Indo-Aryan Languages
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Indo-Aryan Languages

South Asia
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
ISO 639-2 / 5inc
Linguasphere59= (phylozone)
1978 map showing geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages. (Urdu is included under Hindi. Romani, Domari, and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.) Dotted/striped areas indicate where multilingualism is common.

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are a major language family of the Indian subcontinent. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. In the early 21st century, Indo-Aryan languages were spoken by more than 800 million people, primarily in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.[2] Moreover, there are large immigrant and/or expatriate Indo-Aryan speaking communities in northwestern Europe, Western Asia, North America and Australia. There are about 219 known Indo-Aryan languages. [3]

The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million),[4]Bengali (242 million),[5]Punjabi (about 100 million),[6] and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million.[7]



Proto-Indo-Aryan, or sometimes Proto-Indic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the pre-Vedic Indo-Aryans. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500-300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, however, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic.

Indian subcontinent

Old Indo-Aryan

The earliest evidence of the group is from Mitanni Indo-Aryan.[8] The only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords.[8]

Rigvedic Indo-Aryan has been used in the ancient preserved religious hymns of the Rigveda, the earliest Vedic literature.

From the Rigvedic language, "Sanskrit" (literally "put together", meaning perfected or elaborated) developed as the prestige language of culture, science and religion, as well as the court, theatre, etc. Sanskrit is, by convention, referred to by modern scholars as 'Classical Sanskrit' in contradistinction to the so-called 'Rigvedic Sanskrit', which is largely intelligible to Sanskrit speakers.[]

Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)

Mitanni inscriptions show some middle indo aryan characteristics along with old indic, for example sapta in old indo aryan becomes satta ('pt' is transformed into middle indo aryan 'tt'). According to S.S. Misra this language can be similar to Buddhist hybrid sanskrit which might be infact not a mixed language but an early middle indo aryan occurring much before prakrit.[9][10].

Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardhamagadhi Prakrit, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan languages. Apabhraa is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the ?ravakac?ra of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book.

The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent in the 13th-16th centuries. Under the flourishing Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian, Arabic, and Turkic elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects.

The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.

New Indo-Aryan

Dialect continuum

The Indo-Aryan languages of North India and Pakistan form a dialect continuum. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskritized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar to Rajasthan. The spoken New Indo-Aryan dialects from Assam in the east to the borders of Afghanistan in the west form a linguistic continuum across the plains of North India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Medieval Hindustani

In the Central Zone Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani. Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit and Persian, with these influences leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language.[11][12] This state of affairs continued until the division of the British Indian Empire in 1947, when Hindi became the official language in India and Urdu became official in Pakistan. Despite the different script the fundamental grammar remains identical, the difference is more sociolinguistic than purely linguistic.[13][14][15] Today it is widely understood/spoken as a second or third language throughout South Asia[16] and one of the most widely known languages in the world in terms of number of speakers.


Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that a Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrians in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and the Ashvins (Nasatya) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general[17]

Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mi?ta-nnu (= miha, ? Sanskrit mha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg, 1986-2000; Vol. II:358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaumara) as ?tasmara "who thinks of ?ta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridaa, biriiaa) as Pr?tva "Whose Horse is Dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as Citraratha "Whose Chariot is Shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (?atti?aza) as S?tiv?ja "Winning the Race Price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), ?ubandhu as Subandhu "Having Good Relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (t?i?eratta, tu?ratta, etc.) as *t?aia?aratha, Vedic Tvastar "Whose Chariot is Vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).

Romani, Lomavren, and Domari languages


Domari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the MENA. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan, in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon.[18] Based on the systematicity of sound changes, we know with a fair degree of certainty that the names Domari and Romani derive from the Indo-Aryan word ?om.[19]


Lomavren is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to Romani and Domari[20] and the Armenian language.


The Romani language is usually included in the Western Indo-Aryan languages.[21] Romani -- spoken mainly in various parts of Europe -- is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case - both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest.

There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language.

Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882-1888) showed that the Romani language is to be classed as a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Romani could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000.

The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, and its reduction to just a two-way case system, nominative vs. oblique. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation. Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this old system even today.

It is argued that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine (?g) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have been cited as evidence that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, perhaps even as late as the tenth century.


There can be no definitive enumeration of Indic languages because their dialects merge into one another. The major ones are illustrated here; for the details, see the dedicated articles.

The classification follows Masica (1991) and Kausen (2006).

Percentage of Indo-Aryan speakers by native language:

  Hindustani (including Hindi and Urdu) (25.4%)
  Bengali (20.7%)
  Punjabi (9.4%)
  Marathi (5.6%)
  Gujarati (3.8%)
  Bhojpuri (3.1%)
  Maithili (2.6%)
  Odia (2.5%)
  Sindhi (1.9%)
  Others (25%)


Kashmiri - 5.6 million speakers
Pashayi - 400,000 speakers

Northern Zone

Central Pahari
Eastern Pahari

Northwestern Zone

Dogri - 4 million speakers

Western Zone

Ethnologue lists the following languages under the Western Zone that are not already covered in other subgroups:[22]

  • Rajasthani proper - 25.8 million speakers
  • Bagri - 2.1 million speakers
Marwari - 22 million speakers
Malvi - 5.6 million speakers
Khandeshi - 1.9 million speakers
Domari - 4 million speakers
Romani - 1.5 million speakers

Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi)

Indic, Central Zone

Parya - 4,000 speakers

Western Hindi
Eastern Hindi

Parya historically belonged to the Central Zone but lost intelligibility with other languages of the group due to geographic distance and numerous grammatical and lexical innovations.

Eastern Zone

These languages derive from Magadhan Apabhraa Prakrit.

Tharu - 1.9 million speakers
Odia () - 33 million speakers
Bengali-Assamese (-?)

Southern Zone languages

This group of languages developed from Maharashtri Prakrit. It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.


Insular Indic

  • Mahl - 10,000 speakers

The Insular Indic languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages.


The following languages are related to each other, but otherwise unclassified within Indo-Aryan:


Chinali-Lahul Lohar[24]

The following other poorly attested languages are listed as unclassified within the Indo-Aryan family by Ethnologue 17:

Also Degaru, Mina, Bhalay and Gowlan are all names for the Gowli caste, rather than a language.


The Kholosi language is a more recently discovered Indo-Aryan language spoken in two villages in southern Iran and remains currently unclassified.



Stop positions[25]

The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: labial, dental, "retroflex", palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The "retroflex" position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as [t?], Masica (1991:94) claims [c?] to be a more accurate rendering.

Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates [ts] instead of palatal, though some among them retain [t?] in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. /i/), before /j/, or when geminated. Alveolar as an additional point of articulation occurs in Marathi and Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (*t, t? > /t?/), and in Kashmiri. The addition of a retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed /q/), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > /s/, which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian, Sinhala (though there have been other sources of a secondary /ts/), and Southern Mewari.

Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which may lose its labial and velar articulations through spirantization in many positions (> [f, x]).

Stop series Language(s)
, , , , Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Sindhi, Gujarati, Bihari, Maithili, Sinhala, Odia, Standard Bengali, dialects of Rajasthani (except Lamani, NW. Marwari, S. Mewari)
, , , , Nepali, dialects of Rajasthani (Lamani and NW. Marwari), Northern Lahnda's Kagani, Kumauni, many West Pahari dialects (not Chamba Mandeali, Jaunsari, or Sirmauri)
, , , , , Marathi, Konkani, certain W. Pahari dialects (Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi, Padari, Simla, Satlej, maybe Kulu), Kashmiri
, , , , , , Shina, Bashkarik, Gawarbati, Phalura, Kalasha, Khowar, Shumashti, Kanyawali, Pashai
, , , Rajasthani's S. Mewari
, , , , , E. and N. dialects of Bengali (Dhaka, Mymensing, Rajshahi)
, , Assamese
, , , Romani
, , (with /i/ and /u/) Sylheti
, Chittagonian


Sanskrit was noted as having five nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analyzed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals , with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ([?j] > [?] and [] > [?]), though there are other sources as well.


The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, as presented in Masica (1991:106-107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.

p t (ts) t? k p? t? k?
b d (dz) d? ? b? d?
p? t? t k?
m n n?
(f) s ? x (f?) s?
v (z) ? ? v? z?
? l l?
p t? ? ts t? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t ts? t t k?
m n ? ? ?
(f) s ? ?
z ? ? ?
? l ?
w j
p t? ? ts t? k p? t ts? k?
b d? ? d? ? b? d
p? t ts? t k? p t ts k
m n ? m? n?
s ? s?
z ? z?
? l l?
w j w?
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
? ? ? ?
m n ? ? ?
m? n?
s (?) (x)
(z) (?) ?
? l ?
w j
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
m n ? [? ?
(f) s ?
(z) ?
? l ? ?
[w] [j]
p t? ? ts k
b d? ? dz ?
p? t ts? k?
b? d dz?
m n ?
m? n?
s ? ?
? l
[w] [j]
p t k
b d ?
p? t? k?
b? d?
m n ?
s x
z ?
? l
t? ? (t?) k
b d? ? (d?) ?
m n ?
f s (?) x
z ?
? l ?
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
? ? ? ?
m n ? ? ?
m? n?
s (?) (x)
(z) (?) ?
? l ?
w j
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
? ? ?
m n ?
m? n?
s ?
? l ? ?
w j
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
m n
(f) s (?)
(z) ?
? l ?
([w]) ([j])
p t k
b d g
p? t? k?
b? d?
m n ?
s x
z ?
? l
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
m n
? ?
? l ?
[w] [j]
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
m n ?
m? n?
s ? ?
? l ?
w j
p t? ? ts t? k
b d? ? dz d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d dz? d
m n ?
m? n?
s ? ?
? l ?
w j
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
m n ?
s ?
? l [?] ?
[w] [j]
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
?b d?
m n ? ?
s ?
? l
w j

Language and dialect

In the context of South Asia, the choice between the appellations "language" and "dialect" is a difficult one, and any distinction made using these terms is obscured by their ambiguity. In one general colloquial sense, a language is a "developed" dialect: one that is standardised, has a written tradition and enjoys social prestige. As there are degrees of development, the boundary between a language and a dialect thus defined is not clear-cut, and there is a large middle ground where assignment is contestable. There is a second meaning of these terms, in which the distinction is drawn on the basis of linguistic similarity. Though seemingly a "proper" linguistics sense of the terms, it is still problematic: methods that have been proposed for quantifying difference (for example, based on mutual intelligibility) have not been seriously applied in practice; and any relationship established in this framework is relative.[27]

Language comparison chart

(Note: Hindi and Urdu is in the same column as well as Chittagonian and Rohingya)

English Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Dhivehi Sylheti Chittagonian,
Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki Garhwali Pahari
beautiful sundara sundar futaro sundara sundar sohn? suh ?undor,sudarshon reethi shundor cúndor, hásin sondar chand, sundar suhnar, sundar, khapsoorat sundara sundar dhuniya, xundôr sundar sonduru, sundara, lassana sundar sundaro shukar sohnra bigrelu sohna
blood rakta, loha, lohita, shoNita lohi, khoon, rakt ragat rakta kh?n, rakta, lah? lah?, ratt ratu rokto, lohit, lohu ley roxto, lou lou, hún, kún ratth rakt, ragat kh?n, lah? rakta, lahu, rudhira Rakat, Ruder tez shonit le, rudiraya, ruhiru ragat ratta rat laho, rat loee hoon
bread rotika, polika pa?, ro?l? falko po?i, bh?kar? chap?t?, ro parautha, ro?i p?ulko, maan? (pau-)roi roshi ruti, luf fiçá, luthi tçhot rot, po?o, po?i, chapati, pav ro pauru?i, ruti Ruti, Paanruti pauruti, ruti ro?i, soh?ri paan, roti ro, pa?ro?i, man?o roti, ma(n)ri, dhodha Palak? ruti
bring anayati l?-v lajyo ?n- l?- ly? ?e an- geney an- ainn- ann haad l?v- Aanantu, Aana, Aane Aanan, Aana, Aan an- ?n ghenna lyaunu an- ghin aa, Lai aa l'hu an-
brother bhr?t?, bandhu, sahodara bh?i beero, bhayo, veer bh?u, bandhu bh pr?, p?h b?au bhai, bhaiya beybe bai, baiya bái boéy bhav, bhau bh, bha?y? bhai, bhaina Bhe, Dada bhai (bhaiti, bhayek), dada, kaka/kokai bhé, bha?y? sahodaray?, bæy? bh?i (younger)
d?i, d?ju, d?d?, d?jai (elder
phral bhr?, v?r, lala bhull? (younger)
bhaaji , dada (elder)
praa (brother), paapa (elder)
come ?gachchhati ?v- av- y? ?- ?, ?o, ?j? ach a?- aadhey a- ai-, laa- vall yo, ye ?v- ?santu, ?s-, ?- ?sun, Aa ah- abhin,?u enna, ena ?unu ?gachcha ?v- ?o ?unu , aenu aa, ach
cry roditi, rauti, krandati ra?- rodno, roosno ra?- r?- r?- r?a? kãd, kand-, rodan kor-, kann ruin xand-, xañ- hañd- wódun rad- ro- kanda, Krandana kaandna kand- kan- a?danawa, ha?danawa runu rodanam rov- rovanra Tyon?cy?nu ro-
dark andha?k?ra andh?r? gairo andh?ra, kokha andhera haner? ônd?ah ondhokar, ãdhar andhiri andair añdár, miyonda anyí-got andhakar, andhar, kalok anh?r, anhera andh?ra, Andhakara andh?r andhar, ôndhôkar anh?r a?duru, andhakara, kaluwara andhyaro, andhak?ra andhakaaro kalo andhara cuk?paa nehra
daughter duhit?, putr? chhok?i sagi, sago, chori lek, mulag?, porag? be?i d d meye, be?i manje furi, zi maia, zíi, futúni koor dhuv dhiy?, be?i, chhori, bitiya jhiya jhi, Tukil ziyôri, zi (ziyek) dhi? duva, d?, diyaniya chhori nauni chhai Dhee nauni
day divasa, dina divas dina, din divas, din din din, dihara hn din, dibo?, diwo? dhuvas din din dóh dis, din, divas din dina, Dibasa Din din din dinaya, dawasa din dives denh, jehara dus
do k?-, karoti kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kor- kurun xor- hor- kar kor kar- kara- kar- kôr- kôr karanna garnu ker- karo karnu- , kornu- , kernu- kar-
door dv?ra, kapa darv?zo, kerel kivand d?r, darv?z? darv?z?, kavad b?ha, dar, darv?za darv?zo dorja, duar dhoru dorza, doroza Duar, doroza darwaaz, d?r, daer ("window") daar, kavad, bagilu darv?j?, kevadi daraja, Dwara, kabata Kapat, Dwar duwar, dôrza keb?r dora, dw?raya dhoka (v)udar buha, dar d?r, darv?z? darv?z?
die m?-, glah- mar- mar- mar- mar-, mar j?- mar-, mar ja- mar- mor-, more ja- maru mor-, mori za- fóut marun mar mu, mar ja mar- mar- môr-, môri za- môr maranaya, märena marnu mer- marna gudaknu mar-, fohth
egg aa, ?imba i ando aa an ae ao, bedo ?im bis dim, enda, boida andha, dhim thool ande, motto an an, ?imba an, ?im, Gaar kôni an bittharaya, biju a (y)an?o, (v)an?o anda, aana andar anda
salt kra, sala, lava?a mithu loon mh, lava?a, lo? namak l?n/n?n namak l?n lobon, nun lonu lobon, nun, nimox nun noon mith, loni noon/namak labana, Luna Noon nimôkh, nun, lôbôn n?n lunu nun khar/lavan lon loon/noon loonn loon
earth p?thvi, mahi, bhuvana, dharitr? pruthvi dharti, basudhara pruthvi, dhara?i prithv?, dhart?, zam?n dhart? dhart? prithibi, duniya, dhora dhuniye, bin dunwai, dunya, zomin duniyai daert? (voiced-aspirated /dh/ > /d/) dhartari, zamin, bhui, pruthvi jam?n, pirthvi pruthibi, Dhara, Dhartiri, Dharani Pruthi, Dharni prithiwi pruthuvi, polova, bhoomi, bima prithivi phuv zameen, dharti pirathi
eye netra, lochna, akshi, chakshu ?ñkh aankharli ?o, netra ?ñkh akh akh chokh, ?ñkhi, noyon loa souk suk aéchh dolo ?ñkh ?khi, netra, nayana ayenk sôku ainkh äsa, akshi, neth, nuwan ?nkh? yakh akh ?ñkh akhi
father pit?, janaka, t?ta b?p baap, kaako pit?, va?il, b?ba b?p piy?, pite, pita, abba piu, baba baba, abba, bap bappa abba, abbu, baba, baf abbá mol, bab bapuy, anna, aan b?p, b?buji, pit?ji b?pa, b?b? b?p?, Bua dêuta, bap (bapek) b?b? piy?, th?tth? buw?, b?u, pit? dad, babo abb?, piyoo Bub? abba, abbu
fear bhaya, bh?ti, traasa bik, ?ar bhau bh?t?, bhaya, dh?sti, ghabar ?ar, ghabr?hat ?ar, bhau ?apu bhoy, ?or biru dor dor dar bhay ?ar ?ara, Bhaya ?ar, Bhee bhoy bhay baya, biya, bh?thiya dar dar, trash darr tatala , dor , der dar
finger añguli, añguliyaka ?ñg?i aangli b anguli, ungli ungal, ungli ?ngur angul, onguli ingili angul ouñl ungij bot, aangal anguri ?nguthi ?ngthi a?uli ?ngur ä?gili aunl? angusht ungil angulee angli
fire agni, bhujyu agni, jva?a baste ?ag, agni, ja, vistava ?g agg b?h agoon alifaan agun ooin agénn, n?r ujo (from Sanskrit udyota), aag, agni ?gh agni, nia Joye, nia zui ?ig agni, gini, gindara ?go manta yag bhaa dipak?ru , dimak?ru agh
fish matsya m?chhli maachhali m?s?, m?sa?i machhl? machh? machh? m?ch mas m?s mas g?da nuste, masoli, jalkay machhri m?chha m?ch mass m?ch masun, mathsya, m?lu m?ch? machho machhey m?chu , maachhee machee
food bhojana, khadati, anna, posha(Na), ?h?ra, etc. anna, khor?k, posha? khaano, lyojibhaya j?vana, bhojan, anna, ?h?r kh?n?, bhojan kh?n? kh?dho, ann, m?ni khabar, khani kaana xani hána, háñna khyann jevan, anna, khana khana, bhojan kh?dya, bhojana, ?h?ra ?h?ra, Khed, Bhojan ahar, khaiddyô, khuwa bostu khen?i ?h?ra, kæma, bojun, bhojana kh?n?, anna, ?h?r xabe(n) roti-tukkur, khanra naaj , jimman , jafhat , khadbad khana
go gachchhati, y?ti j?- j?- j?- j?- j?- va? ja- dhey za- za- gatçh vach (from Vedic Ach) j? j?ntu, Ja- j?un, Ja- zu-, za- j?hin yanna, yana janu, j? ja- vanj janu, j? ja-
god deva, vara, parme?vara, devata, bhagav?n, prabhu parmeshvar, dev, bhagv?n isar, bavji, dai deva, parmeshwara, ishwara bhagv?n, parmeshvar, ishvar, khud? pagv?n, rab, ishwar, parmesar bhagv?n, parmeshvar, ishvar, khud?, s?in, m?lik bhogoban, ishhor, rob, khoda raskalaange bogowan, rob, xuda, ixor, ila, rob dai, divta, bagv?n, parmeeshar dev, sarvesvar bhagv?n, m?lik, iswar, daiva, daiya bhagab?na, ?h?kura, diyan Maphru, bhagb?n, Devta, dewôta, bhôgôwan bhagv?n devi, d?vath?v? bhagaw?n, deut?, ishwor Del, Devel rab, m?lik dy?pta , dyabta
good shobhna, uttama s?r? chokho ch?ngle, chh?n, uttama achh? changa suo bhalo rangalhu bala bála rut (moral "good"), j?n (physical "good") bare, chand, layak badhiya, changa, achha bh?la Bane, bh?l bhal neek, neeman ho?dhai, ho?da raamro, asal lachho, mishto changa khoob , bhalu , asad changa
grass ta, kusha gh?sth?ro chaaro gavata, ta? gh?s gh?h ghãhu gha? vina gash, gah kérr dramunn ta? (from Prakrit ti?a, Sanskrit ta) gh?s gh?sa Jhaar, gh?ns ghãh gh?s, duib thana, thruna ghaas, dubo char gh? ghasyood ghaah
hand hasta h?th haat h?t h?th hath hat?u haat aiyy aat árt atth haat h?th h?ta h?t, Bahu hat h?th atha, hasthaya h?t vast hat h?th aath
head ?ira, mastaka, kap?la, m?rdh? m?th? sir, maatha ?oke, mun?ake, m?tha, sh?r, mastaka, tke, sir, sh?sh sir, s?s mat?o matha, shir boa matha matá kalla maate (from Prakrit matthao, Sanskrit Mastaka) s?r, s, kap?r mun?a Mud mur, matha m?th, m?ri oluwa, sirasa, hisa tauko, seer shero, shoro ser Kapa , mund sir
heart hrdaya hruday hivado, kaljo hrudaya, kij dil, hriday, antar dil, riday dil dil, hridoy, ontor hiyy dil, ontor dil ryeda Hadde, Hardey (From Sanskrit Hrdaya), Hrdaya dil, hivara, jiyara hrudaya hurud hridoy, hiya hada, hardaya, hadawatha hridaya, mutu (y)ilo, (v)ilo Dil jikudu , dil , jitamo dil
horse ashva, ghotaka, hayi, turanga gho ghodo gho?a gho?a ko?a ghoo gho?a as ghu?a gúñra, gúra gur ghodo gho?a ghoda ghoda gh?ra ghod? ashvaya, thuranga ghod? khoro, grast ghora guntt khora
house g?ha, alaya ghar ghar, taaparo ghar k?r ghôr ar, jaah ghor ge' ghor gor ghar ghar ghar ghara, Gruha ghar ghôr ghôr, gedhara, gruha gruhaya, geya, gedara, niwasa ghar, griha kher ghar gher , ghor , koodi , kar
hunger bubuksha, kshudh? bhukh bhukh bh?k bh?kh pukh bh?khayal bhukh, khida banduhai bhuk búk bo'tchh bhuk bh?kh bhoka bhok bhuk bh?kh kusagini, badagini bhok bokh bhuk bh?ka , bhukkhi , bh?khu pukh
language bh?sh?, v?N? bh?sh? boli, zaban bh?sh? bh?sh?, zab?n, baat boli, zab?n, pasha ?oli, bhasha, zab?n bha?a bas basha, zob?n, maat báca booyl, zab?n bhasha, bhas bh?kh?, boli, jubaan bh?s? bh?s? bhaxa bh?sh? bhashawa, basa bh?sh? chhib boli, zaban bhasa bhaak zabaan
laugh (v.) h?sa, smera has- has- h?s- hãs- hassa k?illu ha?, hã? hunun ash- áñc- assun has- has- hãs- h?s- hãh- hôs hina, sinaha, sina hasnu (h)as- khill hasnu as-
life jivana, jani jivan, jindagi bhav j?van, j?v j?van, zindag? jindr?, j?van, jind zindag? ?ibon, zindegi dhiriulhun zibon, zindegi zibon, zindigi zoo, zindagayn jivit, jivan jinigi jibana, pr?na jiban ziwôn jiban jeevithe, jivana jeewan, jindagi jivipe(n), jivdipe(n), juvdipe(n), jivoto zindgey ji'?na , jivan
moon chandram?, soma, m?sa chandra, ch?ndo chaan, chando chandra chandram?, chand?, ch?nd chann, ch?nd chan? cãd, condro, chand handhu sand san, zun tçandram chandra, chandrim channa, channarma, mah chandra, Janha Jan, JanhaMamu zunbai, zun, sôndrô jonhi, chan chandra, sa?du, ha?da chandram?, juun chhon, chhonut, masek chandr joon, jo
mother janani, m?t? m?, b? mai, ma ?i, m?i m? m?, mata, mai, bebe m?o, amma ma, amma, ammu mamma ma, amma, ammu amma maeyj amma, mai mat?ri, m?i, amma m?, bou m? ai, ma mawa, amma, matha, mæni ?m?, muw?, mum?, m?t? dai amma, maa maa , bvai, jiya, maidi, maayadi, janadaaree amma, ammi
mouth ?s, mukha mo?h?, mukha moondo ton?, mukha, thob m?ñh m?ñh, mukh m?ñh, v?t mukh anga muk cuuñçi, gal m?ñh tond, mukh m?ñh mukha, Paati Tund, Paati mukh m?h mukha, kata mukh, thutuno mui khabaad , khaab , gichcha , gichchi , gichchoo , thuntheer , thobadu mu
name n?ma n?m naam n?v n?m n? n?lo nam nan naam nam naav naav n?, n?m n?ma, n? n? nam n?m nama, n?maya n?m nav, anav n? naun na
night raatri, rajani, nish?, naktam, etc. r?t, r?tri, nish? raati, raat r?tra r?t, r?tri, nish? r?t r?t rat, ratri, nishi reygandu rait, ratri, shob rait, lailat raath raat, ratri r?t r?ti, Ratri, Nishi Rayet rati r?it r?thriya, ræ raati, raat, raatri ?at raat r?t , raat raat
open uttana, udhatita khull? khulyuda ugha?, khol khul? khulla, khol khol khul? hulhuvaa kul? kúilla khol ughad, ukt-, udhaar khull? khol? khol? khula khujal harinna khulla putardo, phravdo khulla ughadnu, kholnu khulla
peace sh?nti sh?nti, sh?ntat? shaanti sh?nti sh?nti, aman sh?nti, aman, sak?n sh?nti, aman, sukoon ?anti sul'ha shanti cánti aman, shaenti shanti, santatay s?nti-sakoon, aman s?nti s?nti xanti sh?nti s?maya, sh?ntiya shaanti lachhipe(n) aman, sakoon tapp , juppi , Nimi
place stapana, sthala, bhu, sth?na jagy?, stha? jageh sth?n, stha?, j?ga sth?n, jagah th?ñ, asth?n ja?ah, th?ñ ?aega, sthan, zomin than zega, zaga, zomin zaga jaay jaag, thal jagah j?g? j?g? thai tth?m sthanaya, thäna thaaun, jagga, sthal than jaga th , jaga jaga
queen r?ni, r?jpatni ri, madhuri raani r?ni, r?jm?t? r?ni, malk? r?ni, malka ri rani ranin rani rani m?hraeny (also used for "newly-wed bride") raani r?ni, begam ri ri rani r?ni räjina, d?vi, bisawa r?ni rani, thagarni ranri, malka r?ni , thakarvi , thakaravi
read pathati, vachana v?nch- baanch- v?ch- pa?h- pa?h- pa- po?h- kiun for- for- parun vajji/vaach pa?h- pa?h- pa?dh- pôrh- pôdh kiyawanna padh- gin-, ginav- parhnra, parh padhnu , banchnu par-
rest vishr?ma ?r?m aaraam vishr?nti ?r?m ar?m ?r?m aram, bi?rom araamu araam aram, ziro araam aaraam r?m ?r?m, bisr?m th?k, bisr?m aram, zirôni ar?m vishr?ma, viw?ka ?r?m, bishr?m achhipe(n) Araam dh?maun , ?hy?maun raam
say vadati, braviti, br?té, b?l- b?l- b?l-, mha?-, s?ng- b?l, ?kh, keh bôl-, keh chao bol-, koh- buney xo- hoó-, bul- b?l- mhan, sang, ulay bol-, kah- k?hantu, Kuha, Kah- Kahan, kaha, kah b?j pawasanna, kiyanna bhannu, bolnu phen-, va?er- bol, aakh b?lnu bol-
sister svas?, bhagini bêhn bain, bayee, beeri bhagin?, bah behn p?n b bon, apa, didi dhahtha boin, afa bóin, bubu, buu baeynn bhaini bahin, didi, didiya bhau?i, bhagini bahen bhônti, bhôni bôhin sahodariya bahini, didi phen bheinr (younger sister) bhuli , bhulli
(elder sister) deedi
(elder sister) baaji, (sister) p?n
small alpa, laghu, kanishtha, kshudra n?hn? n?hn? lah?n, laghu chho nikka, chho nan?o choo kuda huru, suto, kuti cóñço lokutt, nyika, pyoonth Saan chho?, nanhi cho?a, sana chot, alap, tike xôru, suti (for short) chhot chuti, podi, kud? saano, chhoto tikno, xurdo nikka, chauta chhvattu , ucchi nika
son sunu, putra chhok?o choora, betoo mulg?, porg? b put, puttar pu? chele, put, b kalo fua, fut, b fut nyechu, pothur put putt/chhora pua, putra Po, Pila put (putek) p?t puthra, puth?, puthu chhora, putra chhavo putr naunu jayede puthar
soul ?tm?, atasa ?tm? aatma ?tm? ?tm?, r?h ?tm?, r?h ?tm?, r?h ?tm?, r?h furaana ruh, zaan ruú, zan ?thm? atma, jeev r?h ?tm? ?tm? atma ?tm? ?tm? ?tm? ji, di rooh ?tm?
sun s?rya s?raj, s?rya suraj s?rya s?rya, s?raj s?raj siju ?ur?o iru surzo, shurzo beil, cújjo siri surya s?raj s?rjya s?rjya beli beri, s?rj ira, hiru, s?rya s?rya, gh?m kham sijh gh?m
ten dasha das das dah? das das, daha ?aha do? dhihayeh dosh doc duh dha das dasa das dôh dôs dahaya, dasa das desh dah ds das
three tr?, trayah, tr?Ni (neut. nom. pl.) tra? tiin t?n t?n tin, traiy ?eh tin thineh teen tin t're teen t?n tini t?n tini t?n thuna tin trin trai t?n tre
village gr?ma g?ñ?u gaaon, dhaani g?v, kh?da g?oñ pin?, g?ñ ?o gram, gaon avah gau, geram fara, gang, g?m ganv g?oñ-deh?t, jageer g?n, gr?ma g?n gaû g?m gama, gramaya gaun gav dehat, jhoauk, vasti gau? , gawn
want ichhati, kankshati, amati, apekshati joi- chai- p?hij?, hav? ch?h- ch?h- k?ap, ch?h- cha- beynun sa-, lag- lag- yatshun, kan'tchun jaay- ch?h- Chanunchi, Loduchi Chounchen bisar-, lag-, khuz- ch?hi oone, awashyayi ch?han?, ichhya kam-, mang- chah chaandu , chainnun , chaindu , chaanu
water p?niya, jala pi paani pi p?ni, jal p?ni, jal pi pani, ?ol fen fani faní poyn, zal (used for "urine" only) udak, uda, pani, jal p?ni pi, jala p?ye? pani pain jalaya, wathura, pän p?ni, jal pani panri pi pani
when kada, ched kyahre kadine k?vh?, kadhee kab kad, kadoñ ka?ahn kokhon, kobe kon iraku kumbala, xobe hoñótté karr kedna, kenna kab kebe Ketebele, kebe ketiya kakhan, kahiyé kawadh?da, kedinada kahile kana, kada, keda kadanr kabbi , kabaar kellai
wind pavana, v?yu, v?t? hav?, pavan havaa v?ra hav?, pavan hav?, paun. vah hav? bata?, haoa vai batash bathác, bouyar tshath, hava vaar h?v? pabana Dhuka, haba, paban bôtãh bas?t hulan, sulan, pavana, nala h?w?, bat?s balval, barval hava, phook bathaun , paun va
wolf vrka, shvaka shiy?l bheriyo k?lha bhhiy? phiy? ?id?ar nekre, shiyal hiyalhu hiyal cíal vrukh kolo bh?rhiy? gadhiy? Kulia xiyal siy?r vurkaya bw?nso ruv baghiyaar bheriya
woman n?ri, vanit?, str?, mahil?, lalan? mahil?, n?ri lugai, aurat b?i, mahil?, stree aurat, str?, mahil?, n?ri naar, mutiyar m?i mohila, nari, stri anhenaa beti, mohila maiñya zanaan baayal, stree mehraru, aurat, janaani stree, n?ri Mayeji môhila, maiki manuh maugi, stri k?nth?wa, gähäniya, sthriya, mahil?wa, lalan?wa, liya, la?da, van?th?wa mahilaa, naari, stree juvli, ?omni aurat, treimat, zaal, zanaani bya?ula , kajyi janaani
year varsh, sh?rad varash saal, uun varsh s?l, baras, varsh s?l, varah s?l bocchor, shal, boshor, aharu bosor, s?l bosór váreeh varas s?l, baris, barikh barsa baras, Bachar bôsôr barakh varshaya, vasara barsha bersh saal mainn saal
yes / no hyah, kam / na, ma h? / n? hon/koni h?y, h?, h? / n?hi, n? h?ñ / n?, nah?ñ h?ñ, ?ho / n?, nah?ñ h?/ na hæ, ho, oi / na aan, labba, aadhe / noon, nooney ii, oe / na ói / na aa / ná, ma Vayi/naa h?ñ / n? han /Na Hoye/nei hôy / nôhôy hô/nai ow / næ ho / hoina, la / nai va / na ha / na h?, h?an / n? aha/ na
yesterday hyah, gatadinam, gatak?le (gai-)k?l(-e) kaal k?l kal kal kalla (goto-)kal(-ke) iyye (goto-)khail, (goto-)khal, khal(-ke), khail(-ku) hail k?la, r?th kaal k?lh (gata-)k?li gala k?li (zuwa-)kali k?ilh ?y? hijo ij, irati, erati kal n'y?ra , byi kal
English Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindi-Urdu Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Dhivehi Sylheti Rohingya,
Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi) Garhwali (Garhwali) Pahari(Pahari)

Interrogative pronouns

English Maithili Odia Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Kamtapuri Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian,
Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala Romani Garhwali
who Ke kie kaaku kah,k? kün, kai kae ke ko?, ko?a ka kaun kaun, ke?a ker xe hon ko kavuda kon ku
what Ki, kathi kana, kitho keekey kim ki, kih ki ki k?ya kya ki ?h? kita ki ke so ki
where Kata kouthi konthaaku kutra kót, keni kó?e kothay, koi kya ku?he kahan kithe kithe xoi, xano hoçé kithé kaham koheda kaj kakh , kakham , kanee
when Kakhan, kahiyé kebe kon iraku Kada ketia, kahani kónbela, kónsomoe kokhon, kobe ky?re kadh? kab kadom kadenh kumbela, kunbala, xobe hoñótté kahile, kab kavada kana / keda kadee
why Kié keno ki , kana lagi , kitho lagi keevve Kimartha? kio, kelei kene, ke keno sa mate k?, kaina kyun kiun chho xene, kitar lagi kiá kina æyi soske kiley
how Kena kemiti kihineh Katham kene, kene (-koi/ke, -kua), kidore ke?ka, ke?kori kemon, kibhabe kai rite kas? kaise kive kena kila, xemne keén kasari sar kann , kanukvai , kanake
English Maithili Odia Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Kamtapuri Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian
and Rohingya
Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala Romani Garhwali

Personal pronouns

English Sanskrit Maithili Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Dhivehi Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian,
Kashmiri Konkani Kamtapuri Bhojpuri Odia Nepali Romani Garhwali
i ?h h?m moi ?mi hu?, hu ,mein m? mein aharun mai? maa mui, ami ãi, mui aav mui haum mu? ma me m?
we v?y h?m s?bh ?mi ?mr? ame,apane ?mh? hum aharumen as as? amra añára aami hamra, hami aame h?m? amen aamen
you (inf) toi tui tu t? tu kaley, theena Tus t? tui t? tui tui tu ta? tu tu
you (mid frm) tv × tumi tumi tame t?mh? tum Tus t? tumi tuñí t? tui tume tim? tumen tum
you (frm) Bh?van, Bh?v?ti ah?ñ apuni ?pni ?p, ?pa? ?p Tus t?h? afne oñne tumi tomra aapaNa tap tumen taanu , ?p
you (inf, pl) × tõ sôbh tohõt tora tuae kaleymen, thimeehun Not used Not used tomra tuáñra Not used Not used tui
you (mid frm, pl) Y?v × tümalük tomra tamaru tumlog tumitain, tumra tumi tomra tumemaane tim?har? tumi
you (frm, pl) ah?ñ sôbh apünalük apnara tameloko ?plog afnain, afnara tumi tomrala aapaNamaane taphar? ?pi , taanui
he (mid frm) s?h o xi ?e, ? pelo who eyna o ho he, ogu ité to inae, unae se ?, un?, tin? (v)ov, (y)ov ?
she (mid frm) s? o tai ?e, ? peli who eyna o hu? tai, ogu ití ti inae, unae se ?, un?, tin? (v)oy, (y)oy ?
he (frm) o teü, tekhet tini, uni pelae ve tain, ein uite inae, unae se waha ?
she (frm) o teü, tekhet tini, uni palie tain, ein inae, unae se wah ?
they (mid frm) te,t? o s?bh xihõt tara pelaloko wohlog emeehun hu? tara itará taani imra, umra semaane un?har?, tin?har? (v)on, (y)on, ol vo
they (frm) o sôbh teülük, tekhetxokol tahara pela lokoe ve tara iín imrala, umrala semaane wahhar? vo
English Sanskrit Maithili Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindi Dhivehi Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian,
and Rohingya
Kashmiri Konkani Kamtapuri Bhojpuri Odia Nepali Romani Garhwali


Numerals Sanskrit Maithili Marathi Assamese Bengali Gujarati Hindustani Punjabi[28] Khortha Sylheti Rohingya Romani
0 shuny? sunna Shunya xuiny? ?unn? ny, sifar sifar ?eip ?uinno sifír nula, khanchi
1 ek ek ek ek êk/æk ek ikk ai ex ek (y)ek
2 dvi du dona dui dui do do jau, dau, daun? dui dui dui
3 tri teen teena tini tin t?n tinn, tre tai, ?ain? tin tin trin
4 ch?tur ch?ir chara sari ch?r c?r c?r, ch? ?h?ran, c?r? sair sair shtar
5 p?nch?n p?ñch paacha p?s pch pc punj c?yal, m?c? fas fãs panj, panch
6 chh? Sahaa s?e, s? chh?y che che caimp?, jheik sóe shov
7 s?pt?n s?t Saatha xat s?t s?t satt ?oiyain, jhe? ?at, hat há?t efta
8 ?n ?th Aatha ?th h a?h b?, au?hau? a? ão oxto
9 n?v?n n? Nawu n? n?y nau nau? sutauil, naubh? noe no enya
10 d?sh?n d?s Dahaa d?h, d?s d?sh das dass sihaum do? do? desh
Numerals Sanskrit Maithili Marathi Assamese Bengali Gujarati Hindustani Punjabi Khortha Sylheti Rohingya Romani

See also


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "Overview of Indo-Aryan languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^
  4. ^ Standard Hindi first language: 260.3 million (2001), as second language: 120 million (1999). Urdu L1: 68.9 million (2001-2014), L2: 94 million (1999): Ethnologue 19.
  5. ^ Bengali or Bangla-Bhasa, L1: 242.3 million (2011), L2: 19.2 million (2011), Ethnologue
  6. ^ "världens-100-största-språk-2010". Nationalencyclopedin. Govt. of Sweden publication. Retrieved 2013.
  7. ^ Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Routledge. pp. 246-247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1463-6.
  8. ^ a b Parpola, Asko (2015). The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and The Indus Civilization. Oxford University Press.
  9. ^ The Indo-Aryan numerals are found in the treatise on horse training composed by Kikkulis of Mitanni (Section 6.9). They are aikawartanna ( Skt ekavartana) 'one turn of the course', terawartanna ( Skt tre-vartana) 'three turns of the course', sattawartanna ( Skt sapta-vartana) 'seven turns of the course', nawartana with haplology for nawawartana ( Skt nava-vartana) 'nine turns of the course'. The forms of numerals in these words are clearly Indo-Aryan. The form aika- is especially confirmatory. The form satta for Skt sapta- is a clearly Middle Indo-Aryan form. The following linguistic features reveal that the language belongs to an early Middle Indo-Aryan stage or to a transitional stage between Old Indo-Aryan and Middle Indo-Aryan. (i) Dissimilar plosives have been assimilated, for example, sapta satta. Gray quotes the MIA form for comparison, but he is silent about the fact that the borrowing in Anatolian is from MIA (1950: 309). (ii) Semi-vowels and liquids were not assimilated in conjuncts with plosives, semi-vowels or liquids as in 1st MIA, for example, vartana wartana, rathya aratiya-, virya Birya-, Vrdhamva Bardamva. (iii) Nasals were also not assimilated to plosives/nasals, unlike in 1st MIA and like in OIA. This characteristic places the language of these documents earlier than 1st MIA, for example, rukma urukmannu, rtanma artamna. (iv) Anaptyxis was quite frequent, for example, Indra Indara smara mumara. (v) v b initially, for example, virya birya, vrdhasva bardamva. (vi) r ar, for example, rta arta, vrdh bard-. Thus, a linguistic study of the borrowed Indo-Aryan forms in the Anatolian records shows that they are definitely Indo-Aryan and not Iranian nor Indo- Iranian. This also shows that this language belongs to a transitional stage between OIA and MIA. Further, this language is comparable to the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S. R. Rao. And this language is the base for Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, which was wrongly named Hybrid because of a misconception that it was a mixed language. Thus, the language of Middle Indo-Aryan is much before the Afokan Prakrit. And on the basis of the borrowed words in Anatolian records and the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S. R. Rao the date of MIA may go beyond 2000 BC. The transitional stage between OIA and MIA might have started in 2500 BC. Bryant, Edwin (2001). THE INDO-ARYAN CONTROVERSY Evidence and inference in Indian history. 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 181-234. ISBN 0-203-64188-4.
  10. ^ There is good evidence that in the Old Indic or Indo-Aryan dialect to which the names belong, Already at the time of the documents, initial v, represented by b, was pronounced like v, while medial v kept its value of semivowel and was pronounced like w. For instance, Birasena(-Virasena), Birya (=Virya). Biryasura (=Viryasura).... 'It seems that in the language to which the names belong, just as in Middle Indic, the group pt had become tt, as for instance, in Wasasatta(=Vasasapta), Sattawadza(=Saptavaja) and sausatti (=sausapti 'the son of susapti) Dumont, P.E. (October 1947). "Indo-Aryan Names from Mitanni, Nuzi, and Syrian Documents". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 67 (4): 251-253.
  11. ^ Kulshreshtha, Manisha; Mathur, Ramkumar (24 March 2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4614-1137-6.
  12. ^ Robert E. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-080180-1, ... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ...
  13. ^ "Urdu and its Contribution to Secular Values". South Asian Voice. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 2008.
  14. ^ "Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction". University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  15. ^ "Ethnologue Report for Hindi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2008.
  16. ^ Otto Zwartjes Portuguese Missionary Grammars in Asia, Africa and Brazil, 1550-1800 Publisher John Benjamins Publishing, 2011 ISBN 9027283257, 9789027283252
  17. ^ Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301-17
  18. ^ Matras (2012)
  19. ^ "History of the Romani language".
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Encyclopedia Iranica
  21. ^ "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved 2013.
  22. ^
  23. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kuswaric". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  24. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chinali-Lahul Lohar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  25. ^ Masica (1991:94-95)
  26. ^ Masica (1991:95-96)
  27. ^ Masica 1991, pp. 23-27.
  28. ^ "Numbers in Punjabi". Retrieved .

Further reading

  • John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872-1879. 3 vols.
  • Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.
  • Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk).
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9
  • Erdosy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6.
  • Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  • Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3.
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991-1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1-2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.

External links

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