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Irish Republican Army
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is a name used by various paramilitary organisations in Ireland throughout the 20th and the 21st century. The political movement is dedicated to Irish republicanism, the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic free from British rule. The original Irish Republican Army formed in 1917 from those Irish Volunteers who did not enlist in the British Army during World War I, members of the Irish Citizen Army and others. Irishmen formerly in the British Army returned to Ireland and fought in the Irish War of Independence. During the Irish War of Independence it was the army of the Irish Republic, declared by Dáil Éireann in 1919. Some Irish people dispute the claims of more recently created organisations that insist that they are the only legitimate descendants of the original IRA, often referred to as the "Old IRA" (in contrast to the Provisional IRA).
The playwright and former IRA member Brendan Behan once said that the first issue on any Irish organisation's agenda was "the split". For the IRA, that has often been the case. The first split came after the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921, with supporters of the Treaty forming the nucleus of the National Army of the newly created Irish Free State, while the anti-treaty forces continued to use the name Irish Republican Army. After the end of the Irish Civil War (1922-23), the IRA was around in one form or another for forty years, when it split into the Official IRA and the Provisional IRA in 1969. The latter then had its own breakaways, namely the Real IRA and the Continuity IRA, each claiming to be the true successor of the Army of the Irish Republic.
- The Irish Republican Army (1919-1922) (in later years, known as the "Old IRA"), recognised by the First Dáil as the legitimate army of the Irish Republic in April 1921 and fought the Irish War of Independence. On ratification by the Dáil of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, it split into pro-Treaty forces (the National Army, also known as the Government forces or the Regulars) and anti-Treaty forces (the Republicans, Irregulars or Executive forces) after the Treaty. These two went on to fight the Irish Civil War.
- The Irish Republican Army (1922-1969), the anti-treaty IRA which fought and lost the civil war and which thereafter refused to recognise either the Irish Free State or Northern Ireland, deeming them both to be creations of British imperialism. It existed in one form or another for over 40 years before splitting in 1969.
- The Official IRA (OIRA), the remainder of the IRA after the 1969 split with the Provisionals; was primarily Marxist in its political orientation. It is now inactive in the military sense, while its political wing, Official Sinn Féin, became the Workers' Party of Ireland.
- The Provisional IRA (PIRA) broke from the OIRA in 1969 over abstentionism and how to deal with the increasing violence in Northern Ireland. Although opposed to the OIRA's Marxism, it came to develop a left-wing orientation and increasing political activity.
- The Continuity IRA (CIRA) broke from the PIRA in 1986, because the latter ended its policy on abstentionism (thus recognising the authority of the Republic of Ireland).
- The Real IRA (RIRA), a 1997 breakaway from the PIRA consisting of members opposed to the Northern Ireland peace process.
- In April 2011, former members of the Provisional IRA announced a resumption of hostilities, and that "they had now taken on the mantle of the mainstream IRA." They further claimed "We continue to do so under the name of the Irish Republican Army. We are the IRA." and insisted that they "were entirely separate from the Real IRA, Óglaigh na hÉireann (ONH), and the Continuity IRA." They claimed responsibility for the April assassination of PSNI constable Ronan Kerr as well as responsibility for other attacks that had previously been claimed by the Real IRA and ONH.
- The New IRA, which was formed as a merger between the Real IRA and other republican groups in 2012. (see Real IRA)
Genealogy of the IRA and its splits
This section does not cite any sources
. (December 2008)
Here in more detail is a representation of a genealogical tree of Irish nationalist movements derived from the original IRA:
- Original IRA (the "old IRA") - fought in the War of Independence 1919-1921
- That part of the IRA that accepted the compromise of the 1921 treaty which established the Irish Free State and that became the initial Free State government. Its supporters became the modern-day Fine Gael Party, currently the largest party in the Republic of Ireland. With additional recruits, it became the National Army, later known as the Irish Defence Forces.
- That part of the original IRA organised within Northern Ireland not included within the Free State (see below).
- That part of the IRA, organised within the twenty-six counties that became the Free State, which rejected the compromise of the 1921 treaty with Britain and under Liam Lynch fought the Irish Civil War against the Free State's National Army (led by Michael Collins), with the support of the anti-treaty faction of Sinn Féin, led by Éamon de Valera.
- Some years after losing the Civil War a faction led by de Valera resigned from Sinn Féin and established the Fianna Fáil party in 1926, which is currently the second-largest party in Ireland. (In December 2007, Fianna Fáil was officially registered as a political party in Northern Ireland.)
- In the 1930s, the remainder of the IRA including that part of the Old IRA organised within Northern Ireland, attempted a bombing campaign in Britain, a campaign in Northern Ireland (after a change in leadership to the north) and some military activities in the Free State (later the Republic of Ireland). After a period of poor relations, the symbiotic relationship between Sinn Féin and the IRA was re-established in the late 1930s.
- By the 1960s, after the failed border campaign, Sinn Féin moved towards a Marxist class struggle outlook. With the outbreak of the Troubles, Sinn Féin, or as it came to be called after the formation of the Provisional IRA and Provisional Sinn Féin, Official IRA / Official Sinn Féin found itself sidelined because of its decision not to engage the British state militarily. Over time the Official IRA faded away, while Official Sinn Féin moved to a purely Marxist position, renaming itself first Sinn Féin the Workers Party, and then in 1982 the Workers' Party of Ireland.
- In 1969, the more traditionalist republican members split off into the Provisional IRA and Sinn Féin. The Provisional IRA operated mostly in Northern Ireland, using violence against the Royal Ulster Constabulary and the British Army, and British institutions and economic targets. They also killed members of the Irish Army and the Garda Síochána (the Republic's police force), which was against one of their standing orders.
^ For a diagrammatic version of this, see Genealogy of the Irish Republican Army.
- Cronin, Sean, The Ideology of the IRA (Ann Arbor 1972)
- Hart, Peter, IRA at War 1916-1923 (Oxford 2003)
- Hart, P, The IRA and its Enemies: Violence and Community in Cork 1916-1923 (Oxford 1998)
- Joy, Sinead, The IRA in Kerry 1916-1921 (Cork 2005)
- Liebknecht, Karl, Militarism and Anti-Militarism (1907); an English translation (Cambridge 1973).
- Martin, F.X., (ed.) Irish Volunteers 1913-1915. Recollections and Documents (Dublin 1963)
- O'Ruairc, Padraig Og, Blood on the Banner: The Republican Struggle in Clare 1913-1923 (Cork 2009)
- Ryan, Meda, Tom Barry: IRA Freedom Fighter (Cork 2005)
- Townshend, Charles, 'The Irish Republican Army and the Development of Guerrilla Warfare 1916-21', English Historical Review 94 (1971), pp. 318-345.
- W?, With the IRA in the Fight For Freedom (London 1968)
- Nolan, Cillian, The IRA True History 1922-1969 (Kerry 1985)