Benjamin -> Beno
  • Bogoslav -> Bogo
  • Bo?idar -> Bo?o, Bo?ko
  • Branislav -> Branko
  • Cecilija -> Cilija, Cilka
  • Dana -> Danica
  • Dimitrij -> Mitja, Mito
  • Edvard -> Edo, Edi
  • Egidij -> Tilen, Ilj, Tilj, Tiljan (regional), Tiljo (regional)
  • Elizabeta -> ?pela, Beti, Betka
  • Ferdinand -> Ferdo
  • Filip -> Lipe
  • France, Franc, Fran?i?ek -> Fran, Frane, Franci, Fran?ek, Franek (regional), Feri (regional)
  • Fran?i?ka -> Francka
  • Gregor, Gregorij -> Grega
  • Helena -> Alenka, Lenka
  • Henrik -> Hinko, Hari, Henko, Riko, Riki
  • Ignacij, Ignac -> Nace
  • Ivan -> Ivo, Vane, Vanko
  • Ivana -> Ivanka, Vanka
  • Jakob -> Jaka
  • Janez -> Janko, Jani, Jan, An?e, An?ej, Anzej (regional)
  • Jernej -> Nejc, Nejo
  • Jo?ef, Josip -> Jo?e, Jo?ko, Pepi (regional), Ju?
  • Jo?efa -> Pepca, Jo?ica
  • Jurij -> Jure, Juro (regional)
  • Karel -> Karlo, Karol, ?arli
  • Katarina -> Katja, Katra
  • Leopold -> Polde
  • Lucija -> Lu?ka
  • Magdalena -> Maja, Alenka, Majda, Magda
  • Margareta -> Meta, Metka
  • Marija -> Mojca, Mara, Marica, Marina, Mojcej (regional)
  • Martin -> Tine
  • Martina -> Tina
  • Matej, Matja? -> Matija, Matic, Tja?
  • Mihael -> Miha
  • Nikolaj -> Niko, Nik, Miki (regional)
  • Pavel -> Pavle
  • Peter -> Pero
  • Rudolf -> Rudi
  • Sebastijan, Sebastjan -> Bo?tjan
  • Stanislav -> Stanko, Slavko
  • Stanislava -> Slavka
  • ?tefanija -> ?tefka
  • Terezija -> Zinka
  • Ur?a -> Ur?ka
  • Valentin -> Tine
  • Valentina -> Tina
  • Vincenc -> Cene, Vinko

Spanish

Spanish forms diminutives by adding one of several diminutive suffixes: -ito/a, -cito/a, -ecito/a, -ico/a, -cico/a -illo/a, -cillo/a, -uelo/a, -zuelo/a, -ete/a, -ín, -iño/a:

  • Juana -> Juanita
  • Jorge -> Jorgito
  • Antonio -> Antoñín, Antoñito, Antoñete, Antoñillo, Toño, Toñito

It is common for a person to be known by 2 first names: José Luis, María Teresa, Juan Carlos, etc. Combining the 2 names into one is another common way to form a hypocorism:

Many Spanish nicknames, however, are or can seem very unlike the original name. Notice, however, that the -ch- [t?] sound is common in these diminutives:

  • Alberto -> Berto, Beto
  • Alfonso -> Fon, Fonso, Fonsi, Poncho, Foncho
  • Alicia -> Licha
  • Anastasio -> Tasio, Tacho
  • Aniceto -> Cheto
  • Antonio -> Toño, Toni, Antón
  • Beatriz -> Bea, Beti
  • Bruna -> Bru
  • Carlos -> Carlitos, Carloncho
  • Concepción -> Concha, Conchita, Conchi
  • Consuelo -> Chelo, Consu
  • Diego -> Yago
  • Dolores -> Lola, Lolita, Loló
  • Eduardo -> Edu, Edy, Lalo
  • Enrique -> Quique, Rico
  • Ernesto -> Neto
  • Feliciano -> Chano
  • Felipe -> Feli, Pipe
  • Federico -> Fede, Quico, Kiko
  • Fernanda -> Fer, Nanda, Feña
  • Fernando -> Fer, Fernan, Nando, Fercho, Feña
  • Francisco -> Paco, Curro, Pancho, Pacho, Pacheco, Quico, Francis, Fran, Frasco
  • Graciela -> Chela, Gra
  • Guadalupe -> Lupe, Lupita
  • Guillermo -> Guille, Guillo, Memo, Picho, Willy
  • Ignacia -> Nacha
  • Ignacio -> Nacho, Igna
  • Inmaculada -> Inma, Macu
  • Isabel -> Isa, Chavela, Chabela, Chábel, Chava, Chabe
  • Jacinto -> Chinto
  • Jesús -> Chuy, Chus, Chucho, Suso, Jesusín
  • Jorge -> Coque, Coco
  • José -> Pepe, Chepe
  • José María -> Chema, Josema
  • Juan -> Juancho, Juani
  • Laura -> Lala, Lau, Yaya
  • Leonardo -> Leo, Nardo
  • Lidia -> Yiya
  • Lorenzo -> Lencho
  • Lucero -> Lucha
  • Luis -> Lucho, Güicho, Luchín
  • Luisa -> Lucha
  • Manuel -> Manu, Manolo, Lolo
  • Marcelo -> Marce, Chelo
  • María Fernanda -> Máfer, Marifer
  • María José -> Majo, Coté, Marijose
  • Marisela -> Chabela, Chela
  • Maruja -> Cuca, Maru
  • Maximina -> Chimina
  • Mercedes -> Meche, Merci
  • Miguel -> Migue, Miguelo
  • Nicolás -> Nico
  • Osvaldo -> Ozzie, Waldo, Valdo
  • Patricio -> Pato
  • Ramón -> Moncho, Monchi, Ramoncito
  • Refugio, María del Refugio -> Cuca
  • Renato -> Rena
  • Roberto -> Rober, Berto, Beto, Tito
  • Rodrigo -> Rodri, Yoyo
  • Rosario -> Chayo, Charo
  • Rocío -> Chío
  • Santiago -> Santi, Chago
  • Sergio -> Checo, Checho
  • Silvia -> Chiva
  • Socorro -> Coco
  • Soledad -> Sole, Lola, Sol
  • Susana -> Susi, Su
  • Tomás -> Tommy, Tomi, Tom, Tomo
  • Vicente -> Vicen, Chente

Also, several names (especially female) may have their endings cut off and the vowel -"i" added at the end in the formation of pet names:

  • Beatriz -> Beti
  • Javier -> Javi (m.), Javy
  • Leticia -> Leti
  • Pilar, María del Pilar -> Pili
  • Susana -> Susi
  • Yolanda -> Yoli

Speakers of Philippine languages follow the same system.

Swedish

Male hypocorisms are often based on the first syllable of the name (shortening it if it is long), plus the ending -e. Hypocorisms are almost always two-syllabic with a grave accent.

These forms may be quite old: the oldest possible attestation may be the name Sibbi on the Rök runestone dating to about 800 AD.

Like male hypocorisms, female hypocorisms tend to be bisyllabic:

  • Caroline -> Carro, Line
  • Charlotta -> Lotta
  • Katarina -> Kattis, Katta
  • Kristina -> Stina, Tina
  • Magdalena -> Malena, Lena
  • Maria -> Mia
  • Susanna -> Sussi, Sanna

Turkish

  • Abdullah -> Apo
  • Fatma -> Fato?, Fato
  • Hasan -> Haso
  • Hatice -> Hatçe
  • ?brahim -> ?bo
  • Mehmet -> Memo
  • Süleyman -> Sülo
  • Mustafa -> M?st?k
  • Muzaffer -> Muzo

Welsh

  • Bronwen -> Bron
  • Catrin -> Cadi
  • David -> Dai, Dewi
  • Elen -> Nel, Neli
  • Elisabeth -> Bethan, Beth, Lisa, Leusa
  • Esther -> Nesta
  • Geraint -> Ger
  • Huw -> Huwcyn
  • Ioan -> Jac
  • Iorwerth -> Iori
  • Myfanwy -> Myfi
  • Richard -> Dic
  • Siôn -> Siôni
  • Tomos -> Tomi, Twm

Yiddish/ Modern Hebrew

As rule of thumb, adding the suffix 'le/ 'ale/ 'ele or sometimes simply an "-l" to the name makes it diminutive, for both feminine and masculine names. It is also common practice in Hebrew, mostly by Ashkenazi Jewish people. In most cases, as the names would be spelled using the Hebrew alphabet, an apostrophe would separate the name from the suffix. Common anglicized Latin alphabet spellings/ translations are in parentheses.

  • Dov -> ' Dovale, Dov'ale
  • David -> ' Davidle, David'le, '? Davidl
  • ? Zelda -> ?' Zeldale, Zelda'le
  • Khaya -> ' Khayale, Khaya'le
  • Moyshe -> ' Moyshele, Moyshe'le
  • ? Rina -> ?' Rinale, Rina'le

It also works with names which are not predominantly Jewish, for example:

  • ? Gerda ->' Gerdale
  • Craig ->' Craigele, Craigale

Another suffix used by Yiddish and Hebrew speakers could be 'ke, 'ka and also "i(n)ka"/"yi(n)ka":

  • David -> ' Davidke, David'ke
  • Tal -> Talinka
  • Tzvi -> Tzvika

Other diminutive and endearing suffixes in common use by Yiddish and Hebrew speakers are "ush", "chuk" and "inyu":

  • Gai -> Gaiush
  • ? Rivka -> Rivkush
  • Dan -> ' Danchuk
  • Khen -> ' Khenchuk
  • Ber -> Berinyu

With single syllable names a form of endearment exists where the name is repeated twice consecutively, or with longer names, the last syllable might be repeated, for example:

  • Dan -> ? Dandan
  • Gai (Guy)-> Gaigai
  • Tal -> ? Taltal
  • Ron -> Ronron
  • - Netali (Natalie)-> -? Netalili

Many names have their own versions of nicknames specifically for them which are common in Yiddish and in Modern Hebrew:

  • Avraham (Abraham)-> Avi
  • Eliyahu (Elijah)-> Eli (applies to most names with the prefix - Eli: Elimelekh, Eliezer, Elisha, etc.)
  • Ariel -> ? Arik
  • ? Bilha (Bilhah)-> ? Bili (Billie)
  • Binyamin (Benjamin)-> Beni (Benny)
  • Geula -> ? Guli
  • David -> ? Dudu
  • Zekharya (Zachary)-> Zaki (Zacky)
  • Khana (Hannah)-> Khani
  • ? Yosef (Joseph)-> Sefi, ? Yosi (Josey)
  • Yekhezkel (Ezekiel)-> Khezi
  • ? Ya'akov (Jacob) -> ? Kobi (Coby)
  • ? Yitzhak (Isaac)-> Itzik
  • Yisrael (Israel)-> ? Srul, Srulik
  • Moshe (Moses)-> ? Moysh , Mosh , Mushon, ? Muki
  • Shmuel (Samuel)-> Shmulik , ? Muli
  • ? Rivka (Rebecca)-> ? Rivi , ? Rika , ? Riki (Ricki)
  • ? Refael (Raphael)-> Rafi

Yoruba

Many Yoruba names are complex and normally can be shortened into many small simple phrases. Many Yoruba names have the common roots of Ade- meaning "crown", Olu- meaning "lord," Ola- meaning "wealth", Ifa- the God of Oracle, and Akin- "valor". Yoruba hypocorisms are often based off these roots or the suffixes. Many include just dropping the first syllable of the name as well.

  • Abimbola -> Bimbo
  • Abisola -> Bisi, Bisola
  • Abosede -> Bose, Bosede
  • Akinwande -> Akin, Wande
  • Folajinmi -> Fola, "Jimmy", Jinmi
  • Folasade -> Fola, Ola, Sade
  • Fehintoluwa -> Fehin, Olu, Tolu
  • Gbolahan -> Gbola, Bola
  • Ololade -> Lade, Lola, Lolade
  • Olubode -> Bode
  • Olubukola -> Bukki, Bukky, Bukola
  • Olusegun -> Segun
  • Oluwadamilare -> Dami, "Dare
  • Oluwadamilola -> Dami, Dammy
  • Oluwole -> Wole

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, online edition: "hypocorism". Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  2. ^ calling name
  3. ^ http://www.cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp/~trobb/nicklist.html
  4. ^ a b c Barber, Charles; Beal, Joan C.; Shaw, Philip A., eds. (2012) [1st pub. 1993]. "Middle English". The English Language: A Historical Introduction (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-107-39472-8. LCCN 2008053625. OCLC 968789066. OL 26003518M. [T]he pet-names Nan, Ned and Nell are derived from 'mine Anne', 'mine Edward' and 'mine Ellen'.
  5. ^ "Dek-na?a leciono". Esperanto.mv.ru. Retrieved 2013.
  6. ^ Wennergren, Bertilo (1 January 2020). "J° kaj PJ°" (in Esperanto). Retrieved 2020.

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