Indo-European Vocabulary
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Indo-European Vocabulary

The following is a table of many of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) words and roots, with their cognates in all of the major families of descendants.

Notes

The following conventions are used:

  • Cognates are in general given in the oldest well-documented language of each family, although forms in modern languages are given for families in which the older stages of the languages are poorly documented or do not differ significantly from the modern languages. In addition, modern English forms are given for comparison purposes.
  • Nouns are given in their nominative case, with the genitive case supplied in parentheses when its stem differs from that of the nominative. (For some languages, especially Sanskrit, the basic stem is given in place of the nominative.)
  • Verbs are given in their "dictionary form". The exact form given depends on the specific language:
  • In place of Latin, an Oscan (c. 100 BC) or Umbrian (c. 200 BC) cognate is occasionally given when no corresponding Latin cognate exists. Similarly, a cognate from another Anatolian language (e.g. Luvian, c. 1400 BC; Lycian, c. 400 BC) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Hittite (c. 1400 BC).
  • For Tocharian, both the Tocharian A (c. 800 AD) and Tocharian B (c. 800 AD) cognates are given whenever possible.
  • For the Celtic languages, both Old Irish (c. 800 AD) and Welsh cognates are given when possible. For Welsh, normally the modern form is given, but occasionally the form from Old Welsh (c. 800 AD) is supplied when it is known and displays important features lost in the modern form. A Middle Irish (c. 1000 AD) cognate is given when the Old Irish form is unknown, and Gaulish (c. 0 AD[clarification needed]), Cornish ( c. 1200-1700 AD?) and/or Breton (modern) cognates may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Welsh.
  • For the Baltic languages, Lithuanian (modern) and Old Prussian (c. 1350 - 1600 AD) cognates are given when possible. (Both Lithuanian and Old Prussian are included because Lithuanian often includes information missing in Old Prussian, e.g. due to lack of written accent marks in the latter.) Similarly to the Celtic situation, Old Lithuanian (c. 1600 AD) forms may occasionally be given in place of modern Lithuanian; Latvian (modern) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Lithuanian.
  • For the Slavic languages, Old Church Slavonic (c. 1000 AD) cognates are given when possible. Forms from modern Slavic languages or other Church Slavic dialects may occasionally be given in place of Old Church Slavonic.
  • For English, a modern English cognate is given when it exists, along with the corresponding Old English (c. 1000 AD) form; otherwise, only an Old English form is given.
  • For Gothic (c. 350 AD), a form in another Germanic language (Old Norse, c. 800 AD; Old High German, c. 900 AD; or Middle High German, c. 1200 AD) is sometimes given in its place or in addition, when it reveals important features.

Kinship

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
(predominant dialects used:) modern, c. 2000 AD; Late West Saxon OE, c. 1000 AD c. 350 AD c. 100 BC Classical Attic, c. 400 BC Vedic Sanskrit, c. 1700-1100 BC (?) (Rig Veda) Old Avestan, c. 1700-1200 BC (); Younger Avestan, c. 900-400 BC (); Old Persian, c. 525 BC (Behistun inscription) Old Church Slavonic, c. 1000 AD modern Lithuanian, c. 2000 AD; Old Prussian, c. 1350-1600 AD Old Irish, c. 800 AD; modern Welsh, c. 2000 AD Classical Armenian, c. 405 AD modern, c. 2000 AD Tocharian A and B, c. 800 AD c. 1400 BC
*méH?t?r- "mother" mother (< OE m?dor) ON móðir "mother" m?ter "mother" m?t?r "mother" mt?, m?t "mother" Av m?tar- "mother" NPers m?dar OCS mati, mater- "mother" Lith móteris "woman", motina; OPrus muti "mother" OIr m?thir "mother"; W modryb "auntie" mayr "mother" motër "sister" A m?car, B m?cer "mother"
*pH?tér- "father" father (< OE fæder) fadar "father" pater "father" pat?r "father" pit "father" Av pitar- (nom. also pta, ta), OPers pita "father", NPers padar OIr athir "father"; Welsh edrydd hayr "father" A p?car, B p?cer "father"
*b?réH?ter- "brother" brother (< OE br?þor) br?þar "brother" fr?ter "brother" p?rt?r "member of a phratry (brotherhood)" b?rt? "brother" Av br?tar-, OPers br?tar-, Ossetian ärvád "brother, relative", NPers bar?dar Kurdish bira OCS bratr? "brother" Lith brõlis, OPrus brati "brother OIr br?th(a)ir, W brawd (pl. brodyr) "brother" e?bayr (gen. e?bawr) "brother" v?lla A pracar, B procer "brother"
*swésor "sister" sister (< OE sweostor, influenced by ON systir) swistar "sister" soror "sister" éor "relative" svás? "sister" Av x?a?har- "sister" NPers ?w?har "sister" OCS sestra "sister" Lith sesuõ (seser?s), OPrus sestra "sister" OIr siur, W chwaer "sister" k?oyr (k?e?), nom.pl k?or-k? "sister"[1] vashë "girl" A ?ar', B ?er "sister"
*d?ugH?-tér- "daughter" daughter (< OE dohtor) daúhtar "daughter" Oscan futír "daughter" t?ugát?r "daughter" dúhit? "daughter" Av dug?dar-, duar-, NPers do?tar "daughter" Kurdish dot "daughter" OCS dti, dter- "daughter" Lith dukteris, OPrus dukti "daughter" Gaulish duxtir "daughter" dustr "daughter" A ck?car, B tk?cer "daughter" túwatara "daughter"
*suHnú- "son" son (< OE sunu) sunus "son" huiós "son" s?nú- "son" Av hunu? "son" OCS syn? "son" Lith s?nùs, OPrus suns "son" ustr "son" çun "boy/son" A se, B soyä "son"
*nepot- "nephew, grandson" obsolete neve "nephew, male cousin, grandson" (< OE nefa) OHG nevo "nephew" nep?s (nep?tis) "grandson, nephew" népodes "descendants" náp?t- "grandson, descendant" Av nap?t-, naptar-, OPers nap?t- "grandson, descendant" OLith nepotis, OPrus neputs "grandson" OIr nïæ "sister's son", W nei "nephew" nip "grandson, nephew"
*d?iH?ur- "husband's brother, brother-in-law" OE t?cor "husband's brother" OHG zeihhor "husband's brother" levir "husband's brother" dr "husband's brother" dev, devará "husband's brother" OCS d?ver? "brother-in-law" Lith dieveris "husband's brother" W daw(f) "brother-in-law" taygr "husband's brother" dhëndër
*snusós "daughter-in-law" OE snoru "daughter-in-law" OHG snur "daughter-in-law" nurus "daughter-in-law" nuos "daughter-in-law" snu- "daughter-in-law" Old Ir. *(s)nu?áh Bactrian (asn?uo) NPers. sunoh / sunh?r "daughter-in-law" OCS sn?xa "daughter-in-law" W gwaudd "daughter-in-law" nuse "bride" nu "daughter-in-law"
*su?ek?r- "mother-in-law" OE sweger "mother-in-law" swaihr "mother-in-law" socrus"mother-in-law" ekur? "mother-in-law" ?va?r- "mother-in-law" OCS svekry "mother-in-law" Lith ?e?uras "father-in-law", OPrus swasri "mother-in-law" W chwegr "mother-in-law" skesur "mother-in-law" vje´herr "father-in-law"

People

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*demon- "person" OE guma "person, man", br?dguma "bridegroom"[2] guma "man" hom? "person" OCS zemljanin? "earthling" OLith ?muõ "person"; OPrus zmunents "human" OIr duine, W dyn "person" < *dom-yo- A ?om "boy"; B ?aumo "person"
*H?ner- "man, hero" ON Nj?rðr (name of a God) Ner-? (personal name), neri?sus "strong" an?r (andros) "man" nár- (nom. n?) "man, person" Av nar- (nom. n?) "man, person" Kurdish nêr "male animal, masculine" OCS narav? "character, custom"; narod? "people, nation" Lith nóras "wish, want", narsa; OPrus nàrs "courage" W nêr "lord, prince, leader; hero" ayr (a?n) "man, person" njer "man, person"
*wiH-ro- "man" werewolf (< OE wer "man") waír "man" vir "man" v?rá- "man, hero" Av v?ra- "man, hero" (possibly) OCS viro- "self-minded" Lith výras "man"; OPrus wirs "man, husband" OIr fer, W g?r "man" burrë "man" A wir "young"
*g?én-eH?- "woman, wife" queen (< OE cw?n "queen, woman, wife") q?ns (q?náis), qin? "woman, wife" gun? (gunaikos) "woman, wife" < *g?un-eH? gn? (gns-) "wife of a god", jáni?, ján? "woman, wife" Av g?n?, ?n?, ?aini-, NPers zan "woman, wife" Kurdish jin "woman, wife" OCS ?ena "woman, wife" Lith ?moná "wife", OPrus gena "woman, wife" OIr ben (mná) "woman, wife" < *g?én-eH? (*g?n-eH?-s), (neut.) "wife < *g?én; W benyw "woman" kin (kno?) "woman" zonjë "lady, wife, woman" < *g?en-yeH?; Gheg grue, Tosk grua "wife" < *g?n-?n A ?ä? (pl. ?nu), B ?ana "woman, wife" Luwian wanatti "woman, wife"

Pronouns, particles

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*egH? "I" I (< OE ic?) ik "I" eg? "I" < *egoH? eg?, eg?n "I" ahám "I" < *egH?-om Av az?m, OPers adam, Parth. az "I" < *egH?-omKurdish ez "I (direct case)" OCS az? "I" Lith à?, OLith e?, OPrus as, Latv es "I" es "I" es "I" u, unë "I" (-në possibly originally a suffix) ñuk "I" ?k "I" influenced by ammuk "me"
*H?me- "me (acc.)" me (< OE m?, mec < *H?me-ge) mik "me (acc.)" m?(d) "me (acc.)" emé, me "me (acc.)" m?m "me (acc.)" < *H?m?-m, m? "me (acc. encl.)" Av m?m "me" OCS m? "me (acc.)" < *H?m?-m Lith manè "me (acc.)" OIr me-sse, mé, W mi "I" is "me (acc.)" <? *H?me-ge mua, mue "me (acc.)" < *H?m?-m ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H?me-ge, -mu "me (acc. encl.)"
*H?mei "me (dat.)", *(H?)moi "me (dat. encl.)" me (< OE m?) mis "me (dat.)" mihi "me (dat.)" moi "me (dat., gen. encl.)" máhya(m) "me (dat.)", m?, me "me (dat. encl.)" Av maibya "me (dat.)" (? not in Pokorny), me (Old Avestan moi) "me (dat. encl.)" OCS mi (dat enc.) < *(H?)moi Lith man "for me", OPrus maiy "me (dat. encl.)" OIr infix -m- "me"; W -'m infixed accusative first person singular pronoun "me" inj "me (dat.)" meje ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H?me-ge, -mi "me (dat. encl.)"
*H?meme-, *H?mene- "of me, mine"; * H?mo-yo-, * H?me-yo- "my" my, mine (< OE m?n < *H?mei-no-) meins "my"; meina "of me" me? "of me"; meus "my" < *H?me-yo- eme?o "of me"; emós "my" máma "of me"; ma/m? "my" < *H?mo- Av mana, OPers man? "of me"; Av ma (m/n), m? (f) "my" OCS mene "to me", moj "mine" Lith mana(s), OPrus mais/maia "my" W fyn "of me, my"; Breton ma "of me, my" im "my" im "my" (article i + em) AB ñi "my" < Proto-Tocharian *mäñi mi? "my" < *H?me-yo-
*tu "you" (nom. sg.) thou (< OE þ? "you") þu "you" t? "you" Doric (standard ) t(u)vám "you"; Av t? "you" OCS ty "you" Lith , OPr tu "you" OIr t?, tu-ssu, tu-sso, W ti du "you" ti "you" A tu, B t(u)we "you" zik, zikka "you" < *tega < *te + *eg?
*wei "we"; *n?s-mé, encl. *nos "us" we (< OE w?), us (< OE ?s < PGerm *uns < *n?s) weis "we", uns "us" n?s "we, us" h?m- "we, us";[3]Aeol ámme "us" < *asme < *n?sme vay-ám "we" < *wei-óm, asm?n "us" < *n?sme + acc. -?n, encl. na? "us" < *nos Av va?m "we", ahma "us", encl. n, n, n? "us" Bulg nìe "we", OCS gen. nas? "us" < *n?s-s?m Lith mès "we"; OPr gen. n?uson "ours" < *n?s-s?m OIr ni "we, us" <? *s-n?s, gen. ar n- < *n?s-r?-m; W ni "we" < *n?s na "we" < *n?s, ne "us" < *n?s A was, B wes "we" w?s "we" < *wei-es, anz "us", encl. na? "us"
*y? "you (nom. pl.)"; *us-wé, *us-mé,[4]encl. *wos "you (acc./dat. pl.)" ye (< OE g? "you (nom. pl.)"), you (< OE ?ow[5] "you (acc./dat. pl.)") j?s "you (nom. pl.)", izwis[5] "you (acc./dat. pl.)" v?s "you (nom./acc. pl.)" hum- "you (pl.)"; Aeol úmme "you (acc. pl.)" < *usme y?yám "you (nom. pl.)", yu?mn "you (acc. pl.)" < y- + *usme + acc. -?n, encl. va? "you (obl. pl.)" Av ym, y "you (nom. pl.)", ymat? "you (abl. pl.)", encl. v "you (obl. pl.)" OCS vy "you (nom./acc. pl.)", vas? "yours (pl.)" Lith j?s "you (nom. pl.)", j?s? "yours (pl.)"; OPr iouson "yours (pl.)" OIr s?, sissi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw-, uai-b "of you (pl.)" < *?-sw?, NIr far n- "your (pl.)"; W chwi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw- ju "you (nom. pl.)" < *u < *vos A yas, B yes "you (nom. pl.)" sumes < *usme
*s(w)e- "oneself"; (reflexive pronoun) self (< OE self', seolf) swes (ref. gn. pn.), OHG sih (ref. pn.) s? (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) sva- (ref. pn.) Avestan hva- (ref. pn.) Bulg sèbe "oneself", OCS svoji (ref. gn. pn.) Lith sava(s), OPrus swajs "my own, myself" OIr fein (self, himself); W hun(an) "self, myself, himself/herself etc" iwr self, himself/herself vetë A ?n-i, B ?añ "(one's) own" Lydian s'fa- (ref. pn.), Carian sfes (ref. pn.)
*k?id, k?od "what" what (< OE hwæt) ?a "what" quid "what?", quod "what..., that..." "what?", "what..." kím "what" Bulg kakvò "what", OCS -to "what?" Lith kàs "what?"; OPrus kawids "which, what a" OIr cid "what?" *i (?r) (< *hi), in (< *hi-n?') "what?" çfarë "what?" kuit (?) "what", kuit-ki "whatever"; Luvian kuit "what?"
*k?is, k?os, k?ei/k?oi "who" who (< OE hw? < *k?oi) ?as "who?" quis "who?", qu? "who..." tís, Thess kís, CyprArc sís "who?", tìs "who..." ká?, kí? "who?" Av k? (ka-hy?, ?a-hy?) "who?, which?", ?i? "who" Bulg kòj "who", OCS k?-to (?eso) "who?" Lith kàs "who?"; OPrus kas "who" OIr cia, W pwy "who" ? (oyr) "who?"

"who?"

"A" "B" kush acc. "who?" A kus, B kuse "who, which" kui? "who, which"
*-k?e "and; any" -(u)h "and", ?az-uh "whoever" -que "and", quis-que "each one, whoever"; Venetic -ke "and"; South Picenian -p "and" -te "and", tís te, hós-te "whoever" -ca "and", ká?-ca "whoever" Av ?a, OPers "and"; Av ?i?-ca, OPers ?i?-?iy "whoever" Bulg ?e "but, and, because"; Old Czech a-?e, a? "if" OIr na-ch, MW nac "not" < "*and not";[6]Lepontic -pe "and" o-k? "whoever" Lydian -k "and"; Hitt kuis-ki, Lycian ti-ke "whoever"
*n?- "not, un-" un- (< OE un-) un- "un-" in- (archaic en-) "un-" a-, an- "un-" a-, an-, na- "un-" Av, OPers a-, an- "un-" OCS ne- "not" < *ne- Lith ne- < *ne-, OPrus ni- "not" OIr in-, ?-, an-, W an- "un-" an- "un-" AB a(n)-, am-, e(n)-, em-, on- "un-"

Numbers

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*sem- "one, together" same (< ON samr); OE sam- "together" sama "same" sem-el "once", sem-per "always", sim-plex "single, simple", sin-gul? "one each, single" he?s, hén, mía "one" < *sems, *sem, *smiH? sam- "together", samá "same, equal, any" Av hama-, OPers hama- "any, all" OCS sam? "self, alone, one" Lith sam-, s?- "with"; OPrus sa-, sen- "with, dividing" OIr samlith "at the same time"; W hafal "equal" mi "one" A sas, B ?e "one" < *sems
*ói-nos, ói-wos "one" one (< OE ?n) ains "one" ?nus (archaic oinos) o?nos "one (on a die)", o?(w)os "alone" (?ka- < *oi-ko-; Late Proto-Indic aika-vartana "one turn (around a track)") Av a?va-, OPers aiva- "one, only, alone" OCS in? "one, another" Lith víenas, OPrus ains "one" OIr ?en, W un "one" andr-?n "right there", ast-?n "right here" ? Gheg tânë, Tosk tërë "all" < PIE *tod-oino-një "one" < *?ân < PIE *eni-oino-[7] B -aiwenta "group" < "*unit"
*dwóH? , neut. *dwóy(H?) "two" two (< OE tw?) twái (fem. tw?s, neut. twa) "two" duo "two" dú? "two" dv(u) "two" Av dva, fem. neut. ba? "two"

NPers do "two"

OCS d?va "two" Lith , OPrus dwai "two" OIr da, W dau (fem. dwy) "two" erku "two" dy "two" A wu, B wi "two" d?-, Lycian cbi-/tbi- "two"
*tréyes (fem. *tisres,[8] neut. *tríH?) "three" three (< OE þr?e) þreis "three" tr?s "three" tre?s "three" tráya? (fem. tisrá?) "three" Av ?ray?, ?rayas (fem. tisr?, neut. ?ri), OPers çi-, Parth hr? "three" OCS tr?je "three" Lith tr?s, OPrus tris, Latg treis "three" OIr trí (fem. téoir), W tri (fem. tair, teir) "three" erek? "three" tre masc., tri fem. "three" A tre, B trai "three" tri- "three"
*k?etwóres (fem. *k?étesres, neut. *k?etw?r) "four" four (< OE f?ower) fidwor "four" (In Germanic influenced by pénk?e "five") quattuor "four" téssares "four" masc. catvra? (acc. catúra?), neut. catvri, fem. cátasra? "four" Av masc. ?a?w?r? (acc. ?atur?m), fem. ?ata?r? "four"; NPers ?ah?r "four" OCS ?etyre "four" Lith keturì, OPrus ketturei "four" OIr ceth(a)ir (fem. ceth?oir, influenced by fem. t?oir "three") "four"; W pedwar (fem. pedair) "four" ork?, k?a? (rare) "four katër "four" A ?twar, B ?twer "four"
*pénk?e "five" five (< OE f?f) fimf "five" qu?nque "five" pénte "five" páñca "five" Av pan?a "five" OCS p?t? "five" Lith penkì, OPrus penkei "five" OIr cóic, W pum(p) "five" hing "five" pesë "five" A päñ, B pi? "five"
*swék?s "six" six (< OE siex) sáihs "six" sex "six" héx, dial. wéx "six" ?á? "six" Av x?va? "six" OCS ?est? "six" Lith ?e?ì, OPrus uai "six" OIr , W chwe(ch) "six" vec? "six" gjashtë "six" A ?äk, B ?kas "six"
*sept "seven" seven (< OE seofon) sibun "seven" septem "seven" heptá "seven" saptá "seven" Av hapta "seven" OCS sedm? "seven" Lith septynì, OPrus septinnei "seven" OIr secht, W saith "seven" eawt?n "seven" shtatë "seven" A ?pät, B ?ukt "seven" sipta- "seven"
*H?ok?t?(u) "eight" eight (< OE eahta) ahtáu "eight" oct? "eight" okt? "eight" a?(u) "eight" Av a?ta "eight" OCS osm? "eight"[9] Lith a?tuonì, OPrus astonei, Latg ostoni "eight" OIr ocht n- "eight";[10]W wyth "eight" ut? "eight" tetë "eight" < *H?ok?t?-t- A okät, B okt "eight"
*(H?)néwn? "nine" nine (< OE nigon) niun "nine" novem "nine" ennéa "nine" náva "nine" Av nava "nine" OCS dev?t? "nine" < *newn?-ti- (Influenced by dékm?t "ten") Lith devynì (influenced by dékm?t "ten"), OPrus newinei "nine" OIr noí n-, W naw "nine" inn "nine" nëntë "nine" < *newn?-ti- AB ñu
*dék?m?t "ten" ten (< OE tien) taíhun "ten" decem "ten" déka "ten" dá?a "ten" Av dasa "ten" OCS des?t? "ten" Lith dimt, OPrus desimtan "ten" OIr deich, W deg, deng "ten" tasn "ten" dhjetë "ten" < *dék?m?t-i- A ?äk, B ?ak "ten"
*wk?m?tiH? "twenty" < *dwi-dk?m?t-iH? "two tens" (remodelled) (remodelled) v?gint? "twenty" eíkosi "twenty" viatí "twenty", dviatí "twenty" Av v?saiti, Ossetian insäi "twenty" (remodelled) Lith dvide?imt "twenty" OIr fiche (fichet), OW uceint "twenty" k?san "twenty" zet "twenty" A wiki, B ikä? "twenty"
*k?m?tóm "hundred" < *dk?m?tóm hundred (< OE hund, hund-red) hunda (pl.) "hundred" centum "hundred" he-katón "hundred" ?atám "hundred" Av sat?m "hundred" OCS s?to "hundred" Lith ?im?tas, OPrus simtan "hundred" OIr cét, W can(t) "hundred" A känt, B kante "hundred"

Body parts

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*(d)ákru- "tear" tear (< OE t?ar, tæhher) tagr "tear" lacruma "tear" dákru "tear" á?ru "tear" Av asr?- "tear" OPrus assara "tear", Lith a?ara "tear OIr d?r, W deigr "tear"; Cornish dagr "tear" artawsr "tear" < *drak?ur A ?kär "tear", B pl. akr?na "tears" is?a?ru "tear"
*dnuH?-, *dnwéH? "tongue" tongue (< OE tunge) tugg? "tongue" lingua "tongue" (archaic dingua) jihv "tongue" < *?iw?, juh Av hizv? < *?iw?, OPers hiz?n, Parth ezn "tongue"[11] OCS j?zy-k? "tongue" < *n?-k- OPrus inzuws "tongue", Lith lie?uvis "tongue" teng "tongue"; W tafod "tongue, language" lezu "tongue" (influenced by lizem, "I lick") A käntu, B kantwo "tongue" (*kantwa < *tankwa)
*ésH?r?, *esH?nés "blood" archaic aser, sanguis "blood" éar "blood" ás?j, ásr?k, asná? "blood" Lat asins, Ltg asnis (gen. aa) "blood" ariwn "blood" A ys?r "blood" ?s?ar (es?anas) "blood"
?(o)nH?d?os "jaw, cheek, chin" chin (< OE c?inn) kinnus "cheek" gena "cheek" génus (génuos) "chin, jaw"; gnát?os, gnat?mós "jaw" < *?nH?d?- hánu-? "jaw" < *enu-s, gaa "cheek" Av z?nu- "jaw-" < *enu-s, OPers dan?g < *danu-ka-, Parth zanax "chin, jaw" NPers gune "cheek" chune "jaw" OPrus ?auna "jaw", Lith ?iauna "jaw" OIr gi(u)n "mouth"; W gên, pl. geneu "cheek, chin"; Old Cornish pl. genau < *genewes "cheeks, chins" cn-awt "jaw, cheek" A ?anwe-m "jaw"
*?énu, ?néus "knee" knee (< OE cn?o) kniu "knee" gen? "knee" gónu (Hom gen. gounós < *gonwós) "knee", pró-k?nu "with outstretched knee" < *pró-g?nu jnu "knee", pra-jñu? "bow-legged" Av acc. ?n?m, dat./abl. pl. ?nuby? "knee", fra-?nu- "holding the knee forward"; Parth z?n?k, NPers z?n? "knee" tzunr tzung, nom pl. tzungk? "knee" gjuni "knee" < Post-PIE *?nu-n(o)- A kanwe?, B keni "two knees" genu "knee"
*H?dónt-, *H?dn?t- "tooth" tooth (< OE t?þ < *H?dont-) tunþus "tooth" < *H?dn?t- d?ns (dentis) "tooth" < *H?dn?t- od?n (odóntos) "tooth" < Proto-Greek *edónt-, cf. Aeol. édontes "teeth" dán, dánta? "tooth" Av dantan-, d?t? "tooth" NPers dandân "tooth" Russian desná "gum" < *H?dent-sn- OPrus dants "tooth", Lith dantis "tooth" OIr d?t "tooth", W dant "tooth" atamn "tooth" dhëmb
*H?óst- "bone" os (ossis) "bone" ostéon "bone" ásthi (asthná?) "bone" Av ast-, asti- (gen. pl. ast?m, instr. pl. azdb) "bone" NPers ostoxan "bone" OCS kost? "bone" OIr asil "limb", MIr asna "rib" <? *astonyo-; MW ass-en, asseu "rib", W asgwrn "bone" < *ost-ko- vos-kr "bone" asht, ahstë "bone" B ?y, pl. ?sta "bone" ?ast?i- "bone"
*H?ous- "ear" ear (< OE ?are) áus? "ear" auris "ear" o?s "ear" a "cavity of the ear" Av u?i "both ears"; NPers ho? "ear" OCS ucho (u?ese) "ear" OPrus auss "ear", Lith ausis "ear" OIr ?u, ? "ear" unkn, nom pl. akan?k? "ear" vesh "ear" < *?us, *?s-
*H?ok?- "eye" eye (< OE ?age) áug? "eye" oculus "eye" < *?k?elo-s ósse "both eyes"; ómma "eye" < *óp-mn? ák?i (aká?) "eye" Av a?i "both eyes" OCS oko "eye" OPrus aks "eye", Lith akis "eye" OIr enech, W enep "face" akn, nom pl. ak? "eye" sy "eye" A ak, B ek "eye"
*k?erd- "heart"; *k?red-d- "to believe" heart (< OE heorte) haírt? "heart" cor (cordis) "heart"; cr?d? "I believe" < *krezd?- < *k?red-d- kardí?, Homeric kradí?, Cypriot korízd? "heart" < *k?r?d(y)?; poetic k?r (k?ros) "heart" < *krd h?d "heart" < post-PIE *?hr?d; h?daya, h?rdi "heart"; ?rad-dadti "(he) trusts, believes" Av z?r?d "heart" < post-PIE *?hr?d; zrazd?- "to believe" < *srazd?[12] OCS s?rd?ce "heart", serda "medium, core" OPrus siran "heart", serds "core", Lith ?irdis "heart", ?erdis "core" OIr cride "heart"; W craidd "center"; Old Irish cretim, W credaf "I believe" sirt "heart" A kri "will", B pl. käry?ñ "hearts" karz (kardias) "heart"
*nas- "nose" nose (< OE nosu) ON n?s "nose" n?sus, n?ris "nose" nas- "nose" Av n?h-, nhan-, OPers acc. sg. n?ham "nose" OCS nos? "nose" OPrus nasi "nose", Lith nosis "nose"
*p?ds, *ped- "foot" foot (< OE f?t) f?tus "foot" p?s (pedis) "foot" poús (podós) "foot" p?t (padá?) "foot" Av pad-, OPers p?d, Parth p "foot" NPers pa "foot" OCS p "on foot" OPrus pida "foot", Lith p?da "foot" OIr ?s "below" < PIE loc. pl. *p?d-su; W is(od) "below, under; lower (than)" vot(n) "foot" pl. votk? "feet" poshtë "below" A pe "foot", B paiyye "foot" pata-, Luvian pata- "foot"
*y?k?r?, yek?nés "liver" jecur (jecinoris) "liver" h?par (h?patos) "liver" yákr?t (yakná?) "liver" Av y?kar?, NPers ?igar, Pashto yna "liver" Serbian jetra "liver", Serbian and Macedonian ikra "fish roe" OPrus jakna, Lat aknas "liver", Lith jeknos W (i)afu "liver"; MIr i(u)chair (i(u)chrach) "fish roe" leard "liver"


*ésr? ~ *s-r-és

"hand"


hir

"hand" (rare, anatomical)

kheír

"hand"

hás-ta

"hand"

Av zas-ta

"hand"

dze?, dze?k?

"hand, arm"

dorë

"hand"

A tsar,

B ?ar "hand"

kear

"being", Luwian ?ssaris "hand"

Animals

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ék?wos "horse", "fast animal" OE eoh "horse" aí?a- "horse"[13] equus "horse" híppos "horse" á?va? "horse" Av aspa-, OPers asa- "horse"; Ossetian yäfs "horse" < *yék?wos

NPers asp "horse"

OCS jastr?b? "hawk" (literally "a fast bird") OPrus kaiwi "mare", Lith a?va "mare OIr ech; MW ebawl "horse" < PBryth *ep-?los "donkey" A yuk, B yakwe "horse" Luwian ásùwa "horse"
*gus "cattle"[14] cow (< OE c?) Old Saxon k?, OHG chuo "cow" b?s (bovis) "cattle"; Umbrian acc. bum "cow"[15] bo?s, Dor bõs (bo(w)ós) "cattle, cow" gáu? (g)[14] "cow" Av g?u? (g?u?)[14] "cow" NPers g?v "cow" Croatian gòvedo "cattle" < PSlav *gov?do; OCS gu-m?no "threshing floor" Latvian gùovs "cow", Lith karv? "cow", galvijas "a cattle" OIr bó (bóu/báu)[16] "cow"; OW buch "cow" < *boukk?, bu-gail "cowherd" < *g?ou-k?olyos kov "cow" ka "ox" A ko "cow", B keu "cow" HierLuv wawa-, Lycian wawa-, uwa- "cow"
*H?ówi- "sheep " ewe (< OE ?ow "sheep", ?owu "ewe") awistr "sheepfold"; OHG ouwi, ou "sheep" ovis "sheep" ó(w)is "sheep" ávi- "sheep" Wakhi yobc "ewe" < PIran *?vi-?i- Bulg ovèn "ram", OCS ov?-ca "ewe" OPrus awwins "ram", Lith avis "female sheep" avinas "ram" OIr ?i "sheep"; W ewig "deer" hov-iw "shepherd" B eye "sheep", ?(u)w "ewe" Luvian h?wa/i-, Lycian ?awa- "sheep"
*H?rtk?os "bear" ursus "bear" árktos "bear" k?a? "bear" YAv ar?a, Ossetian ars "bear" , NPers xers "bear" Lith urgzti "to growl" MIr art, W arth "bear" ar? "bear" arí "bear" ?artaqqas (name of a beast of prey)
*k?won- "hound, dog" hound (< OE hund "dog") hunds "dog" canis "dog" kú?n (kunós) "dog" ?van(?una?) "dog" Av sp? (acc. sp?n?m, pl. gen. snam), MPers sak, Kurdish se, seg, Wakhi ?a? "dog" Bulg kùte "dog", OCS suka "bitch (female dog)" OPrus sunnis "dog", Lith ?uo "dog" OIr cú (con), W ci "dog" ?un "dog" possibly qen (disputed, possible Latin loan) AB ku "dog" (acc. A ko?, B kwe?) kun- "dog"
*muH?s- "mouse" mouse (< OE m?s) ON mús "mouse" m?s "mouse" m?s "mouse" m- "mouse" OPers mu? "mouse" (? not in Pokorny; Pokorny has NPers m "mouse") Kurdish mi?k "mouse" OCS my "mouse" mukn "mouse" mi "mouse"
*suHs- "pig" sow (< OE s?) ON sýr "sow" s?s "pig" h?s, s?s "pig" s?-kara "pig"; Hindi s?var "pig" Av h? (gen. sg.) "pig" , NPers xuk "pig" Bulg svinjà "swine, sow" Latvian suv?ns, siv?ns "piglet" OIr socc sáil "sea pig"; W hwch "sow, swine" thi "pig" B suwo "pig"
*wl?k?os "wolf" wolf (< OE wulf) wulfs (wulfis) "wolf" lupus "wolf" lúkos "wolf" vka? "wolf" Av v?hrka- "wolf" , NPers gorg "wolf" Bulg vlk "wolf", OCS vl?k? "wolf" OPrus wilks "wolf", Lith vilkas "wolf" OIr olc (uilc) "evil" ujk < OAlb ulk "wolf" B walkwe "wolf" ulippana "wolf"
*ans- "goose" goose (< OE g?s) OHG gans "goose" (h)?nser "goose" kn "goose" ha?sá? "goose" Av z "goose" (? not in Pokorny); Sogdian z'? "kind of bird" , NPers ?az "goose" Bulg gska "goose", OCS g?s? "goose" OPrus zansi "goose", Lith sis "goose" OIr g?iss "swan" W gwydd "goose" gatë "heron"
*H?enH?-t(i)- "duck" Scot ennet "duck" (< OE ened) OHG enita "duck" ?nas "duck" nessa, netta "duck" ?tí- "waterfowl" Ossetic acc "Wild duck" , NPers ordak "duck" , NPers ?u "Swan" Russian utka "duck" OPrus ants "duck", Lith antis "duck" W hwyad(en) "duck"

Agriculture

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*?r?H?-no- "grain" corn (< OE corn "grain") kaúrn "corn" gr?num "grain" OCS zr?no "grain" OPrus zirni "grain", Lith ?irnis "pea", girna "millstone" OIr gr?n, W grawn "grain" tsoren "corn","wheat" grurëTosk grun, gruni Gheg "grain"
*H?é?ros "field" acre (< OE æcer "field") akrs "field" ager (agr?) "field" agrós "field" ájra? "meadow" art "soil" arë "field"
*H?erH?- "to plow" OE erian "to plow" arjan "to plow" ar? (ar?re) "to plow", ar?trum "plow" aró? "I plow" < *H?erH?-oH?, árotron "plow" Hala - plow OCS orj? (orati) "to plow", ralo < *ar(?)dhlom "plow" OPrus artun "to plow", Lith arti "to plow" MIr airim "I plow", W arddu "to plow" < *arj-; MIr arathar, W aradr "plow" < *ar?trom < *H?erH?-trom ara-wr "plow" arë "arable land" *H?r?H?-uer- AB ?re "plow"
*H?mel?- "to milk" milk (< OE meolc, mioluc) miluks (miluks) "milk" mulge? (mulg?re) "to milk" amélg? "I milk" mr?ti, mrjati, mr?játi "(he) wipes, cleans" Av mar?zaiti, m?r?zaiti "(he) grazes (barely touches)" Russ CS m?lzu (ml?sti) "to milk", Pol mleko "milk" OPrus milztun "to milk", Lith mel?ti "to milk" W blith "milk, dairy produce; full of milk", MIr bligim "I milk" < *mligim, melg "milk" miel, mil "I milk" A malke B malk-wer "milk"
*melH?- "to grind" meal (< OE melu) malan "to grind" mol? (molere) "to grind" múll? "I grind" mrti, mr?nati "(he) grinds" Av mr?ta- "tanned soft" OCS melj? (ml?t?) "to grind" OPrus maltun "to grind", Lith malti "to grind" OIr melim "I grind"; W malu "grind" ma? "grind" ma?-el "to grind","to crush" mjell "flour" A malywët "you press"; B melye "they trample" mallai "grinds"
*meli-t, *mel-nés "honey" mildew (< OE mele-d?aw "honeydew") miliþ "honey" mel (mellis) "honey" méli (mélit-) "honey" milinda "honey-bee" Bulg med "honey" OIr mil, W mêl "honey" me?r (me?u) "honey" mjal, mjaltë "honey" milit "honey"
*méd?u "honey", "mead"" mead (< OE medu) midus "mead" m?dus "a type of mead"[17] mét?u "wine" mád?u "sweet drink, honey" Av ma?u OCS med? "honey" OPrus meddu "honey", Lith medus "honey", Ltg mads "honey" OIr mid "mead"; W medd "mead" B mit "honey"
*sal- "salt" salt (< OE sealt) salt "salt" s?l (salis) "salt" háls (halós) "salt" sal-ilá- "salty" OCS sol? "salt" OPrus sals "salt", saldus "sweet OIr salann, W halen "salt" a? "salt" ngjel-bëtë, ngjel-mëtë "salty", njel-m "to be salty" A s?le, B salyiye "salt"
*seH?- "to sow (seed)", *séH?mn? "seed" sow (< OE s?wan) saian "to sow"; OHG s?mo "seed" ser? (serere) "to sow" < *si-sH?-oH?, s?men "seed" sra- "Saatpflug" (seed plow?) OCS s?j? (s?jati) "to sow", s?m? "seeds" OPrus situn "to sow", simen "seed", Lith s?ti "to sow", sekla "seed", semenis "linseed" OIr s?l, W hil "seed" < *seH?-lo- serm(n) "seed" isw?i "(he) sows"
*yugóm "yoke" yoke (< OE ?eoc) juk "yoke" iugum "yoke" zugón "yoke" yugám "yoke" Av yaoj-, yuj- "to harness" OCS igo "yoke" OPrus jugtun "yoke", Lith jungas "yoke" W iau "yoke" luc "yoke" A yokäm "door" yugan "yoke"

Bodily functions and states

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H?enH?- "to breathe" OE ?þian "breathe hard" < PGerm *anþ?janã *uz-anan "to expire", ON anda "to breathe" anima "breath" ánemos "wind" ániti "(he) breathes" Av ntya, parntya (gen.) "breathing in and out" OCS vonja "smell" < *H?en-yeH?[18] OIr an?l "breath" < *H?enH-tlo- ; W anadl "breath" ho?m "wind", anjn "person" Gheg âj Tosk ?nj "I swell" AB ?ñm- "spirit", B añiye "breath", B an?sk- "breathe in"
*swep- "to sleep", *swepnos "dream (n.)" archaic sweven "dream, vision" (< OE swefn); NoEng sweb "to swoon" (< OE swebban "to put to sleep, lull") ON sofa "sleep (v.)" somnus "sleep (n.) húpnos "sleep (n.)" svápna? "sleep, dream (n.)" Av x?afna- "sleep (n.)" NPers xwãb- "sleep" OCS sp?ti "sleep (v.)", s?n? "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" OPrus supnas "dream", Lith sapnas "dream" OIr s?an, W hun "sleep (n.)" k?nem "I sleep", k?un "sleep (n.)" gjumë "sleep (n.)" A ?pä?, B. ?pane "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" sup-, suppariya- "to sleep"
*sweid- "sweat" sweat (< OE sw?tan "to sweat") ON sveiti s?dor "sweat (n.)" (e)?dos "sweat (n.)" sv?da- "sweat (n.)" Av x?a?da- "sweat (n.)" Latvian sviêdri (pl.) "sweat (n.)" W chwys "sweat (n.)" < *swidso- k?irtn "sweat (n.)" dirsë, djersë "sweat (n.)" < *swí-dr?xty- B sy?-lñe "sweating" < *swid-yé-
*H?ed- "to eat" eat (< OE etan) itan "to eat" ed? (?sse) "to eat", ?st "(he) eats" éd? "I eat", Homeric athematic infinitive édmenai "to eat" ádmi "I eat", átti "(he) eats" Av subj. aiti "(he) should eat" OCS jam? "I eat" < *Hd-mi, jast? "(he) eats" OPrus istun "to eat", ?sti, Lith "to eat", ?dmi "I eat" OIr ci-ni estar "although he doesn't eat"; W ys "eats" < *H?ed-ti utem "I eat" < *?d- ha "to eat" ?dmi "I eat"
*peH?- "to drink" bib? (bibere) "to drink", p?tus "drink (n.)" pn?, pépomai "I drink" pti, píbati "(he) drinks" Av vispo-pitay- "alltränkend" giving water/drinks to all OCS pij? (piti) "to drink" OPrus putun "to drink", puja "a party", Lith puota "party" OIr ibid "drinks" < *pibeti; W yfwn "we drink" ?mpem "I drink" p? "I drink" p?si "he swallows"
*?enH?-, *gi-?néH?(-sk?)-, *?n?-néH?- "to give birth" kind (< OE (?e)cynd); OE cennan "produce" -kunds "born"; OHG kind "child" gign? (gignere) "to produce" (OLat. gen?); n?-scor (n?sc?) "to be born" < *?n?H?-sk?-r gígnomai "I become" jánati "(he) gives birth", jajanti "they give birth" Av z?z?nti, z?zan?nti "they give birth" OCS

?ena

"woman"

OPrus gamintun "to give birth", gimdyti "to give birth" OIr -gainethar "who is born" < *?n?-ye-tro;[18]W geni "to be born" tznanim "I am born, bear" dhëndër, dhândër "son-in-law, bridegroom" < *?enH-tr-[19] AB kän- "to come to pass (of a wish), be realized"
*H?eug-, H?weg- "to grow, increase" eke (< OE ?acian "to increase"); wax (of the moon) (< OE weaxan "to grow") aukan, auknan "to increase (intr.)", wahsjan "to grow" < orig. caus. *H?wog-s-éy-onom auge? (aug?re) "to increase (tr.)" a(w)éks? "I increase (intr.)", aúks?, auksán? "I increase (tr.)" úk?ati "(he) becomes stronger", vak?áyati "(he) causes to grow" Av ux?yeiti "(he) grows", vax?aiti "(he) causes to grow" OCS jug? "south" (the direction to where the Sun rises) OPrus augtwei "to grow", Lith augti " to grow" OIr f?r, W gwêr "fat" < *weg- a?em "I grow, become big" A oksi? "(he) grows"; A ok?u, ? auk?u "grown"
*g?iH?wo- "alive", *g?iH?wo-teH? "life" quick (< OE cwicu "alive") qius "alive" v?vus "alive"; v?ta "life" bíos, bíotos "life", zoo "animal" j?vá-, j?vaka- "alive", j?vitam, j?vtu?, j?vatha? "life" Av gay?, acc. ?y?tum "life", -?y?iti- "life-"; Av ?va-, OPers va- "alive" OCS ?iv? "alive", ?it?, ?ivot? "life" OPrus giws "alive", giwata "life", Lith gyvas "alive", gyvat? "snake" OIr biu, beo, W byw "alive"; OIr bethu (bethad), W bywyd "life" < Proto-Celtic *bivo-t?ts keam "I live" < *g?i-y?-ye-mi[18] B ?ai- "to live" < *gweiH?-?
*mer- "to die" murder (< OE morþor < *mr?-tro-m) maúrþr "murder" morior (mor?) "to die" < *mr?-y?r, mortalis "mortal" brotós (< *mrotós), mortós "mortal" marati, márat?, mriyát? "(he) dies", m?tá- "dead", márta?, mortal Av mer?- "to die", miryeite "dies"; OPers martiya- "man" OCS m?r?, mr?ti "to die" Lith mitu (mi?ti) "to die", merd?ti "to die slowly" OIr marb, W marw "dead" < mr?-wós me?anim "I die", mard "human" mert "died"

Mental functions and states

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*k?leu-(s)- "to hear" listen (< OE hlystan), loud (< OE hl?d) hliuma "hearing, ears (in pl.)" clue? (clu?re) "to be named" ékluon "I heard" ?róti "(he) hears" < *k?l?-neu- Av surunaoiti "(he) hears" < *k?lu-n- OCS sly?ati "to hear" OPrus klausytun "to hear", Lith klausyti "to listen" OIr ro-clui-nethar "hears"; W clywed "to hear" lsem "I hear" Old Tosk kluaj (standard quaj) "to call, to name" < *k?lu(H)-eH?- A klyo?-, B klyau?- "to hear"
*weid- "to see, to find" vide? (vid?re) "to see" é(w)ide "he saw" vindáti "(he) finds", ávidat "found" Av vaiti, vnasti "(he) finds" OCS vi?d? (vid?ti) "to see" OPrus widatun "to see", Lith veidas "face" W gweld "to see" gtanem "I find"
*woid- "to know" wit (< OE wit "intelligence", witan "to know" < PIE perfect tense) witan "to know" perf. o?da "I know" vetti, v?date, vidáti "(he) knows", perf. véda "I know" Av perf. vaa "I know", v?dar? "they know" OCS v?m? (v?d?ti) "to know" OPrus waistun "to know", Lith vaistas "medicine", vyda "he sees, knows" OIr find, W gwn "(I) know" gitem "I know" B ?we "learned" < PToch *wäwen- < *wid-wo-
*?énH?-, *?néH?-sk?-, *?n?-né-H?- "to recognize, know" can (< OE cann "I know, he knows"), know (< OE cn?wan < *?n?H?-yo-nom), Scot ken "to know" (< OE cennan "to cause to know" < PGerm *kann-jan) kunnan "to know" < *?n?-n-H?-onom, kann "I know" (g)n?sc? ((g)n?scere) "to recognize", n?v? "I know" gign?sk? (aorist égn?n) "I recognize" j?nmi "I know" < *janmi < *?n?-nH?-mi Av zan?-?, zan?n, Afghan. p?-?an? "(he) understands, recognizes" < *?n?-ne-H?-ti; OPers a-d?n? (impf.) "he knew" < *?n?-ne-H?-mi, x?n?s?tiy (subj.) "he should know" < *?neH?-sk?e-eti OCS znaj? (znati) "to know" < *?neH?-yoH? OPrus zinatun "to recognize, know", Lith ?inoti "to know OIr itar-gninim, asa-gninaim "I am wise"; W adnabod "(I) know" ?anaem, aorist caneay "I recognize" njoh "I know" < *?n?H?-sk?oH? A kn?-, e.g. kn?nma? "knowing" < *?neH?-, kñas-ä?t "you have become acquainted" < *?n?H?-s-
*n?- + *?neH?-tos "not" + "to know" uncouth (< OE unc?þ "unknown, strange") unkunþs "unknown" ign?tus, ign?r?ntem "unknown, ignorant" agn?s (agnõtos) "unknown" < *n?- + *?néH?-ts ajñ?ta- "unknown" OPrus nezinatun "not to know", Lith ne?inoti " not to know" OIr ingnad "foreign" an-can-awt? "ignorant, unknown" A ?-knats, B a-kn?tsa "ignorant"
*men- "to think" mind (< OE (?e)mynd "memory" < *mn?t-ís); OE munan "to think" munan "to think"; muns (pl. muneis) "thought" < *mn?-is; gamunds (gamundáis) "remembrance" < *ko(m)-mn?t-ís memin? "I remember"; m?ns (mentis) "mind" < *mn?t-is mémona "I think of"; maínomai "I go mad" mányate "(he) thinks" Av mainyeite "(he) thinks"; OPers mainy?hay "I think" OCS m?n?ti "to mean" OPrus mintun "to guess", minisna "memory", mints "riddle", mentitun "to lie", Lith mintis " thought", minti "to guess", min?ti "to mention" OIr do-moiniur "I believe, I mean" mendoj "I think" A mnu "thought"; B mañu "demand (n.)" memm?i "says"
*sek?- "to see, to say" see (< OE s?on); say (< OE sec?gan < PGerm *sag(w)jan < *sok?éyonom) saí?an "to see"; OHG sagen "say" < *sok- ?nseque "declare!" énnepe "tell!" ?acate "(he) says" OCS so?iti "to announce" Lith sakyti "to say", sekti "to tell a story, to follow" OIr insce "I talk"; OIr rosc "eye" < *pro-sk?o-; OW hepp "(he) said" sheh "(he) sees" A ?otre, B ?otri "sign" sakuw?i- "to see"
*wek?- "to say" OE w?ma "noise" < *w?k?-m?(n) OHG giwahanen "mention" < PGerm *gawahnjan (denom. built on *wok?-no-) voc? (voc?re) "to call", v?x (v?cis) "voice" e?pon (aor.) "spoke" < *e-we-ik?-om < *e-we-uk?-om, (w)épos "word" vákti, vívakti "(he) says", v?k "voice", vácas- "word" Av va?- "speak, say", v?x? "voice", va?ah "word" OCS vik?ti "to call, to scream" OPrus enwack?mai "we call" OIr foccul "word", W gwaethl "fight" < * wok?-tlo-m go?em "I call" A wak, B wek "voice" ?uek-, ?uk- to swear to"
*prek?-, *pr?-sk?- < *pr?k?-sk?- "to ask" Scot frain "to ask" (< OE fre?nan) fraíhnan "to ask"; OHG forsc?n "to ask, to research" precor (prec?r?) "to pray", posc? (poscere) "to demand, ask" pr?ccháti "(he) asks" Av p?r?saiti "(he) asks, desires" < *pr?-sk?-; OPers aor.? aparsam "(he) asked" OCS prositi "to pray" OPrus prasitun "to ask", Lith pra?yti "to ask" OIr imm-chom-arc "mutual questions, greetings"; NIr arco, W archaf "I ask" harc?anem "I ask" A prak-, B prek- "to ask"
*H?neH?mn? or *H?nomn?- "name" name (< OE nama) nam? (acc. pl. namna) "name" n?men "name" ónoma "name" nma (instrumental sg. nmn?) "name" Av n?ma "name" OCS im? "name" < Proto-Slavic *inmen < *n?men' OPrus emnes, emmens "name" < *enmen- OIr ainmm n-, OW anu "name" anun "name" Gheg emër, Tosk emën "name" < *enmen- A ñem, B ñom "name" l?man- "name"

Natural features

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H?ster- "star" star (< OE steorra) staírn? "star" st?lla "star" ast?r "star" st? inst. pl. stbhi?, nom. pl. t?ra?, fem. nom. sg. tar? "star" Av acc. str?m (ablauting)[20] "star" OCS ?v?zda "star" MIr ser, W seren, Breton sterenn "star" ast? "star" pl. A ?reñ, B ?ciriñ "stars" ?asterza "star"
*dy?us, déiwos[21] "sky, day, god" Tues-day (< OE T?wes-dæ? lit. "day of T?w"[22]) ON t?var "gods", Týr "T?w" (the war god) Iuppiter (Iovis), Old Latin Di?-piter (Diovis) "Jupiter"; di?s "day", deus, d?vus "god"[23] Zdeús (Di(w)ós)[21] "Zeus" d(i)y?ú? (divá?, dy)[21] "heaven", d?vá? "god" Av da?va- "demon" (OCS d?n? (d?ne) "day" < *din-is), Russian divo "miracle" OPrus deina "day", deiws "god", Lith diena "day", dievas "god" OIr d?e, W dydd "day"; OIr dia (d?), OW duiu- "God" tiw (tu?n?ean) "day" (gdhinj "I make day"(? mache Tag) < *-di-n-yoH?)
*seH?wol-, *sH?un- "sun" sun (< OE sunne) sauil, sunn? "sun" s?l "sun" Homeric h?élios "sun" < *s?wélios súvar (súra?) "sun, light, heavens", s?ra-, s?rya "sun" Av hvar? (h?r?) "sun, light, heavens" OCS sl?n?ce "sun" < *sulnika-, Russian po-solon' "sunwise" OPrus sauli "sun", sawaiti "week", Lith saul? "sun", savait? "week" OIr s?il "eye"; W haul "sun" ylli "star" < *s?lo- or *s?li-
*meH?ns- "moon, month" moon (< OE m?na), month (< OE m?naþ) m?na "moon", m?noþs "month" m?nsis "month" Att m?n, Ion meis, Dor m?s "month", m?n? "moon" ms "moon"; msa "month" Av m (mh?) "moon"; NPers m?h "moon, month" OCS m?s?c? "moon, month" < *m?s-n?-ko- OPrus miniks "moon", mins "month", Lith m?nulis "moon", m?nesis "month" OIr m? (m?s) "month" < *m?ns;; W mis "month" amis "month" muai "month" A mañ B meñe "month"; A mañ ñkät B me? "moon"
*d?eom- "earth" humus "earth" k?tn (k?t?onós) "earth", k?amaí "on the earth" k? (acc. km, gen. jmá?) "earth" Av z (acc. z?m, gen. z?m?) "earth" OCS zem?, zemlja "earth" OPrus zemê "earth", Lith ?em? " earth" OIr d? "place"; Welsh dyn "man" dhe "earth" A tka? (tkanis), B ke? "earth" t?kan (tagn?s) "earth"
*wódr? (udéns) pl. *wéd?r (udnés) "water" water (< OE wæter) wat? (watins) "water" Umbrian utur "water", Latin unda "wave" húd?r (húdatos) "water" udakám (loc. udán(i), pl. udá), udra "water" Av ao?a- "spring", vai?i- "stream" OCS voda "water", Russian vedro "bucket", OPrus undan "water", Lith vanduo "water" OIr u(i)sce "water" < *udeskyo- get "river" ujë "water" A wär, B war "water" w?tar (wetenas) "water"
*doru, *dreu- "wood, tree" tree (< OE tr?o) triu "tree, wood" dóru, drûs "tree, wood" dru, dr?s, drú- "tree, wood" Av d?ru- "tree, wood" OCS dr?vo "tree" OPrus drawê "hole in a tree, hollow tree", Lith drev? "hole in a tree", dirva "soil" OIr daur "oak", W derwen "oak" tram "firm" dru "tree" AB or "wood" taru "tree"
*H?weH?n?to- "wind", *H?weH?- "to blow" wind (< OE wind); OE w?wan "to blow" winds "wind"; waian "to blow" ventus "wind" áenta (acc.) "wind", á?si "(he) blows" vta? (v?nt-)[24] "wind", v?ti "(he) blows" Av v?t? "wind", v?iti "(he) blows" OCS v?j? (v?jet?) "to blow" OPrus witra "wind", Lith v?jas "wind", v?tra "heavy wind" W gwynt "wind" A want, B yente "wind" wanz[25] "wind"
*sneig- "to snow" snow (< OE sn?w < *snoig?hos, sn?wan "to snow" < *sneig?honom) snáiws "snow" nix (nivis) "snow", ningu? (ninguere) "to snow" níp?a (acc.) "snow", neíp?ei "it snows" sneha- "snow" Av snaa- "to snow"; Shughni nij "snow" < *snaiga- OCS sn?g? "snow" OPrus snaigs "snow", Lith snigti "to snow" OIr snecht(a)e, W nyf "snow"; OIr snigid "it rains"
*péH?wr?, pH?unés "bonfire"[26] fire (< OE f?r < *fuïr[26]) f?n (funins)[26] "fire"; OHG fuïr[26] (two syllables) < *puwéri Umbrian pir "fire" < *p?r, acc. purom-e "into the fire" < *pur- p?r (purós) "fire" p?ru (p?ru) "sun, fire" Czech pý? "glowing ash" OPrus pannu "fire" hur "fire" A por, B puwar, puw?r, pw?r "fire" paur "fire"
*germ- "warm" ?warm (< OE wearm); OE ?ierwan "to prepare, cook" < PGerm *garwjan ?warmjan "to warm" formus "warm" t?ermós "warm" g?armá? "heat" Av gar?ma- "hot, heat"; OPers Garma-pada-, name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, orig. (?) "entrance of the heat" Russian ?ar "heat", goret' "to burn" < *ger OPrus garmê "heat, glowing", Lith ?arijos "cinders", r?ti "to glow" OIr gorn "fire" < *gor-nos ?erm "warm" Gheg zjarm "fire, heat" A ?ärme "heat (of summer)"
*leuk- "light, brightness" light (< OE l?oht) liuhaþ (liuhadis) "light" l?ce? (l?c?re) "to shine", l?x "light" leukós "bright, shining, white" rócate "(he) shines", roká- "light", loka- "world, place" Av rao?ant- "shining", rao?ah "light"; OPers rau?ah "light" OCS lu?a "ray, flash" < *louky? OPrus lauk "bright", lauksna "star", laukas "field", Lith laukas "outside, field" OIr luchair "shine"; W llachar "bright", llug "shimmer" loys "light" AB lyuk/luk- "to shine" luk(k)- "to shine"

Directions

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*per- "through, across, beyond" far (< OE feorr) faírra "far"; faír- "around; (intensifier)" per "through" perí, pér "forward" pári "forward" Av pairi, OPers pariy "forward" OCS pr?- "forward" OPrus pro-, pra- "trough, across", Latvian p?ri "across", Lith per "across", pra- "to start and finish doing something", pro- "through" OIr ir-, W er "forward" he?u "far" për, pej, pe "forward" par?, Lycian pri "forth"
*upér(i) "over, above" over (< OE ofer) ufar "over, above, beyond" super "over" (influenced by sub "under") hupér "over" upári "over, above, beyond" Av 'upairi, OPers "over, above, beyond" OCS po "upon, at" OPrus uppin "cloud", OIr for, W gor, gwar "over, on" ver "up" i ver "up" epër "over, above"
*H?ents "forehead", *H?entí, *H?entá "in front of" and (< OE and) and "along, throughout, towards, in, on, among"; OHG enti "previously" < PGerm *andiaz ante "in front of" antí "instead of" anti "opposite to it" Lith añt "on" antai "there" OIr étan "forehead" < *antono- ?nd "instead of" A ?nt, B ?nte "surface, forehead" nz, ?anti "in front"
*en "in" in (< OE in) in "in, into, towards" in "in" en "in" án-?ka- "face" < ?*eni-Hk? Av ainika "face" < ?*eni-Hk? OCS on-, v?n-, v? "in" OPrus en "in", Lith ? "in" OIr in- "in"; W yn "in" i "in" inj "until" AB y-, yn-, B in- "in" an-dan "inside"
*apó "away" of, off (< OE of) af "from, of, by" (ab-u "from ...?") ab "away" apó "from" ápa "away" Av apa, OPers apa "away" OCS ot, "from, apart of" Lith apa?ià "bottom" < *apoty? prapë "back" < *per-apë ?pa "behind, back" (or ? < *epi)

Basic adjectives

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*med?yo- "mid, middle" mid, middle (< OE mid, middel) midjis "middle" medius "middle" més(s)os "middle" mád?ya- "middle" Av mai?ya- "middle" OCS me?du "between", Russian me?a "boundary" OPrus meddin "forest" (between villages), Lith medis "tree" OIr mid- "middle" < *med?u-; MW mei- "middle" < *med?yo- m "middle" mes, mjet "in between, middle"
*me?- "big" much (< OE myc?el "big, many") mikils "big" magnus "big" mégas "big" máha?, mahnt- "big" Av mazant- "big" OPrus mazs "smaller", Lith ma?as "small" OIr mochtae, MIr mag-, maige "big" mec "big" madh "big" A mak, B mak? "much" mekkis "big"
*g?erH?- "heavy" kaúrus "heavy" gr?vis "heavy" barús "heavy" gurú? "heavy" Av gouru- "heavy-", NPers gir?n "heavy" < *gr?na- (influenced by *fr?na "full") OCS gromada "big size, huge", gruz "a load, something heavy", OPrus garrin "tree", Lith geras "good" MIr bair "heavy (?)", W bryw "strong" zor "brute force; great effort" A kra-marts "heavy (?)", B kr?-mär "burden" < *g?roH?-mVr-
*H?le(n)g-, *H?ln?g-ro-, *H?ln?g-u-[27] "light (in weight)" light (< OE l?oht) leihts "light" < *H?leng-tos; OHG lungar "fast" < *H?ln?g-ros levis "light" < *H?leg-us elakús "small" < *H?ln?g-us, elap?rós "light, quick" < *H?ln?g-ros lag?ú-, rag?ú- "quick, light, small" Av ragu-, fem. r?v? "fast", superl. r?nji?ta- "fastest" OCS l?g?k? "light" OPrus langus "light", langsta "window", lankewingis "flexible", linktwei "to bend", Lith lengvas "light", lankstus "flexible", langas "window", lenkti "to bend" OIr laigiu, laugu, MW llei "smaller" lehtë "light-weight" B lankutse "light"
*H?reud?-, *H?roud?-os, *H?rud?-rós[27] "red" red (< OE r?ad < *H?roud?-os) rauþs (raudis) "red" < *H?roud?-os ruber "red" < *H?rud?-rós erut?rós "red" < *H?rud?-rós rud?irá- "red" < *H?rud?-rós mixed with *H?rud?-i-; r?hita- "red"; l?há- "reddish" < *H?roud?-os Av raoi?ita- "red" OCS rud? "red" Lith ra?donas "red", rudas "brown" OIr rúad, W rhudd "red", rhwd "rust" A rtär, B ratre "red" < *H?rud?-rós
*alyos, *anyos "other"; *anteros "second" else (< OE elles); other (< OE ?þer) aljis, anþar "other" alius "other" állos "other" anyá-, ántara- "other" Av anya-, ainya-, OPers aniya- "other"; Ossetian ändär "other"; East Iranian hal-ci "whoever" Old Sorbian wutory "other" < PSlav *?tor? OPrus antars "second", Lith antras "second" OIr aile, W ail "other" ayl "other" A ?lya-k?, B alye-k? "another" Lydian a?a- "other"
*néwo- "new" new (< OE n?we) niujis "new" novus "new" né(w)os "new" náva- "new" Av nava- "new" OCS nov? "new" OPrus nawas "new", Lith naujas "new" OIr n?ë, W newydd "new" nor "new" < *nowero- A ñu, B ñune "new" newa- "new"
*H?yuHn?- "young" young (< OE ?eong < *H?yuHn?k?ós) juggs "young" juvenis "young" yúvan- (yna?) "young" Av yvan-, yavan- (y?n?) "youth, young man" OCS jun? "young" Lith Jaunas "young" OIr ?ac "young", W ieuanc "young" < *H?yuHn?k?ós
*sen- "old" sineigs "old (person)" senex "old" hénos "former, from a former period" sána? "old" Av hana- "old" NPers sen OCS sedyi "grey-headed" OPrus sentwei "to get old", Lith senas "old" OIr sen "old", Old Welsh hen "old" hin "old"
*nog?- "naked" naked (< OE nacod "naked") naqaþs "naked" nudus "naked" gumnós "naked" nagná? "naked" NPers loxt OCS nag? "naked" OPrus nags "naked", Lith nuogas "naked" OIr nocht "naked"; W noeth "naked, bare" nekumant- "naked, bare"

Construction, fabrication

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*d?wer- "door, doorway, gate" door (< OE dor, duru) daúr, daúr? "door" for?s (pl.) "door" t?ur? "door" dvr, dvra? (pl.) "door" Av dvar?m (acc.) "gate, court"; OPers duvaray? "at the gate" NPers dar OCS dv?ri "door" OPrus dwarris "gate, goal",dwars "estate", Lith durys "door", dvaras "estate", vartai "gate", Latg durovys "door", vuorti "gate" OIr dorus "door" < Proto-Celtic *dworestu-, W dôr "door" < *d?ureH? du?n "door" derë "door" B twere "doors" an-durza "within"
*domo-, *domu- "house", "home" timber (< OE timber "house, building material") timrjan "to build, erect" domus (dom?s) "house" dómos "house" dáma? "house" Av d?m, d?mi "in the house"; d?mna-, nm?na- "house" < *dm-na- OCS dom? "house" OPrus dimstis "porch", Lith dimstis "entryway" MIr dom-liacc "house of stones" tun "house" dhomë "room" ?A tem-, B tam- "be born"
*k?ek?lo- "wheel" wheel (< OE hw?ol, hweogol < PGerm *hweg(w)ulaz < *k?ek?lós) ON hj?l, hv?l "wheel" < PGerm *hweh(w)ulaz < *k?ék?los kúklos "circle", (pl.) "wheels" cakrá- "wheel" Av ?axra- "wheel" OCS kolo "wheel" OPrus kellin "wheel", Lith kaklas "neck" W cylch "circle" A kukäl, B kokale "wagon" kugullas "donut"
*s(y)uH- "to sew" sew (< OE s?owan) siujan "to sew" su? (suere) "to sew" hum?n "sinew" svyati "(he) sews", sy?tá- "sewn" OCS ?ij? (?iti) "to sew" OPrus ?utun "to sew", Lith si?ti "to sew", Latg ?yut "to sew" sum(m)anza(n), ?uel (?), ?uil (?) "thread"
*teks- "to fashion, construct" OE þeox "spear" OHG dehsa, dehsala "hatchet" tex? (texere) "to weave" tékt?n "carpenter", tíkt? "I give birth" tak?ati, t?i "(he) fashions" Av ta?aiti "(he) cuts out, manufactures"; OPers us-ta?an? "stairway" < "*construction"; MPers t?an "to do carpentry" OCS te (tesati) "to hew", OPrus tesatun "to hew", Lith ta?yti "to hew" OIr t?l "axe" < *t?kslo- takkeszi "puts together"
*web?- "to weave" weave (< OE wefan), web (<P.Gmc. *wabjan) OHG weban "to weave" hup?aín? "I weave" ub?nti "ties together" Av ubda?na- "made of cloth"; NPers b?fad "(he) weaves" viti "weave" Lith vyti "to twist" W gwau "knit,weave" venj "I weave" < *web?ny? B w?p- "to weave"
*wer?- "to work" work (< OE weorc, wyrc?an) waúrkjan "to work" urge? (urg?re) "to push, drive" (w)érgon "work", érd?, hrézd? "I work" < *wér?-yoH?, *wré?-yoH? varca? "activity" (? not in Pokorny) Av var?za- "work, activity", v?r?zyeiti "(he) works"; NPers varz, barz "field work, husbandry" vriti "to act, to do" OPrus wargs "bad, evil, malicious, vicious", wargtwei "to torment oneself, to suffer", Lith vargas "the state of going through bad/unlucky events" MW gwreith "deed" < *wre?-tu- gorc "work " rregj "to clean" A wärk-, B w?rk- "to shear"
*wes- "to clothe, wear clothes" wear (< OE werian) wasjan "to clothe" vestis "clothing" héstai "gets dressed" váste "(he) gets dressed" Av vaste, va?haiti "(he) gets dressed" veshch "thing, cloth", veshchi "cloth items" Serbian ve? "underwear" OPrus westi "corset", wesseli "wedding", Lith vestuv?s "wedding", vesti "to lead" W gwisg "clothing" z-genum "I put on (clothes)" < *wes-nu- vesh "dress"
veshje "clothing"
B wastsi, wästsi "clothing" wassezzi "(he) clothes"

Self-motion, rest

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H?es- "to be", *H?es-ti "is"
Cf. Indo-European copula
is (< OE is) ist "is" est " is" estí "is,"; Dorian Greek entí "(they) are" <- *H?s-enti ásti "is," Av asti "is"; Persian hast "is" OCS jest? "is" OPrus ast "is", ?st "almost", Lith esti "is" OIr is "is"; Old Welsh hint "(they) are" <- *H?s-enti ? "is" është "is" B ste "is" ?szi "is"
*b?uH?- "to become"
Cf. Indo-European copula
be (< OE b?on); OE b?an "to dwell" bauan "to dwell" fu? "I was" p?úomai "I become", ép "became" b?ávati "become, is", ábt "became, was" Av bavaiti, OPers bavatiy "(he) becomes" OCS byti "to become, be" OPrus butwei "to be", Lith b?ti "to be" OIr buith "being", W bod "to be" busanim "sprout up" buj, bûj "I dwell, stay overnight" < *bunj?
*sed-, *si-zd- "to sit" sit (< OE sittan < *sed-yo-nom) sitan "to sit" sede? (sed?re) "to sit", s?d? "I sit down" < *si-zd-oH? hézdomai "I sit" < *sed-yo-, hizd? "I set" < *si-zd-oH? sátsi "(he) sits", aor. ásadat "sat"; sdati "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti Av ni-?a?hasti "(he) sits down", opt. hazdy?-t "(he) should sit", hi?aiti "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti; OPers caus. niya-d-ayam "I set" OCS sd? (s?d?ti) "to sit" OPrus sistwei "to sit down", Lith sed?ti "to be sitting", s?stis "to sit down" OIr sa(i)did "sits"; Br hezañ "to stop" nstim "I sit" <? *ni-zdy?, hecanim "I sit on, I ride" shëtis "to walk"
*leg?- "to lie down" lie (< OE lic?gan) ligan "to lie down" lectus "bed" lék?omai "I lie down" le?yati "(he) lies down" NPers ley "lie down" OCS le (le?ati) "to lie down" OPrus laztwei "to lie down" OIr laigid "lies down" lagje "city quarter" A läk- "to lie", B ly?alyñe "(act of) lying down" lagari "(he) lies down"
*k?ei- "to lie (down); bed, cozy, dear, familiar" home (< OE h?m "village, home" < *k?oi-mos) háims (háimáis) "village, town" < *k?oi-mis c?vis "city dweller, citizen" < *k?ei-wis ke?tai "lies" t? (older ?áy?) "(he) lies", r? "they lie" Av sa?te "(he) lies", s?ire "they lie" OCS s?mija "family" OPrus seimi "family", kaims "village", Lith ?eima "family", kaimas "village" OIr cóim, cóem, OW cum "dear" sirem "I love" < *k?eiro- kitta, kittari "lies"; Luwian ziyari "lies"
*steH?- "to stand (i.e. be standing)" stand (< OE standan) standan "to stand"; OHG st?n, st?n "to stand" st? (st?re) "to stand", sist? (sistere) "to cause to stand" Doric híst?mi "I stand" Stha / tíhati "(he) stands" Av hi?taiti "(he) stands"; OPers impf. a-i?tata "(he) stood" OCS staj? (stati) "to stand up" OPrus stalitwei "to stand", Lith stov?ti "to stand" OIr tair-(?)issiur "I stand"; W sefyll "to stand" stanam "I build; gain" mbështet, pshtet "I support" B stäm- "to stand", ste "is", "stare" "(they) are" istanta- "to stay, delay"
*H?ei- "to go" yede (< OE ?ode "went") iddja "went" e? (?re) "to go" e?mi "I (will) go" éti "(he) goes", yánti "(they) go" Av a?iti "(he) goes", yeinti "(they) go"; OPers aitiy "goes" OCS jiditi "to move away, to arrive", jidene "coming" OPrus eitwei "to go", Lith eiti "to walk" W wyf "I am"; OIr ethaid "goes" < *it-?t- i?anem (aorist ) "I climb down" < *i-gh- iki "to leave; flee" *H?(e)i-K- A y? "he went", B yatsi "to go" < *y?- ?t "go!"
*g?em- "to come" come (< OE cuman) qiman "to come" veni? (ven?re) "to come" baín? "I go" gámati "(he) goes", aor. ágan, gan "(he) went" Av ?amaiti "goes"; OAv inj. uz-n "(he) goes", pl. g?m?n "they go" OPrus gimtwei "to be born", Lith gimti "to be born" kam "I stand", ekn "(he) came" A käm-, kum-, B käm-, kam-, ?em "to come"
*sek?- "to follow" OE sec?g "follower, companion, man" ON seggr "hero" sequor (sequ?) "to follow" hépomai "I follow" sácate "(he) follows" Av ha?ait?, ha?aiti "(he) follows" shagati "to walk" OPrus sektwei "to shallow [To breathe lightly]", Lith sekti "to follow" OIr sechithir "follows"

Object motion

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*b?er- "to carry" bear (< OE beran) baíran "to carry" fer? (ferre) "to carry" p?er? "I carry" b?arati "(he) carries" Av baraiti "(he) carries"; OPers barantiy "they carry" NPers bordan "to carry" Kurdish birin "to carry, to take" OCS ber? (b?rati) "to carry" Lith berti "to pour non liquid" OIr biru "I carry"; W beru "to flow" berem "I carry" bie "I carry"
*we- "to convey" weigh (< OE wegan "carry"); way (< OE we?); wain "wagon" (< OE wæ?n)[28] ga-wigan "to move, shake" veh? (vehere) "to convey" Pamphylian wek?ét? "he should bring"; Cypriot éwekse "brought there" váhati "(he) drives" Av vazaiti "(he) leads, carries" OCS vez? (vesti) "to drive" OPrus weztun "to ride", Lith ve?ti "to drive" OIr f?n, W gwain (type of wagon) < *we-no-; W arwain "to lead" vjedh "I steal" Hier Luw wa-zi/a- "drive"
*H?e?- "to lead, drive" ON aka "to drive" ag? (agere) "to drive, do" ág? "I lead" ájati "(he) drives" Av azaiti "(he) drives" Kurdish ajotin "to drive" ehati "to drive" OIr ad-aig "compels"; OW agit, hegit "goes" acem "I lead" A ak-, B ?k- "go, lead"
*d?eH?-, d?H- "to place, put" do (< OE d?n) deds "deed" faci? (facere) "to do" < *d?H-k-yoH?; con-ditus "built" (orig. "put together"), ab-ditus "removed" (orig. "put away") < Proto-Italic *-?atos < *d?H-tos títmi "I put" < *d?í-d?eH?-mi dádti "(he) puts" < *d?é-d?eH?-ti Av daiti "(he) puts"; OPers impf. adad? "(he) established" OCS d?ti "to lay" OPrus ditun "to put", Lith d?ti "to put" Gaulish dede "he put (pt.)"; W dodi "to place, to put";OIr -tarti "he gives" < Proto-Celtic *to-ro-ad-d?t < *-d?eH?-t dnel "to put"; ed "he put (past)" dhatë "place, location" < *d?H-teH? A t?-, täs-, tas-, B tes- "to lay" < *d?eH?-s- d?i "puts"
*deH?-, d?H- "to give" d? (dare) "to give" díd?mi "I give" dád?ti "(he) gives" Av dad?iti "(he) gives"; OPers impv. dad?tuv "let him give" NPers dãdan "to give" OCS dam? "I will give" OPrus datun "to give", Lith duoti "to give" OIr d?n, W dawn "gift" tam "I give" dhashë "I gave" < *dH-sm? d?i "takes"
*kap- "to grab" have (< OE habban), heave (< OE hebban) haban "to have", hafjan "to lift" capi? (capere) "to take" kápt? "I snatch, swallow" kapa "two handfuls" NPers ?asp?dan, ?aps?dan, cafs?dan "to grasp, seize" Ukrainian hapaty "to grab" OPrus kaps "grave", Lith kapas "grave", kapt "expression to indicate grabbing. OIr cacht "female slave", W caeth "slave" < *kap-tos "taken" kap "I grasp, grab", kam "I have"
*g?ab?- "to seize, take" give (< OE ?iefan) giban "to give" habe? (hab?re) "to have" gáb?asti? "forearm, hand" Polish OPrus gabtun "to catch", Lith gauti " to get" OIr gaibid "takes"; W gafael "to take hold, to grip"
*gen- "to strike, kill" bane (< OE bana "murderer") banja "blow, wound, ulcer" d?-fend? (d?fendere) "to ward off, defend", of-fend? (offendere) "to bump, offend" t?eín? "I kill" < *gen-yoH?, épep?non "I killed" < redup. + *gn-om hánti "(he) strikes, kills" < *gen-ti, g?nánti "they strike, kill" Av ?ainti "(he) strikes, kills", ni-?ne (mid.) "I strike down"; OPers impf. ajanam "I struck down" OCS ?en? (g?nati) "drive (animals to pasture)", nj? (ti) "reap" OPrus gintun "to defend", Lith ginti " to defend", ganyti "to drive animals to pasture" OIr gonim "I wound, kill"; W gwanu "to stab" ?nem "I strike" < *gen-oH?, ?n?em "I destroy" < *gen-yoH? gjanj "I hunt" < *gen-yoH? B käsk- "to scatter to destruction" < *gn?-sk- ku?nzi "kills" < *gen-ti
*leik?-, *li-ne-k?- "to leave behind" OE l?on "to lend" lei?an "to lend" linqu? (linquere) "to leave behind" leíp?, limpán? "I leave behind" ri?ákti "(he) leaves behind", 3rd. pl. riñcanti "they leave behind" Av -irinaxti "(he) frees"; NPers r?xtan "to pour out" OBulg ot?-l?k? "something left over", li?iti "to rob" < *leik?-s- OPrus palaistun "to leave behind", Lith likti "to stay" OIr l?icid "(he) leaves behind, releases" lk?anem "I leave behind"

Time

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*dyés "yesterday" yesterday (< OE ?eostra) gistra- "tomorrow (?)" heri "yesterday" k?t?és "yesterday" hyá? "yesterday" < *g?yés Av zy?, Old Persian diya(ka) "yesterday" OIr in-d?, W doe "yesterday" dje "yesterday"
*nok?ts (nek?ts) "night" night (< OE neaht, niht < *nok?tis) nahts (nahts) "night" < *nok?ts nox (noctis) "night" núks (núktos) "night" nák (instr. pl. nákt) "night" OCS no?t? "night" OPrus nakts "night", Lith naktis "night" OIr i-nnocht, OW henoid "on this night" natë "night" A n[a]ktim "nightly", B nekciye "in the evening" nekuz (gen. sg.) "of evening"
*H?eus?s "dawn", *H?eus-tero- "east", *H?euso- "gold" eastern (< OE ?asterne) ON austr "east" aur?ra "dawn", aurum "gold" Doric s "dawn" u? (u?ása?), acc. usam "dawn" Av u (u?a?h?), acc. u?h?m "dawn" OCS (j)utro "morning", MKD zora "dawn" OPrus austra "dawn", auss "gold", Lith au?ra "dawn", auksas "gold" OIr f?ir "sunrise", W gwawr "dawn" < *w?sri- ?os-ki "gold" ?A wäs "gold"
*yem-, eim- "winter" ON gói "winter month" hiems "winter" k?e?ma "winter" híma "winter" Av zy (acc. zy?m, gen. zim?) "winter" OCS zima "winter" OPrus zeima "winter", Lith ?iema "winter" OIr gam "winter", gem-adaig "winter night"; OW gaem "winter" dzmer "winter", dziwn "snow" Gheg dimën, Tosk dimër(ë) "winter" gimmanza "winter"
*wés-r?, wes-n-és "spring" ON vár "spring" v?r "spring" (w)éar "spring" vasan-tá- "spring" Av va?ri "in spring";; OPers ra-v?hara- OCS vesna "spring" OPrus wassara "spring", Lith vasara "summer", pavasaris "spring", v?su "cool" OIr errach "spring"< *ferrach < *wesr-?ko-; OW guiannuin "in spring" < *wes-n?t-eino- garun "spring"< *wesr-
*wet- "year", *per-ut- "last year" wether "castrated male sheep" (< OE weþer), OHG widar "male sheep", MHG vert "last year" <- *per-ut-, ON fjorð "last year" <- *per-ut- vetus (veteris) "old" (per?re) "to die" (w)étos "year", pérusi "last year" vatsá-, vatsará- "year", par-út "last year" Sogdian wt?nyy (read wat(u)?an?) "old" OCS vet?ch? "old" OLith v?tu?as "old" MIr feis, Cornish guis "sow" < *wet-si- heru "last year" vit (pl. vjet) "year" witt- "year"
*yeH?r- "year" year (< OE ar) j?r "year" h?rnus "this year's" < *h?y?r- h?ra "time, year" < *yoH?r- yarhi - at which time / when Av y?r? "year" Russ CH jara "spring" OLith Jór? "spring festival" W iâr "hen", MIr eir-?n "fowl" awur "day"

References

  1. ^ k?oyr < *swes?r; k?e? < *swesros; k?or-k? < *swes?res
  2. ^ bridegome in Middle English, subsequently influenced by groom (archaically "servant, man")
  3. ^ h?m- < *?m- (with h- after hum- "you (pl.)") < *asm- < *n?sm-
  4. ^ *us-we is the original form, modified to *us-me in many languages under the influence of 1st. pl. *n?s-mé. Very often when *us-we remained, the initial u- was lost; this happened at least in Germanic, Avestan and Celtic>
  5. ^ a b OE ?ow (acc., dat.) and ?ow-ic? (acc., with the same -c? ending visible in 1st. sg. acc. m?c? "me", also modern German mich "me"), likewise Old High German iuwih "you (acc./dat. pl.)" (modern euch), appear to have the same origin as izw- in Gothic izwis "you (acc./dat. pl)", with unexplained loss of -z-. izwis appears to come from stem izw- plus originally genitive -is, where izw- comes ultimately from PIE *us-we with the loss of u- also visible in Avestan and Celtic, followed by the addition of a prothetic i-. (Ringe, 2006)
  6. ^ Cf. Latin ne-que, Gothic ni-h, Hittite ni-kku, Lydian ni-k "and not, nor".
  7. ^ All suggested etymologies of një "one" are highly speculative, at best. This etymology is one of two given by E. Hamp in Indo-European Numerals (Jadranka Gvozdanovi?, ed., 1992), pp. 903-904; the other is simply from PIE *eni- (or H?en-), a PIE deictic particle visible in Sanskrit anyá- "the other", OCS on? "that one", Lithuanian anàs "that one". Michiel de Vaan, in a review of Demiraj's Sistemi i numerimit, suggests PIE *H?en-io-no- > pre-Proto-Albanian *ë?án > Proto-Albanian *?â > një. M. Huld (Basic Albanian Etymologies, p. 101) attempts to derive një from PIE *sm-iH?, feminine of *sem "one" and reflected in Ancient Greek mía; this etymology is also tentatively suggested in Don Ringe et al. "IE and Computational Cladistics", p. 75 (Transactions of the Philological Society 100, 2002).
  8. ^ Accent location unknown.
  9. ^ Built upon osm? "eighth" < *H?ok?t-mo-.
  10. ^ With nasalization after *sept "seven".
  11. ^ Raham Asha, Phonology of P?rs?g
  12. ^ Influenced by z?r?d "heart".
  13. ^ Only in *aí?atundi "bramble", literally "horse-tooth".
  14. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Singular Plural
    Language Nom Acc Gen Dat Nom Acc Gen
    PIE gus gm g?ous g?ówei gwes gs g?ow?m
    Sanskrit gáu? gm g gáv? gva? g gáv?m
    Avestan g?u? g?m g?u? gave gv? g gav?m
  15. ^ Expected form is *v?s, not *b?s; evidently this is a borrowing from Oscan or Umbrian.
  16. ^ bóu, báu are archaic genitives; later báo, bó.
  17. ^ Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette (1934) p.960
  18. ^ a b c A synchronic rule in PIE deleted laryngeals in the sequence VRHy or R?Hy.
  19. ^ Cf. Sanskrit janitár-, Greek genet?r, genét?r, Latin genitor "procreator".
  20. ^ acc. str?m, gen. st?r?, pl. nom. staras-?a, st?r?, acc. stru?, gen. strm, dat. st?r?by?
  21. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Language Nom Acc Voc Gen Dat Loc Instr Pl
    PIE d(i)y?us dy?um dy?u diw-és, -ós diwéi dyéwi and dy?u ?
    Greek Zdeús Zd?n Zde? Di(w)ós Di(w)í
    Sanskrit d(i)y?ú? dym ? divá?, dy div? dyáví, diví dyú-bhi?
  22. ^ T?w < *deiwos was the Germanic god of war, but originally was a sky-god and head of the gods, like Zeus.
  23. ^ *deiwos > Lat. deus; gen. *deiw? > Lat. d?v?. From each stem a full declension was formed.
  24. ^ Still scanned as three syllables in some passages of the Rigveda, Ringe (2006) p. 77.
  25. ^ Ringe (2006) p. 77, sourced to Melchert (1994) p. 54.
  26. ^ a b c d It is unclear how the original PIE forms produced the attested daughter-language forms. After the loss of laryngeals, original *péH?wr?, pH?unés would regularly produce *p?wr?, punés. It is possible that this form was considered too strange-looking, with the result that the u vowel was borrowed from the second stem into the first, yielding *púwr?, punés. This compressed to *p?r, punés, and this stem set, or its regularized version *p?r, purés, might form the basis of the Umbrian, Greek and Armenian forms. For Germanic, however, something else must be at work. Ringe (2006) suggests that the following sequence of events produced Gothic f?n: Collective péH?w?r -> pH?u?r (cf. Tocharian B puwar) > pu?r > Proto-Germanic fuw?r > fw?r > f?r -> f?n (using -n- from the oblique stem), where -> indicates a change due to analogy, while > indicates a regular sound change. His explanation of funins and fuïr is very tentative and complicated. Pokorny's suggestion for Germanic is rather different. He derives f?n from *fw?n, with no further derivation, but probably different from Ringe's. fuïr comes from *puweri, a locative that could be formed from a nominative *púwr? or possibly from a stem *pur-. It suffices to say that the processes involved are not well understood.
  27. ^ a b *H?le(n)g- and *H?reud?- are both roots that form Caland-type adjectives. These roots are notable in that they form zero-stem adjectives with certain characteristic suffixes, especially -ro- and -u-, along with -i- in compounds. Other examples are *H?er?- "white" (cf. Greek argós < *argrós "white", Sanskrit ?jrá- "brilliant", Tocharian B ?rkwi "white", Greek argi-kéraunos "with bright lightning") and *d?eub- "deep" (cf. Lithuanian dubùs "hollow" < *d?ub-u-, Tocharian B tapre "high" < *dhub-ro-).
  28. ^ wagon is a loan-word from Dutch.

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