Gram stain of bacteria: a test frequently performed in infectiology
|Synonyms||Infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine, infectiology|
|Significant diseases||Infections, e.g. osteomyelitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, influenza, also public health issues e.g. epidemics, antimicrobial resistance, bioterrorism|
|Significant tests||Gram staining, microbiological cultures (including blood cultures), serological tests, genotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), medical imaging|
|Specialist||Infectious disease specialist, Infectiologist|
|Glossary||Glossary of medicine|
Infectious disease, also known as infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections. An infectious disease specialist's practice may consist largely of managing nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections, or it may be out-patient based.
Infectious diseases specialists typically serve as consultants to other physicians in cases of complex infections, and often manage patients with HIV/AIDS and other forms of Immunodeficiency. Although many common infections are treated by physicians without formal expertise in infectious diseases, specialists may be consulted for cases where an infection is difficult to diagnose. They may also be asked to help determine the cause of a fever of unknown origin. 
Specialists in infectious diseases can practice both in hospitals (inpatient) and clinics (outpatient). In hospitals, specialists in infectious diseases help ensure the timely diagnosis and treatment of acute infections by recommending the appropriate diagnostic tests to identify the source of the infection and by recommending appropriate antibiotics to treat infection. For certain types of infections, involvement of specialists in infectious diseases may improve patient outcomes. In clinics, specialists in infectious diseases can provide long-term care to patients with chronic infections such as HIV/AIDS.
Infectious diseases specialists employ a variety of diagnostic tests to help identify the pathogen that is causing an infection. Common tests include Gram staining, blood cultures, serological tests, genotyping, and polymerase chain reaction.
Infectious diseases specialists employ a variety of antimicrobial agents to help treat infections. The type of antimicrobial depends on the organism that is causing the infection. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections; antiviral agents treat viral infections; and antifungal agents treat fungal infections.
|Names||Doctor, Medical Specialist, Infectious diseases Consultant|
|Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or |
In the United States, infectious diseases is a subspecialty of internal medicine and pediatrics i.e., an internist does at least an additional two years of a fellowship and a pediatrician does at least three years to qualify as an infectious diseases specialist and take the infectious diseases board certification exam of the American Board of Internal Medicine or the American Board of Pediatrics. The exam has been given as a subspecialty of internal medicine since 1972 and as a subspecialty of pediatrics since 1994.
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