Indo-Aryan Languages
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Indo-Aryan Languages

Indo-Aryan
Indic
Geographic
distribution
South Asia
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Proto-languageProto-Indo-Aryan
ISO 639-2 / 5inc
Linguasphere59= (phylozone)
Glottologindo1321[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
1978 map showing geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages. (Urdu is included under Hindi. Romani, Domari, and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.) Dotted/striped areas indicate where multilingualism is common.
  Central
  Dardic
  Eastern
  Northwestern
  Southern
  Western

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages is the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. In the early 21st century, Indo-Aryan languages were spoken by more than 800 million people, primarily in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.[2] There are 219 Indo-Aryan languages. [3]

The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million),[4]Bengali (242 million),[5]Punjabi (about 100 million),[6] and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million.[7]

History

Proto-Indo-Aryan

Proto-Indo-Aryan, or sometimes Proto-Indic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the pre-Vedic Indo-Aryans. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500-300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, however, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic.

Indian subcontinent

Old Indo-Aryan

The earliest evidence of the group is from Mitanni Indo-Aryan.[8] The only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords.[8]

Rigvedic Indo-Aryan has been used in the ancient preserved religious hymns of the Rigveda, the earliest Vedic literature.

From the Rigvedic language, "Sanskrit" (literally "put together", meaning perfected or elaborated) developed as the prestige language of culture, science and religion, as well as the court, theatre, etc. Sanskrit is, by convention, referred to by modern scholars as 'Classical Sanskrit' in contradistinction to the so-called 'Rigvedic Sanskrit', which is largely intelligible to Sanskrit speakers.[]

Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)

Mitanni inscriptions show some middle indo aryan characteristics along with old indic, for example sapta in old indo aryan becomes satta ('pt' is transformed into middle indo aryan 'tt'). According to S.S. Misra this language can be similar to Buddhist hybrid sanskrit which might be infact not a mixed language but an early middle indo aryan occurring much before prakrit.[9][10].

Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardhamagadhi Prakrit, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan languages. Apabhraa is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the ?ravakac?ra of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book.

The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent in the 13th-16th centuries. Under the flourishing Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian, Arabic, and Turkic elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects.

The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.

New Indo-Aryan

Dialect continuum

The Indo-Aryan languages of North India and Pakistan form a dialect continuum. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskritized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar to Rajasthan. The spoken New Indo-Aryan dialects from Assam in the east to the borders of Afghanistan in the west form a linguistic continuum across the plains of North India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Medieval Hindustani

In the Central Zone Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani. Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit and Persian, with these influences leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language.[11][12] This state of affairs continued until the division of the British Indian Empire in 1947, when Hindi became the official language in India and Urdu became official in Pakistan. Despite the different script the fundamental grammar remains identical, the difference is more sociolinguistic than purely linguistic.[13][14][15] Today it is widely understood/spoken as a second or third language throughout South Asia[16] and one of the most widely known languages in the world in terms of number of speakers.

Mitanni-Aryan

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that a Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrians in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and the Ashvins (Nasatya) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general[17]

Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mi?ta-nnu (= miha, ? Sanskrit mha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg, 1986-2000; Vol. II:358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaumara) as ?tasmara "who thinks of ?ta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridaa, biriiaa) as Pr?tva "Whose Horse is Dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as Citraratha "Whose Chariot is Shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (?atti?aza) as S?tiv?ja "Winning the Race Price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), ?ubandhu as Subandhu "Having Good Relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (t?i?eratta, tu?ratta, etc.) as *t?aia?aratha, Vedic Tvastar "Whose Chariot is Vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).

Romani, Lomavren, and Domari languages

Domari

Domari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the MENA. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan, in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon.[18] Based on the systematicity of sound changes, we know with a fair degree of certainty that the names Domari and Romani derive from the Indo-Aryan word ?om.[19]

Lomavren

Lomavren is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to Romani and Domari[20] and the Armenian language.

Romani

The Romani language is usually included in the Western Indo-Aryan languages.[21] Romani -- spoken mainly in various parts of Europe -- is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case - both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest.

There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language.

Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882-1888) showed that the Romani language is to be classed as a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Romani could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000.

The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, and its reduction to just a two-way case system, nominative vs. oblique. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation. Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this old system even today.

It is argued that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine (?g) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have been cited as evidence that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, perhaps even as late as the tenth century.

Classification

There can be no definitive enumeration of Indic languages because their dialects merge into one another. The major ones are illustrated here; for the details, see the dedicated articles.

The classification follows Masica (1991) and Kausen (2006).

Percentage of Indo-Aryan speakers by native language:

  Hindustani (including Hindi and Urdu) (25.4%)
  Bengali (20.7%)
  Punjabi (9.4%)
  Marathi (5.6%)
  Gujarati (3.8%)
  Bhojpuri (3.1%)
  Maithili (2.6%)
  Odia (2.5%)
  Sindhi (1.9%)
  Others (25%)

Dardic

Kashmiri - 5.6 million speakers
Shina
Pashayi - 400,000 speakers
Kunar
Chitral
Kohistani

Northern Zone

Central Pahari
Eastern Pahari

Northwestern Zone

Dogri - 4 million speakers
Himachali
Punjabi
Sindhi

Western Zone

Ethnologue lists the following languages under the Western Zone that are not already covered in other subgroups:[22]

Rajasthani
  • Rajasthani proper - 25.8 million speakers
  • Bagri - 2.1 million speakers
Marwari - 22 million speakers
Malvi - 5.6 million speakers
Gujarati
Bhil
Khandeshi - 1.9 million speakers
Domari - 4 million speakers
Romani - 1.5 million speakers

Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi)

Indic, Central Zone

Parya - 4,000 speakers

Western Hindi
Eastern Hindi

Parya historically belonged to the Central Zone but lost intelligibility with other languages of the group due to geographic distance and numerous grammatical and lexical innovations.

Eastern Zone

These languages derive from Magadhan Apabhraa Prakrit.

Bihari
Tharu - 1.9 million speakers
Odia () - 33 million speakers
Halbic
Bengali-Assamese (-?)

Southern Zone languages

This group of languages developed from Maharashtri Prakrit. It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.

Marathi-Konkani

Insular Indic

  • Mahl - 10,000 speakers

The Insular Indic languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages.

Unclassified

The following languages are related to each other, but otherwise unclassified within Indo-Aryan:

Kuswaric[23]

Chinali-Lahul Lohar[24]

The following other poorly attested languages are listed as unclassified within the Indo-Aryan family by Ethnologue 17:

Also Degaru, Mina, Bhalay and Gowlan are all names for the Gowli caste, rather than a language.

Kholosi

The Kholosi language is a more recently discovered Indo-Aryan language spoken in two villages in southern Iran and remains currently unclassified.

Phonology

Consonants

Stop positions[25]

The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: labial, dental, "retroflex", palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The "retroflex" position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as [t?], Masica (1991:94) claims [c?] to be a more accurate rendering.

Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates [ts] instead of palatal, though some among them retain [t?] in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. /i/), before /j/, or when geminated. Alveolar as an additional point of articulation occurs in Marathi and Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (*t, t? > /t?/), and in Kashmiri. The addition of a retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed /q/), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > /s/, which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian, Sinhala (though there have been other sources of a secondary /ts/), and Southern Mewari.

Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which may lose its labial and velar articulations through spirantization in many positions (> [f, x]).

Stop series Language(s)
/p/, /t?/, /?/, /t?/, /k/ Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Sindhi, Gujarati, Bihari, Maithili, Sinhala, Odia, Standard Bengali, dialects of Rajasthani (except Lamani, NW. Marwari, S. Mewari)
/p/, /t?/, /?/, /ts/, /k/ Nepali, dialects of Rajasthani (Lamani and NW. Marwari), Northern Lahnda's Kagani, Kumauni, many West Pahari dialects (not Chamba Mandeali, Jaunsari, or Sirmauri)
/p/, /t?/, /?/, /ts/, /t?/, /k/ Marathi, Konkani, certain W. Pahari dialects (Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi, Padari, Simla, Satlej, maybe Kulu), Kashmiri
/p/, /t?/, /?/, /ts/, /t?/, /t?/, /k/ Shina, Bashkarik, Gawarbati, Phalura, Kalasha, Khowar, Shumashti, Kanyawali, Pashai
/p/, /t?/, /?/, /k/ Rajasthani's S. Mewari
/p/, /t?/, /t/, /ts/, /t?/, /k/ E. and N. dialects of Bengali (Dhaka, Mymensing, Rajshahi)
/p/, /t/, /k/ Assamese
/p/, /t/, /t?/, /k/ Romani
/t?/, /?/, /k/ (with /i/ and /u/) Sylheti
/t?/, /t/ Chittagonian

Nasals[26]

Sanskrit was noted as having five nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analyzed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals /m/ /n/ /?/ /?/ /?/, with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ([?j] > [?] and [] > [?]), though there are other sources as well.

Charts

The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, as presented in Masica (1991:106-107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.

Romani
p t (ts) t? k p? t? k?
b d (dz) d? ? b? d?
p? t? t k?
m n n?
(f) s ? x (f?) s?
v (z) ? ? v? z?
? l l?
j
Shina
p t? ? ts t? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t ts? t t k?
m n ? ? ?
(f) s ? ?
z ? ? ?
? l ?
w j
Kashmiri
p t? ? ts t? k p? t ts? k?
b d? ? d? ? b? d
p? t ts? t k? p t ts k
m n ? m? n?
s ? s?
z ? z?
? l l?
w j w?
Saraiki
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
? ? ? ?
m n ? ? ?
m? n?
s (?) (x)
(z) (?) ?
? l ?
l?
w j
w?
Punjabi
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
m n ? [? ?
(f) s ?
(z) ?
? l ? ?
[w] [j]
Nepali
p t? ? ts k
b d? ? dz ?
p? t ts? k?
b? d dz?
m n ?
m? n?
s ? ?
? l
l?
[w] [j]
Assamese
p t k
b d ?
p? t? k?
b? d?
m n ?
s x
z ?
? l
[w]
Sylheti
t? ? (t?) k
b d? ? (d?) ?
m n ?
f s (?) x
z ?
? l ?
[w]
Sindhi
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
? ? ? ?
m n ? ? ?
m? n?
s (?) (x)
(z) (?) ?
? l ?
l?
w j
w?
Marwari
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
? ? ?
m n ?
m? n?
s ?
? l ? ?
w j
w?
Hindustani
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
m n
(f) s (?)
(z) ?
? l ?
([w]) ([j])
Assamese
p t k
b d g
p? t? k?
b? d?
m n ?
s x
z ?
? l
[w]
Bengali
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
m n
? ?
? l ?
[w] [j]
Gujarati
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
m n ?
m? n?
s ? ?
? l ?
l?
w j
Marathi
p t? ? ts t? k
b d? ? dz d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d dz? d
m n ?
m? n?
s ? ?
? l ?
l?
w j
w?
Odia
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
p? t t k?
b? d d
m n ?
s ?
? l [?] ?
[]
[w] [j]
Sinhala
p t? ? t? k
b d? ? d? ?
?b d?
m n ? ?
s ?
? l
w j

Language and dialect

In the context of South Asia, the choice between the appellations "language" and "dialect" is a difficult one, and any distinction made using these terms is obscured by their ambiguity. In one general colloquial sense, a language is a "developed" dialect: one that is standardised, has a written tradition and enjoys social prestige. As there are degrees of development, the boundary between a language and a dialect thus defined is not clear-cut, and there is a large middle ground where assignment is contestable. There is a second meaning of these terms, in which the distinction is drawn on the basis of linguistic similarity. Though seemingly a "proper" linguistics sense of the terms, it is still problematic: methods that have been proposed for quantifying difference (for example, based on mutual intelligibility) have not been seriously applied in practice; and any relationship established in this framework is relative.[27]

Language comparison chart

(Note: Hindi and Urdu is in the same column as well as Chittagonian and Rohingya)

English Dhivehi Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Sylheti Chittagonian,
Rohingya
Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki Garhwali Pahari
beautiful reethi sundara sundar futaro sundara sundar sohn? suh ?undor,sudarshon shundor cúndor, hásin sondar chand, sundar suhnar, sundar, khapsoorat sundara sundar dhuniya, xundôr sundar sonduru, sundara, lassana sundar sundaro shukar sohnra bigrelu sohna
blood ley rakta, loha, lohita, shoNita lohi, khoon, rakt ragat rakta kh?n, rakta, lah? lah?, ratt ratu rokto, lohit, lohu roxto, lou lou, hún, kún ratth rakt, ragat kh?n, lah? rakta, lahu, rudhira Rakat, Ruder tez shonit le, rudiraya, ruhiru ragat ratta rat laho, rat loee hoon
bread roshi rotika, polika pa?, ro?l? falko po?i, bh?kar? chap?t?, ro parautha, ro?i p?ulko, maan? (pau-)roi ruti, luf fiçá, luthi tçhot rot, po?o, po?i, chapati, pav ro pauru?i, ruti Ruti, Paanruti pauruti, ruti ro?i, soh?ri paan, roti ro, pa?ro?i, manro roti, ma(n)ri, dhodha Palak? ruti
bring geney anayati l?-v lajyo ?n- l?- ly? ?e an- an- ainn- ann haad l?v- Aanantu, Aana, Aane Aanan, Aana, Aan an- ?n ghenna lyaunu anel ghin aa, Lai aa l'hu an-
brother beybe bhr?t?, bandhu, sahodara bh?i beero, bhayo, veer bhau, bandhu bh pr?, p?h b?au bhai, bhaiya bai, baiya bái boéy bhav, bhau bh, bha?y? bhai, bhaina Bhe, Dada bhai (bhaiti, bhayek), dada, kaka/kokai bhé, bha?y? sahodaray?, bæy? bh?i (younger)
d?i, d?ju, d?d?, d?jai (elder
phral bhr?, v?r, lala bhull? (younger)
bhaaji , dada (elder)
praa (brother), paapa (elder)
come aadhey ?gachchhati ?v- av- y? ?- ?, ?o, ?j? ach a?- a- ai-, laa- vall yo, ye ?v- ?santu, ?s-, ?- ?sun, Aa ah- abhin,?u enna, ena ?unu ?gachcha ?vel ?o ?unu , aenu aa, ach
cry ruin roditi, rauti, krandati ra?- rodno, roosno ra?- r?- r?- r?a? kãd, kand-, rodan kor-, kann xand-, xañ- hañd- wódun rad- ro- kanda, Krandana kaandna kand- kan- a?danawa, ha?danawa runu rodanam rovel rovanra Tyon?cy?nu ro-
dark andhiri andha?k?ra andh?r? gairo andh?ra, kokha andhera haner? ônd?ah ondhokar, ãdhar andair añdár, miyonda anyí-got andhakar, andhar, kalok anh?r, anhera andh?ra, Andhakara andh?r andhar, ôndhôkar anh?r a?duru, andhakara, kaluwara andhyaro, andhak?ra andhakaaro kalo andhara cuk?paa nehra
daughter manje duhit?, putr? chhok?i sagi, sago, chori leka, mulag?, porag? be?i d d meye, be?i furi, zi maia, zíi, futúni koor dhuv dhiy?, be?i, chhori, bitiya jhiya jhi, Tukil ziyôri, zi (ziyek) dhi? duva, d?, diyaniya chhori nauni chhai Dhee nauni
day dhuvas divasa, dina divas dina, din divas, din din din, dihara hn din, dibo? din din dóh dis, din, divas din dina, Dibasa Din din din dinaya, dawasa din dives denh, jehara dus
do kurun k?-, karoti kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kor- xor- hor- kar kor kar- kara- kar- kôr- kôr karanna garnu kerel karo karnu- , kornu- , kernu- kar-
door dhoru dv?ra, kapa darv?zo, kerel kivand d?r, darv?z? darv?z?, kavad b?ha, dar, darv?za darv?zo dorja, duar dorza, doroza Duar, doroza darwaaz, d?r, daer ("window") daar, kavad, bagilu darv?j?, kevadi daraja, Dwara, kabata Kapat, Dwar duwar, dôrza keb?r dora, dw?raya dhoka vudar buha, dar d?r, darv?z? darv?z?
die maru m?-, glah- mar- mar- mar- mar-, mar j?- mar-, mar ja- mar- mor-, more ja- mor-, mori za- fóut marun mar mu, mar ja mar- mar- môr-, môri za- môr maranaya, märena marnu merel marna gudaknu mar-, fohth
egg bis aa, ?imba i ando aa an a ao, bedo ?im dim, enda, boida andha, dhim thool ande, motto an an, ?imba an, ?im, Gaar kôni an bittharaya, biju a anro anda, aana andar anda
salt lonu kra, sala, lava?a mithu loon lavana/meeth namak l?n/n?n namak l?n lobon, nun lobon, nun, nimox nun noon mith, loni noon/namak labana, Luna Noon nimôkh, nun, lôbôn n?n lunu nun khar/lavan lon loon/noon loonn loon
earth dhuniye, bin p?thvi, mahi, bhuvana, dharitr? pruthvi dharti, basudhara pruthvi, dharani prithv?, dhart?, zam?n dhart? dhart? prithibi, duniya, dhora dunwai, dunya, zomin duniyai daert? (voiced-aspirated /dh/ > /d/) dhartari, zamin, bhui, pruthvi jam?n, pirthvi pruthibi, Dhara, Dhartiri, Dharani Pruthi, Dharni prithiwi pruthuvi, polova, bhoomi, bima prithivi phuv zameen, dharti pirathi
eye loa netra, lochna, akshi, chakshu ?ñkh aankharli ?o, netra ?ñkh akh akh chokh, ?ñkhi, noyon souk suk aéchh dolo ?ñkh ?khi, netra, nayana ayenk sôku ainkh äsa, akshi, neth, nuwan ?nkh? yakh akh ?ñkh akhi
father bappa pit?, janaka, t?ta b?p baap, kaako pit?, va?il, b?ba b?p piy?, pite, pita, abba piu, baba baba, abba, bap abba, abbu, baba, baf abbá mol, bab bapuy, anna, aan b?p, b?buji, pit?ji b?pa, b?b? b?p?, Bua dêuta, bap (bapek) b?b? piy?, th?tth? buw?, b?u, pit? dad abb?, piyoo Bub? abba, abbu
fear biru bhaya, bh?ti, traasa bik, ?ar bhau bh?t?, bhaya, gh?bar- ?ar, ghabr?hat ?ar, bhau ?apu bhoy, ?or dor dor dar bhay ?ar ?ara, Bhaya ?ar, Bhee bhoy bhay baya, biya, bh?thiya dar dar, trash darr tatala , dor , der dar
finger ingili añguli, añguliyaka ?ñg?i aangli b?t anguli, ungli ungal, ungli ?ngur angul, onguli angul ouñl ungij bot, aangal anguri ?nguthi ?ngthi a?uli ?ngur ä?gili aunl? angusht ungil angulee angli
fire alifaan agni, bhujyu agni, jva?a baste ?ag, agni, ja, vistava ?g agg b?h agoon agun ooin agénn, n?r ujo (from Sanskrit udyota), aag, agni ?gh agni, nia Joye, nia zui ?ig agni, gini, gindara ?go manta yag bhaa dipak?ru , dimak?ru agh
fish mas matsya m?chhli maachhali m?s? machhl? machh? machh? m?ch m?s mas g?da nuste, masoli, jalkay machhri m?chha m?ch mass m?ch masun, mathsya, m?lu m?ch? machho machhey m?chu , maachhee machee
food kaana bhojana, khadati, anna, posha(Na), ?h?ra, etc. anna, khor?k, posha? khaano, lyojibhaya j?vana, bhojan, anna, ?h?r kh?n?, bhojan kh?n? kh?dho, ann, m?ni khabar, khani xani hána, háñna khyann jevan, anna, khana khana, bhojan kh?dya, bhojana, ?h?ra ?h?ra, Khed, Bhojan ahar, khaiddyô, khuwa bostu khen?i ?h?ra, kæma, bojun, bhojana kh?n?, anna, ?h?r xal roti-tukkur, khanra naaj , jimman , jafhat , khadbad khana
go dhey gachchhati, y?ti j?- j?- j?- j?- j?- va? ja- za- za- gatçh vach (from Vedic Ach) j? j?ntu, Ja- j?un, Ja- zu-, za- j?hin yanna, yana janu, j? jal vanj janu, j? ja-
god raskalaange deva, vara, parme?vara, devata, bhagav?n, prabhu parmeshvar, dev, bhagv?n isar, bavji, dai deva, parmeshwara, ishwara bhagv?n, parmeshvar, ishvar, khud? pagv?n, rab, ishwar, parmesar bhagv?n, parmeshvar, ishvar, khud?, s?in, m?lik bhogoban, ishhor, rob, khoda bogowan, rob, xuda, ixor, ila, rob dai, divta, bagv?n, parmeeshar dev, sarvesvar bhagv?n, m?lik, iswar, daiva, daiya bhagab?na, ?h?kura, diyan Maphru, bhagb?n, Devta, dewôta, bhôgôwan bhagv?n devi, d?vath?v? bhagaw?n, deut?, ishwor devel rab, m?lik dy?pta , dyabta
good rangalhu shobhna, uttama s?r? chokho ch?ngle, chh?n, uttama achh? changa suo bhalo bala bála rut (moral "good"), j?n (physical "good") bare, chand, layak badhiya, changa, achha bh?la Bane, bh?l bhal neek, neeman ho?dhai, ho?da raamro, asal lachho, mishto changa khoob , bhalu , asad changa
grass vina ta, kusha gh?sth?ro chaaro gavata, ta? gh?s gh?h ghãhu gha? gash, gah kérr dramunn ta? (from Prakrit ti?a, Sanskrit ta) gh?s gh?sa Jhaar, gh?ns ghãh gh?s, duib thana, thruna ghaas, dubo char gh? ghasyood ghaah
hand aiyy hasta h?th haat h?t h?th hath hat?u haat aat árt atth haat h?th h?ta h?t, Bahu hat h?th atha, hasthaya h?t vast hat h?th aath
head boa ?ira, mastaka, kap?la, m?rdh? m?th? sir, maatha ?oke, mun?ake, mastaka, tke sir, sh?sh sir, s?s mat?o matha, shir matha matá kalla maate (from Prakrit matthao, Sanskrit Mastaka) s?r, s, kap?r mun?a Mud mur, matha m?th, m?ri oluwa, sirasa, hisa tauko, seer shero ser Kapa , mund sir
heart hiyy hrdaya hruday hivado, kaljo hrudaya, kij dil, hriday, antar dil, riday dil dil, hridoy, ontor dil, ontor dil ryeda Hadde, Hardey (From Sanskrit Hrdaya), Hrdaya dil, hivara, jiyara hrudaya hurud hridoy, hiya hada, hardaya, hadawatha hridaya, mutu ilo Dil jikudu , dil , jitamo dil
horse as ashva, ghotaka, hayi, turanga gho ghodo ghoda gho?a ko?a ghoo gho?a ghu?a gúñra, gúra gur ghodo gho?a ghoda ghoda gh?ra ghod? ashvaya, thuranga ghod? khoro, grast ghora guntt khora
house ge' g?ha, alaya ghar ghar, taaparo ghar k?r ghôr ar, jaah ghor ghor gor ghar ghar ghar ghara, Gruha ghar ghôr ghôr, gedhara, gruha gruhaya, geya, gedara, niwasa ghar, griha kher ghar gher , ghor , koodi , kar
hunger banduhai bubuksha, kshudh? bhukh bhukh bh?k bh?kh pukh bh?khayal bhukh, khida bhuk búk bo'tchh bhuk bh?kh bhoka bhok bhuk bh?kh kusagini, badagini bhok bokh bhuk bh?ka , bhukkhi , bh?khu pukh
language bas bh?sh?, v?N? bh?sh? boli, zaban bh?sh? bh?sh?, zab?n, baat boli, zab?n, pasha ?oli, bhasha, zab?n bha?a basha, zob?n, maat báca booyl, zab?n bhasha, bhas bh?kh?, boli, jubaan bh?s? bh?s? bhaxa bh?sh? bhashawa, basa bh?sh? chhib boli, zaban bhasa bhaak zabaan
laugh (v.) hunun h?sa, smera has- has- h?s- hãs- hassa k?illu ha?, hã? ash- áñc- assun has- has- hãs- h?s- hãh- hôs hina, sinaha, sina hasnu asal khill hasnu as-
life dhiriulhun jivana, jani jivan, jindagi bhav j?van, j?v j?van, zindag? jindr?, j?van, jind zindag? ?ibon, zindegi zibon, zindegi zibon, zindigi zoo, zindagayn jivit, jivan jinigi jibana, pr?na jiban ziwôn jiban jeevithe, jivana jeewan, jindagi jivipen zindgey ji'?na , jivan
moon handhu chandram?, soma, m?sa chandra, ch?ndo chaan, chando chandra chandram?, chand?, ch?nd chann, ch?nd chan? cãd, condro, chand sand san, zun tçandram chandra, chandrim channa, channarma, mah chandra, Janha Jan, JanhaMamu zunbai, zun, sôndrô jonhi, chan chandra, sa?du, ha?da chandram?, juun chhon chandr joon, jo
mother mamma janani, m?t? m?, b? mai, ma ?i, m?i m? m?, mata, mai, bebe m?o, amma ma, amma, ammu ma, amma, ammu amma maeyj amma, mai mat?ri, m?i, amma m?, bou m? ai, ma mawa, amma, matha, mæni ?m?, muw?, mum?, m?t? dai amma, maa maa , bvai, jiya, maidi, maayadi, janadaaree amma, ammi
mouth anga ?s, mukha mo?h?, mukha moondo tond, mukha m?ñh m?ñh, mukh m?ñh, v?t mukh muk cuuñçi, gal m?ñh tond, mukh m?ñh mukha, Paati Tund, Paati mukh m?h mukha, kata mukh, thutuno khabaad , khaab , gichcha , gichchi , gichchoo , thuntheer , thobadu mu
name nan n?ma n?m naam n?v n?m n? n?lo nam naam nam naav naav n?, n?m n?ma, n? n? nam n?m nama, n?maya n?m nav n? naun na
night reygandu raatri, rajani, nish?, naktam, etc. r?t, r?tri, nish? raati, raat r?tra r?t, r?tri, nish? r?t r?t rat, ratri, nishi rait, ratri, shob rait, lailat raath raat, ratri r?t r?ti, Ratri, Nishi Rayet rati r?it r?thriya, ræ raati, raat, raatri raat r?t , raat raat
open hulhuvaa uttana, udhatita khull? khulyuda ughad, khol khul? khulla, khol khol khul? kul? kúilla khol ughad, ukt-, udhaar khull? khol? khol? khula khujal harinna khulla rat khulla ughadnu, kholnu khulla
peace sul'ha sh?nti sh?nti, sh?ntat? shaanti sh?nti sh?nti, aman sh?nti, aman, sak?n sh?nti, aman, sukoon ?anti shanti cánti aman, shaenti shanti, santatay s?nti-sakoon, aman s?nti s?nti xanti sh?nti s?maya, sh?ntiya shaanti kotor aman, sakoon tapp , juppi , Nimi
place than stapana, sthala, bhu, sth?na jagy?, stha? jageh sth?n, sthal, j?ga sth?n, jagah th?ñ, asth?n ja?ah, th?ñ ?aega, sthan, zomin zega, zaga, zomin zaga jaay jaag, thal jagah j?g? j?g? thai tth?m sthanaya, thäna thaaun, jagga, sthal than jaga th , jaga jaga
queen ranin r?ni, r?jpatni ri, madhuri raani r?ni, r?jm?t? r?ni, malk? r?ni, malka ri rani rani rani m?hraeny (also used for "newly-wed bride") raani r?ni, begam ri ri rani r?ni räjina, d?vi, bisawa r?ni rani, thagarni ranri, malka r?ni , thakarvi , thakaravi
read kiun pathati, vachana v?nch- baanch- v?ch- pa?h- pa?h- pa- po?h- for- for- parun vajji/vaach pa?h- pa?h- pa?dh- pôrh- pôdh kiyawanna padh- chaduvu parhnra, parh padhnu , banchnu par-
rest araamu vishr?ma ?r?m aaraam vishr?nti ?r?m ar?m ?r?m aram, bi?rom araam aram, ziro araam aaraam r?m ?r?m, bisr?m th?k, bisr?m aram, zirôni ar?m vishr?ma, viw?ka ?r?m, bishr?m Araam dh?maun , ?hy?maun raam
say buney vadati, braviti, br?té, b?l- b?l- b?l-, mha?-, s?ng- b?l, ?kh, keh bôl-, keh chao bol-, koh- xo- hoó-, bul- b?l- mhan, sang, ulay bol-, kah- k?hantu, Kuha, Kah- Kahan, kaha, kah b?j pawasanna, kiyanna bhannu, bolnu phenel bol, aakh b?lnu bol-
sister dhahtha svas?, bhagini bêhn bain, bayee, beeri bhagin?, bah behn p?n b bon, apa, didi boin, afa bóin, bubu, buu baeynn bhaini bahin, didi, didiya bhau?i, bhagini bahen bhônti, bhôni bôhin sahodariya bahini, didi phen bheinr (younger sister) bhuli , bhulli
(elder sister) deedi
(elder sister) baaji, (sister) p?n
small kuda alpa, laghu, kanishtha, kshudra n?hn? n?hn? lah?n, laghu chho nikka, chho nan?o choo huru, suto, kuti cóñço lokutt, nyika, pyoonth Saan chho?, nanhi cho?a, sana chot, alap, tike xôru, suti (for short) chhot chuti, podi, kud? saano, chhoto tikno, xurdo nikka, chauta chhvattu , ucchi nika
son kalo sunu, putra chhok?o choora, betoo mulg?, porg? b put, puttar pu? chele, put, b fua, fut, b fut nyechu, pothur put putt/chhora pua, putra Po, Pila put (putek) p?t puthra, puth?, puthu chhora, putra chhavo putr naunu jayede puthar
soul furaana ?tm?, atasa ?tm? aatma ?tm? ?tm?, r?h ?tm?, r?h ?tm?, r?h ?tm?, r?h ruh, zaan ruú, zan ?thm? atma, jeev r?h ?tm? ?tm? atma ?tm? ?tm? ?tm? di rooh ?tm?
sun iru s?rya s?raj, s?rya suraj s?rya s?rya, s?raj s?raj siju ?ur?o surzo, shurzo beil, cújjo siri surya s?raj s?rjya s?rjya beli beri, s?rj ira, hiru, s?rya s?rya, gh?m kham sijh gh?m
ten dhihayeh dasha das das dah? das das, daha ?aha do? dosh doc duh dha das dasa das dôh dôs dahaya, dasa das desh dah ds das
three thineh tr?, trayah, tr?Ni (neut. nom. pl.) tra? tiin t?n t?n tin, traiy ?eh tin teen tin t're teen t?n tini t?n tini t?n thuna tin trin trai t?n tre
village avah gr?ma g?ñ?u gaaon, dhaani g?v, kh?da g?oñ pin?, g?ñ ?o gram, gaon gau, geram fara, gang, g?m ganv g?oñ-deh?t, jageer g?n, gr?ma g?n gaû g?m gama, gramaya gaun gav dehat, jhoauk, vasti gau? , gawn
want beynun ichhati, kankshati, amati, apekshati joi- chai- p?hij?, hav? ch?h- ch?h- k?ap, ch?h- cha- sa-, lag- lag- yatshun, kan'tchun jaay- ch?h- Chanunchi, Loduchi Chounchen bisar-, lag-, khuz- ch?hi oone, awashyayi ch?han?, ichhya kamel, mangel chah chaandu , chainnun , chaindu , chaanu
water fen p?niya, jala pi paani pi p?ni, jal p?ni, jal pi pani, ?ol fani faní poyn, zal (used for "urine" only) udak, uda, pani, jal p?ni pi, jala p?ye? pani pain jalaya, wathura, pän p?ni, jal pani panri pi pani
when kon iraku kada, ched kyahre kadine k?vh?, kadhee kab kad, kadoñ ka?ahn kokhon, kobe kumbala, xobe hoñótté karr kedna, kenna kab kebe Ketebele, kebe ketiya kakhan, kahiyé kawadh?da, kedinada kahile kana kadanr kabbi , kabaar kellai
wind vai pavana, v?yu, v?t? hav?, pavan havaa v?ra hav?, pavan hav?, paun. vah hav? bata?, haoa batash bathác, bouyar tshath, hava vaar h?v? pabana Dhuka, haba, paban bôtãh bas?t hulan, sulan, pavana, nala h?w?, bat?s balval hava, phook bathaun , paun va
wolf hiyalhu vrka, shvaka shiy?l bheriyo k?lha bhhiy? phiy? ?id?ar nekre, shiyal hiyal cíal vrukh kolo bh?rhiy? gadhiy? Kulia xiyal siy?r vurkaya bw?nso ruv baghiyaar bheriya
woman anhenaa n?ri, vanit?, str?, mahil?, lalan? mahil?, n?ri lugai, aurat b?i, mahil?, stree aurat, str?, mahil?, n?ri naar, mutiyar m?i mohila, nari, stri beti, mohila maiñya zanaan baayal, stree mehraru, aurat, janaani stree, n?ri Mayeji môhila, maiki manuh maugi, stri k?nth?wa, gähäniya, sthriya, mahil?wa, lalan?wa, liya, la?da, van?th?wa mahilaa, naari, stree juvli aurat, treimat, zaal, zanaani bya?ula , kajyi janaani
year aharu varsh, sh?rad varash saal, uun varsh s?l, baras, varsh s?l, varah s?l bocchor, shal, boshor, bosor, s?l bosór váreeh varas s?l, baris, barikh barsa baras, Bachar bôsôr barakh varshaya, vasara barsha bersh saal mainn saal
yes / no aan, labba, aadhe / noon, nooney hyah, kam / na, ma h? / n? hon/koni h?y, h?, h? / n?hi, n? h?ñ / n?, nah?ñ h?ñ, ?ho / n?, nah?ñ h?/ na hæ, ho, oi / na ii, oe / na ói / na aa / ná, ma Vayi/naa h?ñ / n? han /Na Hoye/nei hôy / nôhôy hô/nai ow / næ ho / hoina, la / nai va / na ha / na h?, h?an / n? aha/ na
yesterday iyye hyah, gatadinam, gatak?le (gai-)k?l(-e) kaal k?l kal kal kalla (goto-)kal(-ke) (goto-)khail, (goto-)khal, khal(-ke), khail(-ku) hail k?la, r?th kaal k?lh (gata-)k?li gala k?li (zuwa-)kali k?ilh ?y? hijo ij kal n'y?ra , byi kal
English Dhivehi Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindi-Urdu Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Sylheti Rohingya,
Chittagonian
Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Kosli Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi) Garhwali (Garhwali) Pahari(Pahari)

Interrogative pronouns

English Maithili Odia Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Kamtapuri Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian,
Rohingya
Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala Romani Garhwali
who Ke kie kaaku kün, kai kae ke ko?, ko?a ka kaun kaun, ke?a xe hon ko kavuda kon ku
what Ki, kathi kana, kitho keekey ki, kih ki ki k?ya kya ki ?h? kita ki ke so ki
where Kata kouthi konthaaku kót, keni kó?e kothay, koi kya ku?he kahan kithe xoi, xano hoçé kithé kaham koheda kaj kakh , kakham , kanee
when Kakhan, kahiyé kebe kon iraku ketia, kahani kónbela, kónsomoe kokhon, kobe ky?re kadh? kab kadom kumbela, kunbala, xobe hoñótté kahile, kab kavada kana / keda kadee
why Kié keno ki , kana lagi , kitho lagi keevve kio, kelei kene, ke keno sa mate k?, kaina kyun kiun xene, kitar lagi kiá kina æyi soske kiley
how Kena kemiti kihineh kene, kene (-koi/ke, -kua), kidore ke?ka, ke?kori kemon, kibhabe kai rite kas? kaise kive kila, xemne keén kasari sar kann , kanukvai , kanake
English Maithili Odia Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Kamtapuri Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian
and Rohingya
Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala Romani Garhwali

Personal pronouns

English Dhivehi Sanskrit Maithili Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian,
Rohingya
Kashmiri Konkani Kamtapuri Bhojpuri Odia Nepali Romani Garhwali
i aharun aham hôm moi ami hu?, hu ,mein m? mein mai? maa mui, ami ãi, mui aav mui haum mu? ma me m?
we aharumen hôm sôbh ami amra ame,apane ?mh? hum as as? amra añára aami hamra aame h?m? amen aamen
you (inf) kaley, theena toi tui tu t? tu Tus t? tui t? tui tui tu ta? tu tu
you (mid frm) × tumi tumi tame t?mh? tum Tus t? tumi tuñí t? tui tume tim? tumen tum
you (frm) ah?ñ apuni apni ?p, ?pa? ?p Tus t?h? afne oñne tumi tomra aapaNa tap tumen taanu , ?p
you (inf, pl) kaleymen, thimeehun tõ sôbh tohõt tora tuae Not used Not used tomra tuáñra Not used Not used tui
you (mid frm, pl) × tümalük tomra tamaru tumlog tumitain, tumra tumi tomra tumemaane tim?har? tumi
you (frm, pl) ah?ñ sôbh apünalük apnara tameloko ?plog afnain, afnara tumi tomrala aapaNamaane taphar? ?pi , taanui
he (mid frm) eyna o xi ?e, ? pelo who o ho he, ogu ité to inae, unae se ?, un?, tin? vov ?
she (mid frm) eyna o tai ?e, ? peli who o hu? tai, ogu ití ti inae, unae se ?, un?, tin? voj ?
he (frm) o teü, tekhet tini, uni pelae ve tain, ein uite inae, unae se waha ?
she (frm) o teü, tekhet tini, uni palie tain, ein inae, unae se wah ?
they (mid frm) emeehun o sôbh xihõt tara pelaloko wohlog hu? tara itará taani imra, umra semaane un?har?, tin?har? von vo
they (frm) o sôbh teülük, tekhetxokol tahara pela lokoe ve tara iín imrala, umrala semaane wahhar? vo
English Dhivehi Sanskrit Maithili Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindi Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian,
and Rohingya
Kashmiri Konkani Kamtapuri Bhojpuri Odia Nepali Romani Garhwali

Numerals

Numerals Sanskrit Maithili Marathi Assamese Bengali Gujarati Hindustani Punjabi[28] Khortha Sylheti Rohingya
0 sunna Shunya xuinno ?unno ny, sifar sifar ?eip ?uinno sifír
1 ek ek ek ek ek ikk ai ex ek
2 du dona dui dui do do jau, dau, daun? dui dui
3 teen teena tini tin t?n tinn, tre tai, ?ain? tin tin
4 ch?ir chara sari car c?r c?r, ch? ?h?ran, c?r? sair sair
5 p?ñch paacha pas pac pc punj c?yal, m?c? fas fãs
6 chhô Sahaa soe, so choe che che caimp?, jheik sóe
7 s?t Saatha xat ?at s?t satt ?oiyain, jhe? ?at, hat há?t
8 ?th Aatha ath a? h a?h b?, au?hau? a? ão
9 Nawu no noe nau nau? sutauil, naubh? noe no
10 dôs Dahaa doh, dos do? das dass sihaum do? do?
Numerals Sanskrit Maithili Marathi Assamese Bengali Gujarati Hindustani Punjabi Khortha Sylheti Rohingya

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "Overview of Indo-Aryan languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ http://aboutworldlanguages.com/indo-aryan-branch
  4. ^ Standard Hindi first language: 260.3 million (2001), as second language: 120 million (1999). Urdu L1: 68.9 million (2001-2014), L2: 94 million (1999): Ethnologue 19.
  5. ^ Bengali or Bangla-Bhasa, L1: 242.3 million (2011), L2: 19.2 million (2011), Ethnologue
  6. ^ "världens-100-största-språk-2010". Nationalencyclopedin. Govt. of Sweden publication. Retrieved 2013.
  7. ^ Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Routledge. pp. 246-247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1463-6.
  8. ^ a b Parpola, Asko (2015). The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and The Indus Civilization. Oxford University Press.
  9. ^ The Indo-Aryan numerals are found in the treatise on horse training composed by Kikkulis of Mitanni (Section 6.9). They are aikawartanna ( Skt ekavartana) 'one turn of the course', terawartanna ( Skt tre-vartana) 'three turns of the course', sattawartanna ( Skt sapta-vartana) 'seven turns of the course', nawartana with haplology for nawawartana ( Skt nava-vartana) 'nine turns of the course'. The forms of numerals in these words are clearly Indo-Aryan. The form aika- is especially confirmatory. The form satta for Skt sapta- is a clearly Middle Indo-Aryan form. The following linguistic features reveal that the language belongs to an early Middle Indo-Aryan stage or to a transitional stage between Old Indo-Aryan and Middle Indo-Aryan. (i) Dissimilar plosives have been assimilated, for example, sapta satta. Gray quotes the MIA form for comparison, but he is silent about the fact that the borrowing in Anatolian is from MIA (1950: 309). (ii) Semi-vowels and liquids were not assimilated in conjuncts with plosives, semi-vowels or liquids as in 1st MIA, for example, vartana wartana, rathya aratiya-, virya Birya-, Vrdhamva Bardamva. (iii) Nasals were also not assimilated to plosives/nasals, unlike in 1st MIA and like in OIA. This characteristic places the language of these documents earlier than 1st MIA, for example, rukma urukmannu, rtanma artamna. (iv) Anaptyxis was quite frequent, for example, Indra Indara smara mumara. (v) v b initially, for example, virya birya, vrdhasva bardamva. (vi) r ar, for example, rta arta, vrdh bard-. Thus, a linguistic study of the borrowed Indo-Aryan forms in the Anatolian records shows that they are definitely Indo-Aryan and not Iranian nor Indo- Iranian. This also shows that this language belongs to a transitional stage between OIA and MIA. Further, this language is comparable to the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S. R. Rao. And this language is the base for Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, which was wrongly named Hybrid because of a misconception that it was a mixed language. Thus, the language of Middle Indo-Aryan is much before the Afokan Prakrit. And on the basis of the borrowed words in Anatolian records and the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S. R. Rao the date of MIA may go beyond 2000 BC. The transitional stage between OIA and MIA might have started in 2500 BC. Bryant, Edwin (2001). THE INDO-ARYAN CONTROVERSY Evidence and inference in Indian history. 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 181-234. ISBN 0-203-64188-4.
  10. ^ There is good evidence that in the Old Indic or Indo-Aryan dialect to which the names belong, Already at the time of the documents, initial v, represented by b, was pronounced like v, while medial v kept its value of semivowel and was pronounced like w. For instance, Birasena(-Virasena), Birya (=Virya). Biryasura (=Viryasura).... 'It seems that in the language to which the names belong, just as in Middle Indic, the group pt had become tt, as for instance, in Wasasatta(=Vasasapta), Sattawadza(=Saptavaja) and sausatti (=sausapti 'the son of susapti) Dumont, P.E. (October 1947). "Indo-Aryan Names from Mitanni, Nuzi, and Syrian Documents". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 67 (4): 251-253.
  11. ^ Kulshreshtha, Manisha; Mathur, Ramkumar (24 March 2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4614-1137-6.
  12. ^ Robert E. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-080180-1, ... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ...
  13. ^ "Urdu and its Contribution to Secular Values". South Asian Voice. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 2008.
  14. ^ "Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction". University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  15. ^ "Ethnologue Report for Hindi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2008.
  16. ^ Otto Zwartjes Portuguese Missionary Grammars in Asia, Africa and Brazil, 1550-1800 Publisher John Benjamins Publishing, 2011 ISBN 9027283257, 9789027283252
  17. ^ Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301-17
  18. ^ Matras (2012)
  19. ^ "History of the Romani language".
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2015. Encyclopedia Iranica
  21. ^ "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved 2013.
  22. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/indo-aryan
  23. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kuswaric". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  24. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chinali-Lahul Lohar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  25. ^ Masica (1991:94-95)
  26. ^ Masica (1991:95-96)
  27. ^ Masica 1991, pp. 23-27.
  28. ^ "Numbers in Punjabi". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved .

Further reading

  • John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872-1879. 3 vols.
  • Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.
  • Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk).
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9
  • Erdosy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6.
  • Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  • Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3.
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991-1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1-2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.

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