J%C5%8Ddo Shinsh%C5%AB
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J%C5%8Ddo Shinsh%C5%AB

J?do Shinsh? (?, "The True Essence of the Pure Land Teaching"[1]), also known as Shin Buddhism or True Pure Land Buddhism, is a school of Pure Land Buddhism. It was founded by the former Tendai Japanese monk Shinran. Shin Buddhism is considered the most widely practiced branch of Buddhism in Japan.


Shinran (founder)

Standing portrait of the founder of the J?do Shinsh? school of Pure Land Buddhism located at Nishi Honganji, Kyoto. The painting has been designated as National Treasure of Japan

Shinran (1173-1263) lived during the late Heian to early Kamakura period (1185-1333), a time of turmoil for Japan when the emperor was stripped of political power by the sh?guns. Shinran's family had a high rank at the Imperial court in Kyoto, but given the times, many aristocratic families were sending sons off to be Buddhist monks instead of having them participate in the Imperial government. When Shinran was nine (1181), he was sent by his uncle to Mount Hiei, where he was ordained as a ?r?ma?era in the Tendai sect. Over time, Shinran became disillusioned with how Buddhism was practiced, foreseeing a decline in the potency and practicality of the teachings espoused.

Shinran left his role as a dos? ("practice-hall monk") at Mount Hiei and undertook a 100-day retreat at Rokkaku-d? in Kyoto, where he had a dream on the 95th day. In this dream, Prince Sh?toku appeared to him, espousing a pathway to enlightenment through verse. Following the retreat, in 1201, Shinran left Mount Hiei to study under H?nen for the next six years. H?nen (1133-1212) another ex-Tendai monk, left the tradition in 1175 to found his own sect, the J?do-sh? or "Pure Land School". From that time on, Shinran considered himself, even after exile, a devout disciple of H?nen rather than a founder establishing his own, distinct Pure Land school.

During this period, H?nen taught the new nembutsu-only practice to many people in Kyoto society and amassed a substantial following but also came under increasing criticism by the Buddhist establishment there. Among his strongest critics was the monk My?e and the temples of Enryaku-ji and K?fuku-ji. The latter continued to criticize H?nen and his followers even after they pledged to behave with good conduct and to not slander other Buddhists.[2]

In 1207, H?nen's critics at K?fuku-ji persuaded Emperor Toba II to forbid H?nen and his teachings after two of Imperial ladies-in-waiting converted to his practices.[2] H?nen and his followers, among them Shinran, were forced into exile and four of H?nen's disciples were executed. Shinran was given a lay name, Yoshizane Fujii, by the authorities but called himself Gutoku "Stubble-headed One" instead and moved to Echigo Province (today Niigata Prefecture).[3]

It was during this exile that Shinran cultivated a deeper understanding of his own beliefs based on H?nen's Pure Land teachings. In 1210 he married Eshinni, the daughter of an Echigo aristocrat. Shinran and Eshinni had several children. His eldest son, Zenran, was alleged to have started a heretical sect of Pure Land Buddhism through claims that he received special teachings from his father. Zenran demanded control of local monto (lay follower groups), but after writing a stern letter of warning, Shinran disowned him in 1256, effectively ending Zenran's legitimacy.

In 1211 the nembutsu ban was lifted and Shinran was pardoned, but by 1212, H?nen had died in Kyoto. Shinran never saw H?nen following their exile. In the year of H?nen's death, Shinran set out for the Kant? region, where he established a substantial following and began committing his ideas to writing. In 1224 he wrote his most significant book, the Kyogyoshinsho ("The True Teaching, Practice, Faith and Attainment of the Pure Land"), which contained excerpts from the Three Pure Land sutras and the Mah?y?na Mah?parinirva S?tra along with his own commentaries[3] and the writings of the Jodo Shinshu Patriarchs Shinran drew inspiration from.

In 1234, at the age of sixty, Shinran left Kant? for Kyoto (Eshinni stayed in Echigo and she may have outlived Shinran by several years), where he dedicated the rest of his years to writing. It was during this time he wrote the Wasan, a collection of verses summarizing his teachings for his followers to recite.

Shinran's daughter, Kakushinni, came to Kyoto with Shinran, and cared for him in his final years and his mausoleum later became Hongan-ji, "Temple of the Original Vow". Kakushinni was instrumental in preserving Shinran's teachings after his death, and the letters she received and saved from her mother, Eshinni, provide critical biographical information regarding Shinran's earlier life. These letters are currently preserved in the Nishi Hongan temple in Kyoto. Shinran died at the age of 90 in 1263.[3]

Revival and formalization

Following Shinran's death, the lay Shin monto slowly spread through the Kant? and the northeastern seaboard. Shinran's descendants maintained themselves as caretakers of Shinran's gravesite and as Shin teachers, although they continued to be ordained in the Tendai School. Some of Shinran's disciples founded their own schools of Shin Buddhism, such as the Bukko-ji and Kosho-ji, in Kyoto. Early Shin Buddhism did not truly flourish until the time of Rennyo (1415-1499), who was 8th in descent from Shinran. Through his charisma and proselytizing, Shin Buddhism was able to amass a greater following and grow in strength. In the 16th-century, during the Sengoku period the political power of Honganji led to several conflicts between it and the warlord Oda Nobunaga, culminating in a ten-year conflict over the location of the Ishiyama Hongan-ji, which Nobunaga coveted because of its strategic value. So strong did the sect become that in 1602, through mandate of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main temple Hongan-ji in Kyoto was broken off into two sects to curb its power. These two sects, the Nishi (Western) Honganji and the Higashi (Eastern) Honganji, exist separately to this day.

During the time of Shinran, followers would gather in informal meeting houses called dojo, and had an informal liturgical structure. However, as time went on, this lack of cohesion and structure caused J?do Shinsh? to gradually lose its identity as a distinct sect, as people began mixing other Buddhist practices with Shin ritual. One common example was the Mantra of Light popularized by My?e and Shingon Buddhism. Other Pure Land Buddhist practices, such as the nembutsu odori[4] or "dancing nembutsu" as practiced by the followers of Ippen and the Ji School, may have also been adopted by early Shin Buddhists. Rennyo ended these practices by formalizing much of the J?do Shinsh? ritual and liturgy, and revived the thinning community at the Honganji temple while asserting newfound political power. Rennyo also proselytized widely among other Pure Land sects and consolidated most of the smaller Shin sects. Today, there are still ten distinct sects of J?do Shinsh?, Nishi Hongan-ji and Higashi Hongan-ji being the two largest.

Rennyo is generally credited by Shin Buddhists for reversing the stagnation of the early J?do Shinsh? community, and is considered the "Second Founder" of J?do Shinsh?. His portrait picture, along with Shinran's, are present on the onaijin (altar area) of most J?do Shinsh? temples. However, Rennyo has also been criticized by some Shin scholars for his engagement in medieval politics and his alleged divergences from Shinran's original thought. After Rennyo, Shin Buddhism was still persecuted in some regions. Secret Shin groups called kakure nenbutsu would meet in mountain caves to perform chanting and traditional rituals.

Following the unification of Japan during the Edo period, J?do Shinsh? Buddhism adapted, along with the other Japanese Buddhist schools, into providing memorial and funeral services for its registered members under the Danka system, which was legally required by the Tokugawa shogunate in order to prevent the spread of Christianity in Japan. The danka seido system continues to exist today, although not as strictly as in the premodern period, causing Japanese Buddhism to also be labeled as "Funeral Buddhism" since it became the primary function of Buddhist temples. The Honganji also created an impressive academic tradition, which led to the founding of Ryukoku University in Kyoto and formalized many of the J?do Shinsh? traditions which are still followed today.

Following the Meiji Restoration and the subsequent persecution of Buddhism (haibutsu kishaku) of the late 1800s due to a revived nationalism and modernization, J?do Shinsh? managed to survive intact due to the devotion of its monto. During World War II, the Honganji, as with the other Japanese Buddhist schools, was compelled to support the policies of the military government and the cult of State Shinto. It subsequently apologized for its wartime actions.[5]

In contemporary times, J?do Shinsh? is one of the most widely followed forms of Buddhism in Japan, although like other schools, it faces challenges from many popular Japanese new religions or shinsh?ky? which emerged following World War II as well as from the growing secularization and materialism of Japanese society.

All ten schools of J?do Shinsh? Buddhism commemorated the 750th memorial of their founder, Shinran, in 2011 in Kyoto.


Shinran's thought was strongly influenced by the doctrine of Mapp?, a largely Mahayana eschatology which claims humanity's ability to listen to and practice the Buddhist teachings deteriorates over time and loses effectiveness in bringing individual practitioners closer to Buddhahood. This belief was particularly widespread in early medieval China and in Japan at the end of the Heian. Shinran, like his mentor H?nen, saw the age he was living in as being a degenerate one where beings cannot hope to be able to extricate themselves from the cycle of birth and death through their own power, or jiriki (). For both H?nen and Shinran, all conscious efforts towards achieving enlightenment and realizing the Bodhisattva ideal were contrived and rooted in selfish ignorance; for humans of this age are so deeply rooted in karmic evil as to be incapable of developing the truly altruistic compassion that is requisite to becoming a Bodhisattva.

Due to his awareness of human limitations, Shinran advocates reliance on tariki, or other power ()--the power of Amit?bha (Japanese Amida) made manifest in his Primal Vow--in order to attain liberation. Shin Buddhism can therefore be understood as a "practiceless practice", for there are no specific acts to be performed such as there are in the "Path of Sages". In Shinran's own words, Shin Buddhism is considered the "Easy Path" because one is not compelled to perform many difficult, and often esoteric, practices in order to attain higher and higher mental states.


As in other Pure Land Buddhist schools, Amit?bha is a central focus of the Buddhist practice, and J?do Shinsh? expresses this devotion through a chanting practice called nembutsu, or "Mindfulness of the Buddha [Amida]". The nembutsu is simply reciting the phrase Namu Amida Butsu ("I take refuge in Amit?bha Buddha"). J?do Shinsh? is not the first school of Buddhism to practice the nembutsu but it is interpreted in a new way according to Shinran. The nembutsu becomes understood as an act that expresses gratitude to Amit?bha; furthermore, it is evoked in the practitioner through the power of Amida's unobstructed compassion. Therefore, in Shin Buddhism, the nembutsu is not considered a practice, nor does it generate karmic merit. It is simply an affirmation of one's gratitude. Indeed, given that the nembutsu is the Name, when one utters the Name, that is Amit?bha calling to the devotee. This is the essence of the Name-that-calls.[6]

Note that this is in contrast to the related J?do-sh?, which promoted a combination of repetition of the nembutsu and devotion to Amit?bha as a means to birth in his pure land of Sukhavati. It also contrasts with other Buddhist schools in China and Japan, where nembutsu recitation was part of a more elaborate ritual.

The Pure Land

In another departure from more traditional Pure Land schools, Shinran advocated that birth in the Pure Land was settled in the midst of life. At the moment one entrusts oneself to Amit?bha, one becomes "established in the stage of the truly settled". This is equivalent to the stage of non-retrogression along the bodhisattva path.

Many Pure Land Buddhist schools in the time of Shinran felt that birth in the Pure Land was a literal rebirth that occurred only upon death, and only after certain preliminary rituals. Elaborate rituals were used to guarantee rebirth in the Pure Land, including a common practice wherein the fingers were tied by strings to a painting or image of Amida Buddha. From the perspective of J?do Shinsh? such rituals actually betray a lack of trust in Amida Buddha, relying on jiriki ("self-power"), rather than the tariki or "other-power" of Amida Buddha. Such rituals also favor those who could afford the time and energy to practice them or possess the necessary ritual objects--another obstacle for lower-class individuals. For Shinran Shonin, who closely followed the thought of the Chinese monk Tan-luan, the Pure Land is synonymous with nirvana.


The goal of the Shin path, or at least the practicer's present life, is the attainment of shinjin in the Other Power of Amida. Shinjin is sometimes translated as "faith", but this does not capture the nuances of the term and it is more often simply left untranslated.[7] The receipt of shinjin comes about through the renunciation of self-effort in attaining enlightenment through tariki. Shinjin arises from jinen ( naturalness, spontaneous working of the Vow) and cannot be achieved solely through conscious effort. One is letting go of conscious effort in a sense, and simply trusting Amida Buddha, and the nembutsu.

For J?do Shinsh? practitioners, shinjin develops over time through "deep hearing" (monpo) of Amit?bha's call of the nembutsu. According to Shinran, "to hear" means "that sentient beings, having heard how the Buddha's Vow arose--its origin and fulfillment--are altogether free of doubt."[8]Jinen also describes the way of naturalness whereby Amit?bha's infinite light illumines and transforms the deeply rooted karmic evil of countless rebirths into good karma. It is of note that such evil karma is not destroyed but rather transformed: Shin stays within the Mahayana tradition's understanding of nyat? and understands that samsara and nirvana are not separate. Once the practitioner's mind is united with Amit?bha and Buddha-nature gifted to the practitioner through shinjin, the practitioner attains the state of non-retrogression, whereupon after his death it is claimed he will achieve instantaneous and effortless enlightenment. He will then return to the world as a Bodhisattva, that he may work towards the salvation of all beings.


The Tannish? is a 13th-century book of recorded sayings attributed to Shinran, transcribed with commentary by Yuien-bo, a disciple of Shinran. The word Tannish? is a phrase which means "A record [of the words of Shinran] set down in lamentation over departures from his [Shinran's] teaching". While it is a short text, it is one of the most popular because practitioners see Shinran in a more informal setting.

For centuries, the text was almost unknown to the majority of Shin Buddhists. In the 15th century, Rennyo, Shinran's descendant, wrote of it, "This writing is an important one in our tradition. It should not be indiscriminately shown to anyone who lacks the past karmic good". Rennyo Shonin's personal copy of the Tannish? is the earliest extant copy. Kiyozawa Manshi (1863-1903) revitalized interest in the Tannish?, which indirectly helped to spawn the Ohigashi schism of 1962.[3]

In Japanese culture

Earlier schools of Buddhism that came to Japan, including Tendai and Shingon Buddhism, gained acceptance because of honji suijaku practices. For example, a kami could be seen as a manifestation of a bodhisattva. It is common even to this day to have Shinto shrines within the grounds of Buddhist temples.

By contrast, Shinran had distanced J?do Shinsh? from Shinto because he believed that many Shinto practices contradicted the notion of reliance on Amit?bha. However, Shinran taught that his followers should still continue to worship and express gratitude to kami, other buddhas and bodhisattvas despite the fact that Amit?bha should be the primary buddha that Pure Land believers focus on. [9] Furthermore, under the influence of Rennyo and other priests, J?do Shinsh? later fully accepted honji suijaku beliefs and the concept of kami as manifestations of Amida Buddha and other buddhas and bodhisattvas.[10]

J?do Shinsh? traditionally had an uneasy relationship with other Buddhist schools because it discouraged the majority of traditional Buddhist practices except for the nembutsu. Relations were particularly hostile between the J?do Shinsh? and Nichiren Buddhism. On the other hand, newer Buddhist schools in Japan, such as Zen, tended to have a more positive relationship and occasionally shared practices, although this is still controversial. In popular lore, Rennyo, the 8th Head Priest of the Hongan-ji sect, was good friends with the famous Zen master Ikky?.

J?do Shinsh? drew much of its support from lower social classes in Japan who could not devote the time or education to other esoteric Buddhist practices or merit-making activities.

Outside Japan

During the 19th century, Japanese immigrants began arriving in Hawaii, the United States, Canada, Mexico and South America (especially in Brazil). Many immigrants to North America came from regions in which J?do Shinsh? was predominant, and maintained their religious identity in their new country. The Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii, the Buddhist Churches of America and the Jodo Shinshu Buddhist Temples of Canada (formerly Buddhist Churches of Canada) are several of the oldest Buddhist organizations outside of Asia. J?do Shinsh? continues to remain relatively unknown outside the ethnic community because of the history of Japanese American and Japanese-Canadian internment during World War II, which caused many Shin temples to focus on rebuilding the Japanese-American Shin sangha rather than encourage outreach to non-Japanese. Today, many Shinsh? temples outside Japan continue to have predominantly ethnic Japanese members, although interest in Buddhism and intermarriage contribute to a more diverse community. There are also active J?do Shinsh? sanghas in the United Kingdom,[11]Europe, Australia, and Africa, with members of diverse ethnicities.[]

The practice of J?do Shinsh? ritual and liturgy may be very different outside Japan, as many temples, like ones in Hawai'i and the US, now use English as the primary language for Dharma talks and there are attempts to create an English-language chanting liturgy. In the United States, J?do Shinsh? temples have also served as refuges from racism and as places to learn about and celebrate Japanese language and culture.

Shin patriarchs

Jodo shinshu buddhist altar with the Seven Masters enshrined.

The "Seven Patriarchs of J?do Shinsh?" are seven Buddhist monks venerated in the development of Pure Land Buddhism as summarized in the J?do Shinsh? hymn Shoshinge. Shinran quoted the writings and commentaries of the Patriarchs in his major work, the Kyogyoshinsho, to bolster his teachings.

The Seven Patriarchs, in chronological order, and their contributions are:[12][13][14][15]

Name Dates Japanese Name Country of Origin Contribution
Nagarjuna 150-250 Ry?ju () India First one to advocate the Pure Land as a valid Buddhist path.
Vasubandhu ca. 4th century Tenjin () or Seshin () India Expanded on Nagarjuna's Pure Land teachings, commentaries on Pure Land sutras.
Tan-luan 476-542(?) Donran () China Developed the six-syllable nembutsu chant commonly recited, emphasized the role of Amitabha Buddha's vow to rescue all beings.
Daochuo 562-645 D?shaku () China Promoted the concept of "easy path" of the Pure Land in comparison to the tradition "path of the sages". Taught the efficacy of the Pure Land path in the latter age of the Dharma.
Shandao 613-681 Zend? () China Stressed the importance of verbal recitation of Amitabha Buddha's name.
Genshin 942-1017 Genshin () Japan Popularized Pure Land practices for the common people, with emphasis on salvation.
H?nen 1133-1212 H?nen () Japan Developed a specific school of Buddhism devoted solely to rebirth in the Pure Land, further popularised recitation of name of Amitabha Buddha in order to attain rebirth in the Pure Land.

In Jodo Shinshu temples, the seven masters are usually collectivity enshrined on the far left.

Branch lineages

  • Kayakabe Teaching (Kayakabe-ky?) - An esoteric branch of J?do Shinsh?

Major holidays

The following holidays are typically observed in J?do Shinsh? temples:[16]

Holiday Japanese Name Date
New Year's Day Service Gantan'e January 1
Memorial Service for Shinran H?onk? November 28, or January 9-16
Spring Equinox Higan March 17-23
Buddha's Birthday Hanamatsuri April 8
Birthday of Shinran Gotan'e May 20-21
Bon Festival Urabon'e around August 15, based on solar calendar
Autumnal Equinox Higan September 20-26
Bodhi Day Rohatsu December 8
New Year's Eve Service Joyae December 31

Major modern Shin figures

See also


  1. ^ "The Essentials of Jodo Shinshu from the Nishi Honganji website". Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b "JODO SHU English". Jodo.org. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b c d Popular Buddhism In Japan: Shin Buddhist Religion & Culture by Esben Andreasen / University of Hawaii Press 1998, ISBN 0-8248-2028-2
  4. ^ Moriarty, Elisabeth (1976). Nembutsu Odori, Asian Folklore Studies Vol. 35, No. 1 , pp. 7-16
  5. ^ Zen at War (2nd ed.) by Brian Daizen Victoria / Rowman and Littlefield 2006, ISBN 0-7425-3926-1
  6. ^ Griffin, David Ray (2005). Deep Religious Pluralism. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-664-22914-6.
  7. ^ Hisao Inagaki (2008). "Questions and Answers on Shinjin", Takatsuki, Japan. See Question 1: What is shinjin?
  8. ^ Collected Works of Shinran, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, p. 112
  9. ^ Lee, Kenneth Doo. (2007). The Prince and the Monk: Shotoku Worship in Shinran's Buddhism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791470220.
  10. ^ Dobbins, James C. (1989). Jodo Shinshu: Shin Buddhism in Medieval Japan. Bloomington, Illinois: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253331861. See especially pp. 142-143.
  11. ^ "Front page". Three Wheels Shin Buddhist House. Retrieved 2015. In 1994 Shogyoji established Three Wheels ('Sanrin shoja' in Japanese), in London, in response to the deep friendship between a group of English and Japanese people. Since then the Three Wheels community has grown considerably and serves as the hub of a lively multi-cultural Shin Buddhist Samgha.
  12. ^ Watts, Jonathan; Tomatsu, Yoshiharu (2005). Traversing the Pure Land Path. Jodo Shu Press. ISBN 488363342X.
  13. ^ Buswell, Robert; Lopez, Donald S. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3.
  14. ^ "Buddhas, bodhisattvas, and teachers". Archived from the original on August 2, 2013. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "The Pure Land Lineage". Retrieved .
  16. ^ "Calendar of Observances, Nishi Hongwanji". Archived from the original on 2015-02-19. Retrieved .


External links

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