Intangible Cultural Properties of Japan
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Intangible Cultural Properties of Japan

An Intangible Cultural Property (, mukei bunkazai), as defined by the Japanese government's Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (1950), is a part of the Cultural Properties[note 1] of high historical or artistic value such as drama, music, and craft techniques. The term refers exclusively to human skills possessed by individuals or groups which are indispensable to produce Cultural Properties.[1]

Items of particular importance can be designated as Important Intangible Cultural Properties (?, j?y? mukei bunkazai).[1] Recognition is also given to the owners of an item to encourage its transmission.[2] There are three types of recognition: individual recognition, collective recognition, and group recognition. Special grants of two million yen a year are given to individual holders (the so-called National Living Treasures[2]) to help protect their properties. The government also contributes part of the expenses incurred either by the holder of an Intangible Cultural Property during training of his successor, or by a recognized group for public performances.[2]

To promote the understanding, and therefore the transmission across generations, of Cultural Properties, exhibitions concerning them are organized. The government through the Japan Arts Council also holds training workshops and other activities to educate future generations of noh, bunraku, and kabuki personnel.[2]

Important Intangible Cultural Properties

Performance Traditions

Type Name Comments Registered Image
Ko-ry? Tenshin Sh?den Katori Shint?-ry? ()[3] 1960
Gagaku Gagaku ()[4][5] Inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2009 1955
Noh Ky?gen ()[6] 1967 Himeji-jo Takigi Nou 39 37.jpg
Noh Shite-kata (?)[7] 1955
Noh Waki-kata (?)[8] 1994
Noh N?gaku ()[9][10] Inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008 1957 Noh3.jpg
Noh Hayashi-kata: kotsuzumi ()[11] 1998 Japanese small hand drum,kotsudumi,katori-city,japan.JPG
Noh Hayashi-kata: taiko ()[12] 1992 Taiko1.jpg
Noh Hayashi-kata: ?tsuzumi ()[13] 1998
Noh Hayashi-kata: fue ()[14] 2009 Nohkan.jpg
Bunraku Ningy? j?ruri bunraku (?)[15][16] Inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008 1955 Osonowiki.jpg
Bunraku Shamisen (?)[17] 1985 Man playing shamisen.jpg
Bunraku Ningy? ()[18] 1977 Bunraku doll in national theatre Osaka 1.JPG
Bunraku Tay? ()[19] 1971 Man playing shamisen.jpg
Kabuki Kabuki ()[20][21] Inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008 1965 Shibaraku, Kabukiza November 1895 production.jpg
Kabuki Nagauta (?)[22] 1998
Kabuki Hayashi (?)[23] 1998 Fumie Hihara, au shamisen (danse du Kabuki, musée Guimet).jpg
Kabuki Tachiyaku ()[24] 1960
Kabuki Wakiyaku ()[25] 1997
Kumiodori Kumiodori ()[26][27] Inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2010 1972
Kumiodori Uta - sanshin (?)[28] 2005 Sanshin.jpg
Kumiodori Tachikata (?)[29] 2006
Music Itch?-bushi ()[30] 1993
Music Itch?-bushi shamisen ()[31] 2001
Music Itch?-bushi j?ruri ()[32] 1999
Music Ogie-bushi ()[33] 1993
Music Kat?-bushi ()[34] 1993
Music Kat?-bushi shamisen ()[35] 2009
Music Kat?-bushi j?ruri ()[36] 1994
Music Giday?-bushi (?)[37] 1980
Music Giday?-bushi shamisen (?)[38] 1998
Music Giday?-bushi j?ruri (?)[39] 1999
Music Miyazono-bushi ()[40] 1993
Music Miyazono-bushi j?ruri ()[41] 2007
Music Shakuhachi ()[42] 1982 Shakuhachi-2.png
Music Tokiwazu-bushi (?)[43] 2007
Music Tokiwazu-bushi shamisen (?)[44] 1992
Music Tokiwazu-bushi j?ruri (?)[45] 1995
Music Shinnai-bushi shamisen ()[46] 2001
Music Shinnai-bushi j?ruri ()[47] 2001
Music Kiyomoto-bushi shamisen ()[48] 2003
Music Kiyomoto-bushi j?ruri ()[49] 2003
Music Jiuta ()[50] 2009
Music Nagauta ()[51] 1974
Music Nagauta shamisen ()[52] 1987
Music Nagauta narimono (?)[53] 1993
Music Ry?ky?'s classical music ()[54] 2000
Music S?kyoku ()[55] 1993
Buy? Kabuki-buy? ()[56] 1955 Eiko Hayashi, Nihon Buyô - danse du Kabuki (Musée Guimet) III.jpg
Buy? Ky?-buy? () 2015
Buy? Ry?ky?-buy? (?)[57] 2009
Entertainment Classic Rakugo (?)[58] 1995 Rakugo-sanmafestival.jpg
Entertainment K?dan ()[59] 2002

Crafts

Medium Name Comments Region Registered Image
Ceramics Bizen-yaki ()[60][61][62][63] High-fired, unglazed stoneware; one of the six ancient kilns; production in and around Imbe village from the twelfth century Okayama Prefecture 2004 Sabukaze 05.JPG
Ceramics Hakuji ()[62][64] Undecorated white porcelain; influenced by Chinese examples; production began in the Arita area in the first half of the seventeenth century 1995
Ceramics Iro-Nabeshima ()[65][66] A type of iro-e overglaze enamel, often with a blue under-glaze; from the domain of the Nabeshima clan; production from the second half of the seventeenth century Saga Prefecture 1976 Plat Nabeshima aux trois hérons.jpg
Ceramics Kakiemon (nigoshide) (? ())[62][66][67][68] A type of iro-e overglaze enamel; created by Sakaida Kakiemon in the 1640s; nigoshide, the white ground against which the enamels are applied, was revived by Sakaida Kakiemon XII in the 1950s Saga Prefecture 1971 Meissen hard porcelain vase 1735.jpg
Ceramics Mumy?i-yaki (?)[69][70][71] Mumy?i is the red ferrous clay of Sado island; production in Aikawa from the early nineteenth century Niigata Prefecture 2003
Ceramics Onta ware (?)[72][73][74] Thick slipware; production in Hita from the early eighteenth century; one of the 100 Soundscapes of Japan ?ita Prefecture 1995 Ondayoshie.JPG
Ceramics Seto-guro ()[62][75][76] Black Seto; the colour is obtained by removing the glazed vessel from the kiln at the height of firing and cooling it rapidly; production in Mino Province from the late sixteenth century Gifu Prefecture
Ceramics Seiji ()[62][77] The pale-green colour of celadon is obtained from a feldspathic glaze and reduction firing; introduced from the continent 2007 Koryo Period Pressed Designs Bowl.jpg
Ceramics Shino ()[62][78][79][80] Stoneware with a white feldspathic glaze; production in Mino Province from the late sixteenth century Gifu Prefecture 1994 Fushimi momoyaja jyou 23.jpg
Ceramics Tetsuy?-t?ki (?)[81] Iron-glaze stoneware 2005
Ceramics Y?ri-kinsai (?)[62][82] Gold leaf or gold enamel is applied to a glazed surface which is then glazed and fired again, enhancing the durability of the decoration 2001
Textiles Ise-katagami (?)[83] Paper stencils Mie Prefecture 1993 Dougubori.JPG
Textiles Kij?ka-bash?fu (?)[84][85] banana fibre cloth Okinawa Prefecture 1974 Musa basjooSochi1.JPG
Textiles Kumejima-tsumugi (?)[86] pongee/kasuri Okinawa Prefecture 2004
Textiles Kurume-kasuri (?)[87] Fukuoka Prefecture 1957
Textiles Miyako-j?fu (?)[88] Okinawa Prefecture 1978
Textiles Tate-nishiki ()[85][89] Vertical brocade of ancient origin, revived by Kitamura Takeshi 2000
Textiles Y?ki-tsumugi ()[90][91] Inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2010 1956
Textiles Kenj? Hakata weave ()[92] Fukuoka Prefecture 2003
Textiles Edo komon (?)[85][93] Edo fine pattern; stencil resist dyeing technique popular in the Edo period 1978 Edo komon.jpg
Textiles Bingata ()[85][94] Stencil or resist paste weave; in the eighteenth century its use by commoners was restricted Okinawa Prefecture 1996 Bingata.jpg
Textiles Saga-nishiki ()[85][95] Brocade that developed in the early nineteenth century and was widespread by the early twentieth Saga Prefecture 1994 Saga nishiki 1.jpg
Textiles Embroidery (, Shish?)[96] 1997 The embroidery of the festival car of the festival of Tochigi,tochigi-city,japan.JPG
Textiles Shuri weave ()[97] Okinawa Prefecture 1998
Textiles Ojiya-chijimi - Echigo-j?fu ()[98][99] Inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2009 Niigata Prefecture 1955
Textiles Seig? Sendai-hira ()[100] Miyagi Prefecture 2002
Textiles Tsumugi weave ()[85][101] Woven from hand-spun silk floss 1990
Textiles Bash?fu ()[85][102] Bash?-fibre cloth Okinawa Prefecture 2000
Textiles Mokuhanzuri-sarasa ()[103] 2008
Textiles Monsha ()[104][105] Figured gauze weave silk
Textiles Y?zen ()[85][106][107] Paste-resist dyeing; perfected around 1700 by Miyazaki Y?zen 1955
Textiles Y?soku weave (?)[108] 1999
Textiles Ra (?)[85][109][110] A form of gauze weave; examples are found in the Sh?s?in 1995
Lacquerware Chinkin ()[111][112][113][114] Incised and filled with gold leaf or powder applied over wet lacquer; popular in China from the Song dynasty and particularly associated with Wajima ware 1999 Chinkin-enlargement.jpg
Lacquerware Kinma ()[112][115][116] Incised and colour-filled; introduced from the continent, prized in the Muromachi period, and perfected around Takamatsu in the Edo period 1985
Lacquerware Ky?shitsu ()[117][118] Sequential lacquering technique with four main phases: substrate, priming, intermediate coating, and top coating 1974
Lacquerware Maki-e ()[112][119][120] Sprinkled picture decoration using metallic powder or pigment; dates to the Heian period 1955 Makie-enlargement.jpg
Lacquerware Raden ()[112][121][122] Shell (Mother-of-pearl, abalone, nautilus) inlay 1999
Lacquerware Wajima-nuri ()[114][123][124] A mixture of burned diatomaceous earth, rice paste, and lacquer is used for the layers of undercoat; the earliest example, the doors of Juzo Jinja, date to 1524 Ishikawa Prefecture 1977 Wajimanurie.JPG
Metalwork Metal chasing (, ch?kin)[125][126] Several engraving techniques have been practised since the d?taku of the Yayoi period 1978 DotakuBronzeBellLateYayoi3rdCenturyCE.jpg
Metalwork Metal casting (, ch?kin)[127][128] Several casting techniques have been practised since the d?taku of the Yayoi period, including lost-wax casting 1993 Kamakura Daibutsu Dec08-4.jpg
Metalwork Sword Polishing (?, t?ken kenma) 1975
Metalwork Dora ()[129] Gongs 2002 ?.jpg
Metalwork Repoussé (, tankin)[130][131] 1995
Woodworking Bamboo-work (, )[132] 1982
Woodworking Wood-work (, )[133] 1984
Dolls Ish?-ningy? (?)[134][135] Costume dolls, dressed in tailored clothing made from dyed and woven textiles 1986 Japanese traditional doll 20101105.jpg
Dolls T?so-ningy? (?)[135][136] Paulownia sawdust, mixed with wheat starch and plum paste, is used to form a plaster for casting; once dry it is hard enough to be sculpted 2002
Washi Echizen-h?sho (?)[137][138][139] High-quality paper, used for official orders since the Muromachi period; paper-making in the region is known from the Engishiki Fukui Prefecture 2000
Washi Hon-Minogami (?)[140][141] Mulberry paper from Mino Province; records in the Sh?s?-in refer to three paper-making regions: Chikuzen Province, Buzen Province, and Mino Province Gifu Prefecture 1969
Washi Hosokawa-shi ()[142] 1978
Washi Najio-ganpishi ()[143][144] Made from the ganpi plant Hy?go Prefecture 2002
Washi Sekish?-banshi (?)[145][146] The strongest paper produced in Japan; used for sh?ji, calligraphy, and conservation-restoration; inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2009 Shimane Prefecture 1969
Washi Tosa-tenguj?shi ()[147][148] A very-fine, strong paper developed around 1900 by Genta Yoshii K?chi Prefecture 2001

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In this article, capitals indicate an official designation as opposed to a simple definition, e.g "Cultural Properties" as opposed to "cultural properties".

References

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External links


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