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The Il-14 was developed as a replacement for the widespread Douglas DC-3 and its Soviet built version, the Lisunov Li-2. A development of the earlier Ilyushin Il-12, (that first flew in 1945), the Il-14 was intended for use in both military and civil applications. The Il-12 had major problems with poor engine-out behaviour. Also, it had less payload capability than was originally planned (although the Il-12 was intended to carry 32 passengers, in service it only carried 18, which was uneconomical).
The development into the Il-14 was a vast improvement over the Il-12, with a new wing and a broader tailfin. It was powered by two 1,400 kW (1,900 hp) Shvetsov ASh-82T-7 radial piston engines. These changes greatly improved aerodynamic performance in engine-out conditions.
Total production of the Il-14 was 1,345 aircraft: 1,065 in Moscow (Moscow Machinery Plant Nr.30) from 1956 to 1958 and Tashkent (Factory Nr.84) from 1954 to 1958. Licensed production of 80 in East Germany by VEB Flugzeugwerke Dresden (FWD) from 1956 to 1959 and 203 in Czechoslovakia by Avia, Prague, from 1956 to 1960. It was rugged and reliable, and thus was widely used in rural areas with poor quality airfields.
Albanian Air Force. 11 have been operated by the Albanian Air Force from 1957. None remain in service as of 1999. 8 Il-14M were delivered from 1957, with four remaining by 1979. A single Avia built Il-14T along with 2 East Germany built Il-14P transports were delivered in 1983 and retired by 1996.
Czechoslovakian Air Force. 50 were operated from 1958, though most were locally built examples delivered from 1968. Most were retired prior to the split of Czechoslovakia, though a small number may have served briefly with its successor states.
East German Air Force. 30 were delivered, beginning with 11 Ilyushin built aircraft from 1956 and deliveries of East Germany built aircraft commencing the following year and totaling 19 examples. 20 remained by 1979, and all were withdrawn by 1990, with none being passed on to the unified German Luftwaffe.
Egyptian Air Force. 70 were operated by the Egyptian Air Force from 1955. Most were Soviet built models, but at least one East Germany built Il-14P was delivered in 1957. A number of aircraft were destroyed during fighting with Israel, but 26 survived to the peace of 1979. Acquisition of Western aircraft from then on led to the retirement of the Il-14 by 1994.
Romanian Air Force. 33 were delivered from 1955, including 30 East Germany built Il-14P models as well as 3 Il-14M aircraft delivered in 1961. Only 4 remained in service by 1979, with the last Il-14M being retired in 1983. None remained in service by 1993.
Very few examples remain airworthy, with some still in use for freight duties, and a handful maintained by aviation clubs and enthusiasts. Today only three aircraft remain airworthy in Russia: one, called "Soviet Union" at Gorelovo airfield near St. Petersburg, another, called "Penguin" has performed its maiden flight after restoration on 1.10.2012 and now is based at Stupino airfield near Moscow. The third aircraft, called "The Blue Dream" performed its maiden flight from Tushino airfield to Stupino airfield in May 2014 after more than 10 years repair performed by a team of aero enthusiasts. There was also one Il-14 that was possibly airworthy in the United States, but its registration was cancelled in July 2014.
Malev - 10 were operated in Hungary from 1956, two of them by the Hungarian government, eight of them by Malév Hungarian Airlines. The first three of Malév's planes were built in the Soviet Union, with the remaining five Il-14P produced by East Germany. Malév's planes remained operational until 1970, the two planes of the government were retired in 1978. All the Hungarian Il-14 were sold to the Soviet Union for use by the Arctic aviation, where the last one was withdrawn from service in December 1990.
Yugoslav Airlines purchased six Il-14M aircraft in 1957. They were withdrawn in 1963 because they were not as profitable as the Convair CV-440, used by JAT in this period. They were given to the Yugoslav Air Force after the purchase of the Sud Aviation Caravelle and were used until 1974.