It is located at the intersection of the two principal north-south and east-west routes that traverse Iran. Isfahan flourished between the 9th and 18th centuries under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history under Shah Abbas the Great. The city retains much of its history. It is famous for its Perso-Islamic architecture, grand boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, tiled mosques, and minarets. Isfahan also has many historical buildings, monuments, paintings, and artifacts. The fame of Isfahan led to the Persian proverb "Esfah?n nesf-e-jah?n ast": Isfahan is half (of) the world. The Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan is one of the largest city squares in the world. UNESCO has designated it a World Heritage Site.
Isfahan is derived from Middle PersianSpah?n. Spah?n is attested in various Middle Persian seals and inscriptions, including that of the ZoroastrianmagiKartir, and is also the Armenian name of the city (). The present-day name is the Arabicized form of Ispahan (unlike Middle Persian but similar to Spanish, New Persian does not allow initial consonant clusters such as sp). The region appears with the abbreviation GD (Southern Media) on Sasanian numismatics. In Ptolemy's Geographia, it appears as Aspadana (), translating to "place of gathering for the army". It is believed that Spah?n derives from sp?d?n?m "the armies", Old Persian plural of sp?da, from which derives sp?h (?) 'army' and spahi (, 'soldier', literally 'of the army') in Middle Persian.
Some of the other ancient names include Gey, Jey (old form Zi), Park, and Judea.
What became the city of Isfahan likely emerged and gradually developed over the course of the Elamite civilisation (2700-1600 BCE).
Under Median rule, a commercial entrepôt began to show signs of more sedentary urbanism, steadily growing into a noteworthy regional center that benefited from the exceptionally fertile soil on the banks of the Zayandehrud River in a region called Aspandana or Ispandana.
Once Cyrus the Great had unified Persian and Median lands into the Achaemenid Empire, the religiously and ethnically diverse city of Isfahan became an early example of the king's fabled religious tolerance. It was Cyrus who, having just taken Babylon, made an edict in 538 BCE, declaring that the Jews in Babylon could return to Jerusalem. Nowadays, some of the freed Jews settled in Isfahan instead of returning to their homeland. The 10th-century Persian historian Ibn al-Faqih wrote:
When the Jews emigrated from Jerusalem, fleeing from Nebuchadnezzar, they carried with them a sample of the water and soil of Jerusalem. They did not settle down anywhere or in any city without examining each place's water and the soil. They did all along until they reached the city of Isfahan. There they rested, examined the water and soil, and found that both resembled Jerusalem. Thereupon they settled there, cultivated the soil, raised children and grandchildren, and today the name of this settlement is Yahudia.
The Parthians, in the period 247 BCE-224 CE, continued the tradition of tolerance after the fall of the Achaemenids, fostering the Hellenistic dimension within Iranian culture and the political organization introduced by Alexander the Great's invading armies. Under the Parthians, Arsacid governors administered the provinces of the nation from Isfahan, and the city's urban development accelerated to accommodate the needs of a capital city.
Isfahan at the end of the 6th century (top), consisting of two separate areas of Sassanid Jay and Jewish Yahudia. In the 11th century (bottom), these two areas were completely merged.
The next empire to rule Persia, the Sassanids (224 CE-651 CE), presided over massive changes in their realm, instituting sweeping agricultural reform and reviving Iranian culture and the Zoroastrian religion. Both the city and region were then called by the name Aspahan or Spahan. The city was governed by a group called the Espoohrans, who came from seven noble and important Iranian royal families. Extant foundations of some Sassanid-era bridges in Isfahan suggest that the Sasanian kings were fond of ambitious urban planning projects. While Isfahan's political importance declined during the period, many Sassanid princes would study statecraft in the city, and its military role developed rapidly. Its strategic location at the intersection of the ancient roads to Susa and Persepolis made it an ideal candidate to house a standing army, ready to march against Constantinople at any moment. The words 'Aspahan' and 'Spahan' are derived from the Pahlavi or Middle Persian meaning 'the place of the army'. Although many theories have been mentioned about the origin of Isfahan, in fact little is known of it before the rule of the Sasanian dynasty (c. 224-c. 651 CE). The historical facts suggest that in the late 4th and early 5th centuries, Queen Shushandukht, the Jewish consort of Yazdegerd I (reigned 399-420) settled a colony of Jews in Yahudiyyeh (also spelled Yahudiya), a settlement 3 km northwest of the Zoroastrian city of Gabae (its Achaemid and Parthian name; Gabai was its Sasanic name, which was shortened to Gay (Arabic 'Jay') that was located on the northern bank of the Zayanderud River(colony's establishment also attributed to Nebuchadrezzar though it's less unlikely). The gradual population decrease of Gay (Jay) and the simultaneous population increase of Yahudiyyeh and its suburbs after the Islamic conquest of Iran resulted in the formation of the nucleus of what was to become the city of Isfahan. The words "Aspadana", "Ispadana", "Spahan" and "Sepahan", all from which the word Isfahan is derived, referred to the region in which the city was located.
Isfahan and Gay were both circular in design, a characteristic of Parthian and Sasanian cities. However, this reported Sasanian circular city of Isfahan is not uncovered yet.
Isfahan, capital of the Kingdom of Persia
Pont Alla from Voyage to the Levant, Guillaume Cavelier, 1714.
When the Arabs captured Isfahan in 642, they made it the capital of al-Jibal ("the Mountains") province, an area that covered much of ancient Media. Isfahan grew prosperous under the Persian Buyid (Buwayhid) dynasty, which rose to power and ruled much of Iran when the temporal authority of the Abbasid caliphs waned in the 10th century. The city walls of Isfahan are thought to have been constructed during the reign of the Buyid amirs during the tenth century. The Turkish conqueror and founder of the Seljuq dynasty, Toghril Beg, made Isfahan the capital of his domains in the mid-11th century; but it was under his grandson Malik-Shah I (r. 1073-92) that the city grew in size and splendour.
After the fall of the Seljuqs (c. 1200), Isfahan temporarily declined and was eclipsed by other Iranian cities such as Tabriz and Qazvin. During his visit in 1327, Ibn Battuta noted that "The city of Isfahan is one of the largest and fairest of cities, but it is now in ruins for the greater part."
In 1387, Isfahan surrendered to the Turko-Mongol warlord Timur. Initially treated with relative mercy, the city revolted against Timur's punitive taxes by killing the tax collectors and some of Timur's soldiers. In retribution, Timur ordered the massacre of the city residents, and his soldiers killed a reported 70,000 citizens. An eye-witness counted more than 28 towers, each constructed of about 1,500 heads.
Isfahan regained its importance during the Safavid period (1501-1736). The city's golden age began in 1598 when the Safavid ruler Abbas I of Persia (reigned 1588-1629) made it his capital and rebuilt it into one of the largest and most beautiful cities in the 17th-century world. In 1598 Abbas I moved his capital from Qazvin to the more central Isfahan. He introduced policies to develop Iranian involvement in the Silk Road trade.Turkish, Armenian and Persian craftsmen were forcefully resettled in the city to ensure its prosperity. Their contributions to the economic vitality of the revitalized city supported the recovery of Safavid glory and prestige after earlier losses to the Ottomans and K?z?lba? tribes, ushering in a golden age for the city when architecture and Persian culture flourished.
As part of Abbas's forced resettlement of peoples from within his empire, as many as 300,000 Armenians (primarily from Jugha) were resettled in Isfahan during Abbas' reign.) In Isfahan, he ordered the foundation of a new quarter for these resettled Armenians from Old Julfa, and thus the Armenian Quarter of Isfahan was named New Julfa (today one of the largest Armenian quarters in the world).
In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of deportees and migrants from the Caucasus settled in the city. Following an agreement between Shah Abbas I and his Georgian subject Teimuraz I of Kakheti ("Tahmuras Khan"), whereby the latter submitted to Safavid rule in exchange for being allowed to rule as the region's w?li (governor) and for having his son serve as d?ru?a ("prefect") of Isfahan in perpetuity, the Georgian prince converted to Islam and served as governor. He was accompanied by a troop of soldiers, some of whom were Georgian Orthodox Christians. The royal court in Isfahan had a great number of Georgian ?ol?ms (military slaves), as well as Georgian women. Although they spoke both Persian and Turkic, their mother tongue was Georgian. So now the city had enclaves of Georgian, Circassian, and Daghistani descent. Engelbert Kaempfer, who dwelt in Safavid Persia in 1684-85, estimated their number at 20,000.
During Abbas's reign, Isfahan became very famous in Europe, and many European travellers made an account of their visit to the city, such as Jean Chardin. This prosperity lasted until it was sacked by Afghan invaders in 1722 during a marked decline in Safavid influence. Thereafter, Isfahan experienced a decline in importance, culminating in a move of the capital to Mashhad and Shiraz during the Afsharid and Zand periods respectively, until it was finally moved to Tehran in 1775 by Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar dynasty.
In the early years of the 19th century, efforts were made to preserve some of Isfahan's archeologically important buildings. The work was started by Mohammad Hossein Khan during the reign of Fath Ali Shah.
In the 20th century, Isfahan was resettled by many people from southern Iran, firstly during the population migrations at the start of the century, and again in the 1980s following the Iran-Iraq War. During the war, 23,000 were killed by Isfahan and there were 43,000 veterans.
Today, Isfahan produces fine carpets, textiles, steel, handicrafts, and traditional foods including sweets. There are nuclear experimental reactors as well as facilities for producing nuclear fuel (UCF) within the environs of the city. Isfahan has one of the largest steel-producing facilities in the region, as well as facilities for producing special alloys. Mobarakeh Steel Company is the biggest steel producer in the whole of the Middle East and Northern Africa, and it is the biggest DRI producer in the world. The Isfahan Steel Company was the first manufacturer of constructional steel products in Iran, and it remains the largest such company today.
There is a major oil refinery and a large air-force base outside the city. HESA, Iran's most advanced aircraft manufacturing plant, is located just outside the city. Isfahan is also attracting international investment.
Isfahan hosted the International Physics Olympiad in 2007. 2020 Iran-Qatar Joint Economic Commission met in the city.
1972 to 2009 abundance percentage of years of drought and wet periods data isfahan atlas
The city is located in the lush plains of the Zayanderud River at the foothills of the Zagros mountain range. The nearest mountain is Mount Soffeh (Kuh-e Soffeh), just south of the city.
There is an artificial network of canals whose components are called Madi which were built during the rule of Safavid dynasty for water channeling from "Zaayaandeh Roud" river into different parts of the city. Designed by Sheikh Bahaï, an engineer of Shah Abbas, this network has 77 madis on the northern part, and 71 on the southern part of Zayandeh Roud. In 1993, this centuries-old network provided 91% of agricultural water needs, 4% of industrial needs, and 5% of city needs.
70 emergency wells were dug in 2018 to avoid water shortages.
The dry Zayanderud river with Si-o-se-pol in the background in 2018.
Towns and villages around Isfahan have been hit so hard by drought and water diversion that they have emptied out and people who lived there have moved.
An anonymous journalist said that what's called drought is more often the mismanagement of water. Subsidence rate is dire and decreases by one meter in aquifer level annually.
As of 2020 the city had the worst air quality between major Iranian cities.
Situated at 1,590 metres (5,217 ft) above sea level on the eastern side of the Zagros Mountains, Isfahan has a cold desert climate (KöppenBWk). No geological obstacles exist within 90 kilometres (56 miles) north of Isfahan, allowing cool winds to blow from this direction. Despite its altitude, Isfahan remains hot during the summer, with maxima typically around 35 °C (95 °F). However, with low humidity and moderate temperatures at night, the climate is quite pleasant. During the winter, days are cool while nights can be very cold. Snow falls an average of 7.8 days each winter. The Zayande River starts in the Zagros Mountains, flowing from the west through the heart of the city, then dissipates in the Gavkhouniwetland. Planting olive trees in the city is economically viable because it is compatible with water shortages.
Climate data for Isfahan (1961-1990, extremes 1951-2010)
Isfahan international convention center is under construction.
The Isfahan annual literature prize began in 2004. New Art Paradise built in District 6 in 2019 has the biggest open amphitheatre in the country. Since 2005, November 22 is Isfahan's National Day commemorated with various events.
Based on a statue creator's symposium in 2020, the city decided to add 11 permanent art pieces to the city's monuments. Ancient traditions included Tirgan, Sepand?rmazg?n festivals, and historically, men used to wear Kolah namadi. The Isfahan School of painting flourished during the Safavid era. The Esfahan province annual theatre festival is in this city. Theater performances began in 1919 (1297 AH), and currently, there are 9 active theaters.
Atlas for Isfahan Megacity is an internet service for data and statistics in Farsi made available in 2015.IRIB has a TV network and Radio channel in the city.
During the Qajar era, Farhang, the first newspaper publication in the city, was printed for 13 years. Iran Metropolises News Agency (IMNA) formerly called Isfahan Municipality News Agency is based in the city.
Philosophy and Islamic school
Some major philosophers include Mir Damad, known for his concepts of time and nature, as well as founding the School of Isfahan, and Mir Fendereski, who was known for his examination of art and philosophy within a society.
Persian pottery from the city Isfahan, 17th century
The bridges on the Zayanderud river comprise some of the finest architecture in Isfahan. The oldest bridge is the Shahrestan bridge, whose foundations were built by the Sasanian Empire (3rd-7th century Sassanid era); it was repaired during the Seljuk period. Further upstream is the Khaju bridge, which Shah Abbas II built in 1650. It is 123 metres (404 feet) long with 24 arches, and also serves as a sluice gate.
Another bridge is the Choobi (Joui) bridge, which was originally an aqueduct to supply the palace gardens on the north bank of the river. Further upstream again is the Si-o-Seh Pol or bridge of 33 arches. The building was built during the reign of Shah Abbas the Great by Sheikh Baha'i and connected Isfahan with the Armenian suburbs of New Jolfa. Armenian suburb of New Julfa. It is by far the longest bridge in Isfahan at 295 m (967.85 ft).
In 2014, Isfahan province industry, mines and commerce accounted for 35% to 50% (almost $229 billion) of Iranian Gross Domestic Product. Isfahan province's governorate in 2019 said that tourism is number one priority. According to Esfahan province's Administrator for Department of Cooperatives, Labour, and Social Welfare, Iran has cheapest labor workforce anywhere in the world and this low wage attracts foreign investors. Unemployment rate was 15% by 2018.
Isfahan University of Technology is one of Iran's most prestigious engineering universities and focuses on science, engineering, and agriculture programs.
The labor force shows a continuous growth in the last three decades.
There are almost 500,000 people living in slums, including in the northern part and especially eastern sector of the city.Isfahan Fair, a 22 hectare exhibition center aimed at increasing tourism, is under construction.Esfahan Province Electricity Distribution Company [fa] built in 1992 maintains powergrid expansion in the city. As of September 2020, handicrafts of Isfahan Province makes annual $500 million. Municipality has made an internet payment software.
Aquaculture and agriculture
Isfahan city is one of the active cities in this field with the production of 1,300 tons of salmon. More than 28% of the country's ornamental fish is produced in Isfahan province and 780 units are active in the field of ornamental fish production, which in 2017 produced 65 million and 500 thousand pieces of ornamental fish in Isfahan province.
Opium was produced and exported in Isfahan from 1850 until it became illegal and was an important source of income. Isfahan has a large number of aqueducts, Farmers had to divert water from the river to farms by canal. Niasarm is one of the biggest water canals.
From 2012 to 2013 there have been large protests against Isfahan-Yazd water tunnel by farmers, In 2019, eastern city farmers demanded water otherwise they'd sabotage water transfer pipes.
Fruits and vegetables central market is where farmers sell their product wholesale buying 10,000 tons farmers product a day.
High tech and heavy industries
The industrialization of Isfahan dates from the Pahlavi period as in all of Iran, and was marked by the strong growth at that time of the textile industry; which earned the city the nickname " Manchester of Persia". There are 9,200 industrial units in the city %40 of Iranian textile industry is in Isfahan.
Telecommunication Company of Iran and Mobile Telecommunication Company of Iran provide 4G, 3G, broadband, and VDSL.
Isfahan Scientific and Research Town started its executive activity in 2001 for acting as a medium between government, industry and academia toward a knowledge-based economy.
It is also the third-largest medicine manufacturing hub in Iran.
There are also more than 50 technical and vocational training centres in the province under the administration of Esfahan TVTO, which provide free, non-formal workforce skills training programs.
As of 2020, 90% of workforce skills trainees are women.
Old building of Isfahan city hall
Map of Isfahan's operational BRT lines
Map of Isfahan's operational metro lines
Snapp! and Tapsi are two of the carpooling apps in the city.
There are 42 bicycle sharing stations and 150 kilometers bicycle pavements built by the city. As a part of Iran's religious laws, women are forbidden to use the public bicycle-sharing network, as decreed by the representative of the Supreme Leader in Isfahan Ayatollah Yousef Tabatabai Nejad and General Attorney Ali Esfahani.
An old master of hand-printed carpets in Isfahan bazaar
Over the past decade, Isfahan's internal highway network has been undergoing a major expansion. Much care has been taken to prevent damage to valuable, historical buildings. Modern freeways connect the city to Iran's other major cities, including the capital Tehran (400 km) to the north and Shiraz (200 km) to the south. Highways also service satellite cities surrounding the metropolitan area.
The Isfahan Metro was opened on 15 October 2015. It currently consists of one nort-south line of a length of 11 km, but two more lines are currently under construction, alongside three suburban rail lines.
Tourism logo by Isfahan Province Chamber of commerce
In 2019-2018 some 450,000 foreign nationals visited the city.Some 110 trillion rials (over $2 billion at the official rate of 42,000 rials (2020) have been invested in the province's tourism sector.
The central historical area in Isfahan is called Seeosepol.
The chairman of the city council is Alireza Nasrisfahani,There is also the Leadership council within city council. and the mayor is Ghodratollah Noroozi. Representative for supreme leader and representative for Isfahan in Assembly of Experts is Yousef Tabatabai Nejad. The city's divided into 15 municipal districts.In 2020, Municipality employed 6,250 people with additional 3,000 people in 16 subsidiaries.
Coloring theme for the city has been Turquoise for a period of time.
City waste is processed and recycled in Isfahan Waste Complex.
Esfahan water & wastewater Organization [fa] is responsible for piping operation, network installation, preventive maintenance, repairing waterworks, wastewater equipment, supervising wastewater collection and treatment and disposal in the city.
Municipality created a document in 2020 outlining future development program for the city.
Human resources and public health
As of June 2020, 65% of the population of Isfahan province has had social security insurance .
Isfahan is known as the Multiple sclerosis capital of the world due to the presence of polluting industries.
In 2015, with the cut-off of the Zayandehrood River, almost 15% of people suffered from depression.
^ abAslanian, Sebouh (2011). From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa. California: University of California Press. p. 1. ISBN978-0520947573.
^tradition, Kimia RaghebiBeing exposed to the brilliant Iranian; Monuments, Historical; literature, artistic artifacts throughout my life has always thrilled me Traces of such joyful fascination have become more tangible in me ever since I. chose; traveling, creative writing as my profession So here I. am; experiencing; enjoying; Lens!, Jotting down Every Bit of Them All for You to Sense Its Magical Wonder Through My (25 December 2019). "Iran's Delicious Food Destinations". Visit Our Iran - Discover Iran. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 2020.