Irene Angelina
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Irene Angelina

Irene Angelina (Greek: ; c. 1181 - 27 August 1208), was an East Roman princess member of the Angelos dynasty and by her two marriages Queen of Sicily in 1193 and Queen of Germany from 1198 to 1208.

She was the second daughter of Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos and his first wife, an unknown Palaiologina? who became a nun with the name Irene.

Life

Irene was born in Constantinople. Her father Isaac II inaugurated his reign with a decisive victory over the Norman invaders on the Balkans in the 1185 Battle of Demetritzes. In 1193 he and King Tancred of Sicily arranged Irene's marriage with Tancred's eldest son, Roger.[1] Roger was declared co-king, but died on 24 December 1193, shortly before his father's death on 20 February 1194. Sicily was claimed by Tancred's aunt Constance and her husband, Emperor Henry VI. After he had conquered the Sicilian kingdom, Irene was captured on 29 December 1194 and was married on 25 May 1197 to Henry's younger brother, Duke Philip of Swabia.[1] In Germany, she was renamed Maria.

After the Emperor had died on 28 September 1197, Philip was elected King of the Romans in Mühlhausen on 8 March 1198. Queen Irene's father, who had been deposed in 1195, urged her to get Philip's support for his reinstatement; her brother, Alexius, subsequently spent some time at Philip's court during the preparations for the Fourth Crusade. She thus had an early influence on the eventual diversion of the Crusade to Constantinople in 1204. Rivalled by the Welf scion Otto IV, Philip was able to consolidate his rule over the German kingdom. On 21 June 1208, he was killed by the Bavarian Count Palatine Otto VIII of Wittelsbach, leaving Irene widowed a second time.

After the murder of her husband, Irene - who was pregnant at the time - retired to Hohenstaufen Castle. There, two months later on 27 August 1208, she gave birth to another daughter. Both mother and child died shortly afterwards.[1] She was buried in the family mausoleum in the Staufen proprietary monastery of Lorch Abbey, along with her daughter and sons. Her grave was destroyed and cannot be reconstructed.

Issue

Philip and Irene had five daughters:[2]

  • Beatrix (April/June 1198 - 11 August 1212), who married her father's rival, Emperor Otto IV[3] on 22 July 1212 and died three weeks later without issue.
  • Maria (1199/1200 - 29 March 1235), who married the future Duke Henry II of Brabant[4] before 22 August 1215 and had issue.
  • Kunigunde (February/March 1202 - 13 September 1248), who married King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia[3] in 1224 and had issue.
  • Elisabeth (March/May 1205 - 5 November 1235), who married King Ferdinand III of Castile[5] on 30 November 1219 and had issue.
  • Daughter[a] (posthumously born and died 20/27 August 1208). She and her mother died following childbirth complications.

Sources identified two short-lived sons, Reinald and Frederick, also born from the union of Philip and Irene-Maria Angelina, being both buried at Lorch Abbey alongside their mother. However, there were no contemporary sources who could ascertain their existence without doubt.[2]

Legacy

In his poem on King Philip's Magdeburg Christmas celebrations, the minnesinger Walther von der Vogelweide described Irene as rose ane dorn, ein tube sunder gallen (Middle High German for "rose without a thorn, a dove without gall").

Notes

  1. ^ Named Beatrix Posthuma in some articles and genealogical websites;1 however, the primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.

References

  1. ^ a b c Ciggaar 1996, p. 240.
  2. ^ a b Weller 2010, p. 194.
  3. ^ a b Stürner 1992, p. 295.
  4. ^ Baldwin 2014, p. 27.
  5. ^ Alemparte 1986, p. 181.

Sources

  • O city of Byzantium: annals of Niketas Choniates tr. Harry J. Magoulias (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984).
  • Bruno W. Häuptli: IRENE (Angelou) von Byzanz, in: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL), vol. 28, Bautz, Nordhausen 2007, ISBN 978-3-88309-413-7, pp. 858-862.
  • Alemparte, Jaime Ferreiro (1986). "Acercamiento Mutuo de Espana y Alemania". In Martín, Antonio Pérez (ed.). España y Europa, un pasado jurídico común (in Spanish). Cometa S.A.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Alio, Jacqueline (2018). Queens of Sicily 1061-1266. Trinacria (New York).
  • Baldwin, Philip B. (2014). Pope Gregory X and the Crusades. The Boydell Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Ciggaar, Krijna Nelly (1996). Western Travellers to Constantinople: The West and Byzantium, 962-1204. Brill.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Stürner, Wolfgang (1992). Friedrich II:Teil 1 Die Konigscheffschaft in Sizilien un Deutschland 1194-1220 (in German). Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Weller, Tobias (2010). Dynastische Politik (in German). Vienna: Andrea Rzihacek, Renate Spreitzer: Philipp von Schwaben. Beiträge der internationalen Tagung anlässlich seines 800. Todestages, Wien, 29. bis 30. Mai 2008. pp. 193-214.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External links

Irene Angelina
Born: c.1181 Died: 1208
Royal titles
Preceded by
Sibylla of Acerra
Queen consort of Sicily
1193
Served alongside: Sibylla of Acerra
Succeeded by
Sibylla of Acerra
Preceded by
Constance of Sicily
Queen consort of Germany
1198-1208
Succeeded by
Beatrice of Swabia
Preceded by
Constance of Hungary
Duchess consort of Swabia
1197-1208
Succeeded by
Constance of Aragon

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