Ingush People
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Ingush People
Ingush
?II
Ghalghaj
Ingush Warrior.jpg
Ingush. Early 20th century.
Total population
700,000 [1]
Regions with significant populations
 Russia444,833[2]
    Ingushetia415,537
    Chechnya1,296
    North Ossetia-Alania8,336
 Kazakhstan16,893
 Canada3,259
 Ukraine455
Languages
Ingush, Russian
Religion
Predominantly Sunni Islam (Shafii Madhhab)
Related ethnic groups
Chechens, Bats, Kists and other Northeast Caucasian peoples

The Ingush (, Ingush: ?II, Ghalghaj, pronounced ['lj]) are a Northeast Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting their native Ingushetia, a federal republic of Russian Federation. The Ingush are predominantly Sunni Muslims and speak the Ingush language, a Northeast Caucasian language that is closely related to Chechen; the two form a dialect continuum.[3] The Ingush and Chechen peoples are collectively known as the Vainakh, although the genetics of Ingush and the Chechen indicate a split about 13,000-17,000 Ybp.[4][5]

History

According to Leonti Mroveli, Caucas (Kavkasos) is the legendary ancestor of the Ingush. Vakhtang VI of Kartli, as well as his son Vakhushti of the Bagrationi dynasty, refer to them as Dzurdzuks.
Many Georgian, Greek and German chroniclers also use the term Kists or Ghlighvi.[6][7] The ancient Greek historian Strabo wrote about the Gargars, while American cartographer Joseph Hutchins Colton labeled the people as Gelians.[8]

The Ingush are the first and main builders of towers in the Caucasus, famously known for having battle towers with pyramidal roofs.
They refer to themselves as Ghalghai, which can be translated as "people of towers".

The Ingush came under Russian rule in 1810, but under Soviet rule during World War II they were falsely accused of collaborating with the Nazis and thus, the entire population was deported to the Kazakh and Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republics. The Ingush were rehabilitated in the 1950's, after the death of Joseph Stalin, and allowed to return home in 1957, though by that time western Ingush lands had been ceded to North Ossetia.

Culture

The Ingush possess a varied culture of traditions, legends, epics, tales, songs, proverbs, and sayings. Music, songs and dance are particularly highly regarded. Popular musical instruments include the dachick-panderr (a kind of balalaika), kekhat ponder (accordion, generally played by girls), mirz ponder (a three-stringed violin), zurna (a type of oboe), tambourine, and drums.

Religion

The Ingush are predominantly Sunni Muslims of the Sh?fi'? Madh'hab, with a Sufi background.[9]

Ingush genetics

According to one test by Nasidze in 2003 (analyzed further in 2004), the Y-chromosome structure of the Ingush greatly resembled that of neighboring Caucasian populations (especially Chechens, their linguistic and cultural brethren).[12][13]

There has been only one notable study on the Ingush Y chromosome. These following statistics should not be regarded as final, as Nasidze's test had a notably low sample data for the Ingush. However, they do give an idea of the main haplogroups of the Ingush.

  • J2 - 89% of Ingush have the highest reported frequency of J2 which is associated with the Fertile Crescent.[5]
  • F* - (11% of Ingush)[13] This haplogroup was called "F*" by Nasidze. It may have actually been any haplogroup under F that was not under G, I, J2, or K; however, it is probably consists of haplotypes that are either under J1 (typical of the region, with very high frequencies in parts of Dagestan, as well as Arabia, albeit in a different subclade) or F3.
  • G - (27% of Ingush)[13] Typical of the Middle East, the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. The highest values were found among Georgians, Circassians and Ossetes. There was a noticeable difference in G between Ingush and Chechens (in J2 and F*, Ingush and Chechens have similar levels), possibly attributable to low samples that were all from the same town.

In the mtDNA, the Ingush formed a more clearly distinct population, with distance from other populations. The closest in an analysis by Nasidze were Chechens, Kabardins and Adyghe (Circassians), but these were all much closer to other populations than they were to the Ingush.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ " ? ? 408% ? - magas.su". magas.su.
  2. ^ "Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity". Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Nichols, J. and Vagapov, A. D. (2004). Chechen-English and English-Chechen Dictionary, p. 4. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-31594-8.
  4. ^ Arutiunov, Sergei. (1996). "Ethnicity and Conflict in the Caucasus". Slavic Research Center
  5. ^ a b Oleg Balanovsky, Khadizhat Dibirova, Anna Dybo, Oleg Mudrak, Svetlana Frolova, Elvira Pocheshkhova, Marc Haber, Daniel Platt, Theodore Schurr, Wolfgang Haak, Marina Kuznetsova, Magomed Radzhabov, Olga Balaganskaya, Alexey Romanov, Tatiana Zakharova, David F. Soria Hernanz, Pierre Zalloua, Sergey Koshel, Merritt Ruhlen, Colin Renfrew, R. Spencer Wells, Chris Tyler-Smith, Elena Balanovska, and The Genographic Consortium Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region Mol. Biol. Evol. 2011 : msr126v1-msr126.
  6. ^ Heinrich Julius Klaproth. "Inguschen-Ghalgha (Khißt-Ghlighwa)" Geographisch-historische Beschreibung des östlichen Kaukasus, zwischen den Flüssen Terek, Aragwi, Kur und dem Kaspischen Meere Pt.2 of Volume 50, Bibliothek der neuesten und wichtigsten Reisebeschreibungen zur Erweiterung der Erdkunde nach einem systematischen Plane bearbeitet, und in Verbindung mit einigen andern Gelehrten bearbeitet und hrsg. von M.C. Sprengel, 1800-1814.
  7. ^ Dietrich Christoph von Rommel. "Kisten (Inguschen)" Die Völker des Caucasus nach den Berichten der Reisebeschreiber Volume 1 van Aus dem Archiv für Ethnographie und Linguistik. Verlage des Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, 1808. Oxford University.
  8. ^ J.H. Colton. "Gelia" Turkey In Asia And The Caucasian Provinces Of Russia. 1856.
  9. ^ Stefano Allievi; Jørgen S. Nielsen (2003). Muslim networks and transnational communities in and across Europe. 1.
  10. ^ Ivane Nasidze; et al. (2001). "Alu insertion polymorphisms and the genetic structure of human populations from the Caucasus". European Journal of Human Genetics. 9 (4): 267-272. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200615. PMID 11313770.
  11. ^ Nasidze, I; Risch, GM; Robichaux, M; Sherry, ST; Batzer, MA; Stoneking, M (April 2001). "Alu insertion polymorphisms and the genetic structure of human populations from the Caucasus" (PDF). Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 9 (4): 267-72. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200615. PMID 11313770.
  12. ^ Nasidze I, Sarkisian T, Kerimov A, Stoneking M (March 2003). "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome" (PDF). Human Genetics. 112 (3): 255-61. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0874-4. PMID 12596050.
  13. ^ a b c d Nasidze, I.; Ling, E. Y. S.; Quinque, D.; et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus" (PDF). Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (3): 205-221. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00092.x. PMID 15180701. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-08.

External links


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