Jacob Emden
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Jacob Emden

Jacob Emden
Personal
Born(1697-06-04)June 4, 1697
DiedApril 19, 1776(1776-04-19) (aged 78)
Altona, Hostein, Denmark-Norway
ReligionJudaism
ChildrenMeshullam Solomon
Parents
SignatureEmden, Rabbi Jacob signature.jpg

Jacob Emden, also known as Ya'avetz (June 4, 1697 – April 19, 1776), was a leading German rabbi and talmudist who championed Orthodox Judaism in the face of the growing influence of the Sabbatean movement. He was acclaimed in all circles for his extensive knowledge. "Thus Moses Mendelssohn, founder of the Jewish Enlightenment movement, wrote to him as 'your disciple, who thirsts for your words.' Although Emden did not approve of the Hasidic movement which evolved during his lifetime, his books are highly regarded amongst the Hasidim. Thirty-one works were published during his lifetime, ten posthumously, while others remain in manuscript."[1][undue weight? ]

Emden was the son of the Chacham Tzvi, and a descendant of Elijah Ba'al Shem of Chelm. He lived most his life in Altona (now a part of Hamburg, Germany), where he held no official rabbinic position and earned a living by printing books.[2] His son was Meshullam Solomon, rabbi of the Hambro Synagogue in London who claimed authority as Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom from 1765 to 1780.[3]

The acronym Ya'avetz (also written Yaavetz) stands for the words Yaakov (Emden) ben Tzvi (his father's name) (Hebrew: () - "?).[4]

Biography

Jacob Emden (born Ashkenazi)[5] was the 5th of his father's 15 children.[6]

Until the age of seventeen, Emden studied Talmud under his father Tzvi Ashkenazi, a foremost rabbinic authority, first at Altona, then at Amsterdam (1710-1714). In 1715 Emden married Rachel, daughter of Mordecai ben Naphtali Kohen, rabbi of Ungarisch-Brod, Moravia, and continued his studies in his father-in-law's yeshivah.[7] Emden became well versed in all branches of Talmudic literature; later he studied philosophy, kabbalah, and grammar, and made an effort to acquire the Latin and Dutch languages, in which, however, he was seriously hindered by his belief that a Jew should occupy himself with secular sciences only during times it was impossible to study Torah.[7]

Emden wrote that he owned books containing secular wisdom, written in Hebrew, but that he would read them in the bathroom.[8] He was opposed to philosophy and maintained that the views contained in The Guide for the Perplexed could not have been authored by Maimonides, but rather by an unknown heretic.[2]

Career

Emden spent three years at Ungarisch-Brod, where he held the office of private lecturer in Talmud. Later he became a dealer in jewelry and other articles, an occupation which compelled him to travel.[7] He generally declined to accept the office of rabbi, though in 1728 he was induced to accept the rabbinate of Emden, from which place he took his name.[7]

He returned to Altona in, where he obtained permission from the Jewish community to possess a private synagogue. Emden was at first on friendly terms with Moses Hagis, the head of the Portuguese-Jewish community at Altona, who was afterward turned against Emden by some calumny. His relations with Ezekiel Katzenellenbogen, the chief rabbi of the German community, were positive at first, but deteriorated swiftly.[9]

A few years later Emden obtained from the King of Denmark the privilege of establishing at Altona a printing-press. He was soon attacked for his publication of the siddur (prayer book) Ammudei Shamayim, due to his harsh criticisms of the powerful local money changers. His opponents did not cease denouncing him even after he had obtained for his work the approbation of the chief rabbi of the German communities.[7]

According to Jacob Katz, "Rabbi Jacob Emden: Life and Major Works" (Jacob J. Schacter, unpublished PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1988), "supplanted" Mortimer J. Cohen's 1937 book Jacob Emden: A Man of Controversy, as the most authoritative source on Emden.[10]

Ya'a'vetz pen name

In the preface to his She'I'Las Yaavetz[11], Emden describes how, as a child, he asked his father, the Chacham Tzvi, why he signed his name as simply Tzvi , without his father's name ( ?). The father said that Tzvi stands for Tzvi ben Yaakov ?, and that when the son grows up, and writes books, he should sign Ya'avetz "? . The Yud Ayyin combination of Yaavetz would stand for Yaakov (rather than Yosef, or Yehuda), and the remaining two letters representing ben Tzvi : ?? ?[12]

The name Yaavetz appears "in Chronicles I, 2:55, as the name of a place" and "in Chronicles I, 4:9-10 as" a person's name.[13]

Sabbatean controversy

Emden accused Jonathan Eybeschütz of being a secret Sabbatean. The controversy lasted several years, continuing even after Eybeschütz's death. Emden's assertion of Eybeschütz's heresy was chiefly based on the interpretation of some amulets prepared by Eybeschütz, in which Emden saw Sabbatean allusions. Hostilities began before Eybeschütz left Prague, and in 1751, when Eybeschütz was named chief rabbi of the three communities of Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbek, the controversy reached the stage of intense and bitter antagonism. Emden maintained that he was at first prevented by threats from publishing anything against Eybeschütz. He solemnly declared in his synagogue the writer of the amulets to be a Sabbatean heretic and deserving of excommunication.[7] In ''Megillat Sefer'', he even accuses Eybeschütz of having an incestuous relationship with his own daughter, and of fathering a child with her. However, there have been allegations that ''Megillat Sefer'' was tampered with, and had deliberately ridiculous accusations, as well as outlandish tales, written in to the original in order to make a mockery of Emden.[14]

The majority of the community, including R. Aryeh Leib Halevi-Epstein of Konigsberg, favored Eybeschütz; thus the council condemned Emden as a slanderer. People were ordered, under pain of excommunication, not to attend Emden's synagogue, and he himself was forbidden to issue anything from his press. As Emden still continued his philippics against Eybeschütz, he was ordered by the council of the three communities to leave Altona. This he refused to do, relying on the strength of the king's charter, and he was, as he maintained, relentlessly persecuted. His life seeming to be in actual danger, in May 1751 he left the town and took refuge in Amsterdam, where he had many friends and where he joined the household of his brother-in-law, Aryeh Leib ben Saul, rabbi of the Ashkenazic community.

Emden's cause was subsequently taken up by the court of Frederick V of Denmark, and on June 3, 1752, a judgment was given in favor of Emden, severely censuring the council of the three communities and condemning them to a fine of one hundred thalers. Emden then returned to Altona and took possession of his synagogue and printing-establishment, though he was forbidden to continue his agitation against Eybeschütz. The latter's partisans, however, did not desist from their warfare against Emden. They accused him before the authorities of continuing to publish denunciations against his opponent. One Friday evening (July 8, 1755) his house was broken into and his papers seized and turned over to the "Ober-Präsident," Von Kwalen. Six months later Von Kwalen appointed a commission of three scholars, who, after a close examination, found nothing which could incriminate Emden.

The truth or falsity of his denunciations against Eybeschütz cannot be proved; Gershom Scholem wrote much on this subject, and his student Perlmutter devoted a book to proving it. According to historian David Sorkin, Eybeschütz was probably a Sabbatean,[15] and Eybeschütz's son openly declared himself to be a Sabbatean after his father's death.

Other notable events

Letter of Jacob Emden to the King of Denmark, August 20, 1743

In 1756 the members of the Synod of Constantinov applied to Emden to aid in repressing the Sabbatean movement. As the Sabbateans referred much to the Zohar, Emden thought it wise to examine that book, and after a careful study he concluded that a great part of the Zohar was the production of an impostor.[16]

Emden's works show him to have been possessed of critical powers rarely found among his contemporaries. He was strictly Orthodox, never deviating the least from tradition, even when the difference in time and circumstance might have warranted a deviation from custom. Emden's opinions were often viewed as extremely unconventional from the perspective of strictly traditional mainstream Judaism, though not so unusual in more free-thinking Enlightenment circles. Emden had friendly relations with Moses Mendelssohn, founder of the Haskalah movement, and with a number of Christian scholars.[17]

In 1772 the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, having issued a decree forbidding burial on the day of death, the Jews in his territories approached Emden with the request that he demonstrate from the Talmud that a longer exposure of a corpse would be against the Law. Emden referred them to Mendelssohn, who had great influence with Christian authorities and wrote in excellent German. Mendelssohn wrote the requested letter to the Duke, but privately complained to Emden that based on the Talmud, it seemed the Duke was correct. Emden wrote to him in strong terms, saying that it was ludicrous to assert that the custom of the entire Jewish people was blatantly incorrect, and told Mendelssohn that this kind of claim would only strengthen rumors of irreligiousness he (Mendelssohn) had aroused by his associations.[18]

Views on the spread of monotheism

Emden was a traditionalist who responded to the ideals of tolerance being circulated during the 18th-century Enlightenment. He stretched the traditional inclusivist position into universal directions.[19] Believing, like Maimonides, that Christianity and Islam have important roles to play in God's plan for mankind, he wrote:[20]

We should consider Christians and Moslems as instruments for the fulfilment of the prophecy that the knowledge of God will one day spread throughout the earth. Whereas the nations before them worshipped idols, denied God's existence, and thus did not recognize God's power or retribution, the rise of Christianity and Islam served to spread among the nations, to the furthest ends of the earth, the knowledge that there is One God who rules the world, who rewards and punishes and reveals Himself to man.

Emden praised the ethical teachings of the founder of Christianity, considering them as being beneficial to the Gentiles by removing the prevalence of idolatry and bestowing upon them a "moral doctrine."[1][21] Emden also suggested that ascetic Christian practices provided additional rectification of the soul in the same way that Judaic commandments do.[1]

Stance on polygamy and concubines

In his responsum, Emden theoretically advocated the taking of a pilegesh (concubine) by a scholar since the Rabbis stated that "the greater the man, the greater his evil inclination." He collected many Talmudic and medieval examples from Judaic literature that support such behavior.[22][23][24] Although he never put his theories into practice, he suggested that it is permissible for a Jewish man to cohabit with a single Jewish woman, provided that she is in an exclusive relationship with him that is public knowledge and where she would not be embarrassed to ritually immerse. He wished to revoke the ban on polygamy instituted by Rabbeinu Gershom as he believed it erroneously followed Christian morals, but admitted he did not have the power to do so.[2]

Published works

Various works of Emden and his father.

It is a 2-volume set (first pair/left side/above)

  • 'Edut be-Ya'a?ov, on the supposed heresy of Eybeschütz, and including Iggeret Shum, a letter to the rabbis of the "Four Lands." Altona, 1756.
  • Shimmush, comprising three smaller works: Sho? la-Sus and Meteg la-Hamor, on the growing influence of the Shabbethaians, and Sheve? le-Gev Kesilim, a refutation of heretical demonstrations. Amsterdam, 1758-62.
  • Shevirat Lu?ot ha-Aven, a refutation of Eybeschütz's "Lu?ot 'Edut." Altona, 1759.
  • Se?o? ha-Kesil, Ye?ev Ze'ev, and Gat Derukah, three polemical works published in the "Hit'abbe?ut" of one of his pupils. Altona, 1762.
  • Mi?pa?at Sefarim, in two parts: the first part showing that part of the Zohar is not authentic but a later compilation; the second, a criticism on "Emunat ?akamim" and "Mishnat ?akamim," and other seforim and polemical letters addressed to the rabbi of Königsberg. Altona, 1761-68.
  • ?erev Pifiyyot, Iggeret Purim, Teshubot ha-Minim, and Zikkaron be-Sefer, on money-changers and bankers (unpublished).
  • Le?em Shamayim, a commentary on the Mishnah, with a treatise in two parts, on Maimonides' "Yad," Bet ha-Be?irah. Altona, 1728; Wandsbeck, 1733.
  • Iggeret Bioret, responsa. Altona, 1733.
  • She'elat Ya'abe?, a collection of 372 responsa. Altona, 1739-59.
  • Siddur Tefillah, an edition of the ritual with a commentary, grammatical notes, ritual laws, and various treatises, in three parts: Bet-El, Sha'ar ha-Shamayim, and Migdal 'Oz. It also includes a treatise entitled Eben Bo?an, and a criticism on Menahem Lonzano's "'Avodat Mi?dash," entitled Seder Abodah. Altona, 1745-48.
  • 'E? Avot, a commentary to Avot, with Le?em Ne?udim, grammatical notes. Amsterdam, 1751.
  • Sha'agat Aryeh, a eulogy for his brother-in-law Aryeh Leib ben Saul, the rabbi of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1755. This was also included in his ?ishshurim le-Ya'a?ov.
  • Seder 'Olam Rabbah ve-Zu?a, the two Seder 'Olam and the Megillat Ta'anit, edited with critical notes. Hamburg, 1757.
  • Mor u-?e?i'ah, novellæ on the Ora?. ?ayyim (the novellæ on the Yoreh De'ah, Even ha'Ezer, and Hoshen Mishpat of Mor u-?e?i'ah - unpublished)
  • ?i?im u-Fera?im, a collection of kabalistic articles arranged in alphabetical order. Altona, 1768.
  • Lua? Eresh, grammatical notes on the prayers, and a criticism of Solomon Hena's "Sha'are Tefillah." Altona, 1769.
  • Shemesh ?eda?ah. Altona, 1772.
  • Pesa? Gadol, Tefillat Yesharim, and ?oli Ketem. Altona, 1775.
  • Sha'are 'Azarah. Altona, 1776.
  • Divre Emet u-Mishpa? Shalom (n. d. and n. p.).
  • Megillat Sefer, containing biographies of himself and of his father. Warsaw 1897
  • Kishshurim le Ya'akob, collection of sermons.
  • Marginal novellæ on the Babylonian Talmud.
  • Emes LeYaakov, notes on Zohar and assorted works, including Dei Rossis' Meor Einayim. Kiryas Joel, 2017

His unpublished rabbinical writings are the following:

  • ?a'a?at Damim, refutation of the blood accusation in Poland.
  • Halakah Pesu?ah.
  • Hilketa li-Meshi?a, responsum to R. Israel Lipschütz.
  • Mada'ah Rabbah.
  • Gal-'Ed, commentary to Rashi and to the Targum of the Pentateuch.
  • Em la-Binah, commentary to the whole Bible.
  • Em la-Mi?ra we la-Masoret, also a commentary to the Bible.

Emden Siddur

20th century printings (Lemberg 1904,[25] Augsburg 1948)[26] with a cover title "Siddur Beis Yaakov"[27] (also Anglicized as Siddur Bet Yaakov) (Hebrew ?)[28] exist. Their cover(s) say[29]Jacob from Emden ? .[30]

The 472 page Lemberg 1904 printing has Tikun Leil Shavuot on pages 275-305. This siddur is much larger than the author's Shaarei ShaMaYim siddur.

Shaarei ShaMaYim

A physically smaller siddur, reprinted in Israel 1994, was titled Siddur Rebbe Yaakov of/from Emden (Hebrew? ? )on the upper half of the cover, and Siddur HaYaavetz Shaarei ShaMaYim (? ? ? ?)[31] The content/commentary is not as detailed/extensive as the full Emden siddur.[32] It is a 2-volume set.[33]

References

  1. ^ a b c Falk, Harvey. "Rabbi Jacob Emden's Views on Christianity" Journal of Ecumenical Studies, Volume 19, no. 1 (Winter 1982), pp. 105-11.
  2. ^ a b c Louis Jacobs (1995). The Jewish religion: a companion. Oxford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-19-826463-7. Retrieved 2011.
  3. ^ Jacob Emden (May 4, 2011). Megilat Sefer: The Autobiography of Rabbi Jacob Emden (1697-1776). PublishYourSefer.com. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-61259-001-1. Retrieved 2011.
  4. ^ "Yaakov Israel (Yaakov Emden, Ya'avetz) Emden (Ashkenazi) Sidur".
  5. ^ "Rabbi Jacob Emden".
  6. ^ "Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch "Chacham Tzvi" Ashkenazi, Chacham Zvi".
  7. ^ a b c d e f Solomon Schechter, M. Seligsohn. Emden, Jacob Israel ben Zebi, Jewish Encyclopedia (1906).
  8. ^ "Keeping the Jewish Camp Holy (series, part 34)". Torah Tavlin. January 3, 2015. p. 4.
  9. ^ Jacob J. Shachter (1988). Rabbi Jacob Emden: Life and Major Works. Cambridge, Massachusetts. p. 107.
  10. ^ Katz, Jacob (1988). Tradition and Crisis: Jewish Society at the End of the Middle Ages. unpublished PhD thesis. p. 357.
  11. ^ (written in Hebrew)
  12. ^ Wiki editor translation; improvements on the translation welcome
  13. ^ Sol Steinmetz (2005). Dictionary of Jewish Usage: A Guide to the Use of Jewish Terms. p. 79.
  14. ^ Gestetner, Avraham Shmuel Yehuda. [Megilas Plaster] (in Hebrew). Monsey, NY.
  15. ^ David Sorkin, The Transformation of German Jewry, 1780-1840, Wayne State University Press, 1999, p. 52.
  16. ^ Taken from the Public Domain Jewish Encyclopedia article
  17. ^ The Jewish enlightenment, by Shmuel Feiner, ch. 1, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003
  18. ^ Sheilos Yaavetz, by Jacob Emden, Volume three, siman 44-47, new edition of Keren Zichron Moshe Yoseph, 2016
  19. ^ Rabbi Dr. Alan Brill. Judaism and Other Religions: An Orthodox perspective Archived January 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, commissioned by the World Jewish Congress for the World Symposium of Catholic Cardinals and Jewish Leaders (January 2004).
  20. ^ Gentile, Jewish Encyclopedia (1906).
  21. ^ Sandra B. Lubarsky (November 1990). Tolerance and transformation: Jewish approaches to religious pluralism. Hebrew Union College Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-87820-504-2. Retrieved 2011.
  22. ^ Winkler, Gershon. "The responsum of Rabbi Yaakov Emden from Sheylot Ye'avitz, vol. 2, no. 15" (PDF). Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ , ? (?). ?. . p.  ? ? . Retrieved 2017. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  24. ^ Winkler, Gershon. "The responsum of Rabbi Yaakov Emden from Sheylot Ye'avitz, vol. 2, no. 15" (PDF). Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  25. ^ "Jacob Emden Yaabetz Siddur". Reprint of the popular Emden Siddur (Lemberg 1904
  26. ^ "Siddur Bet Yakov". Retrieved 2019. Printed by and for the use of Holocaust survivors in liberation camps. ... dedicated to
  27. ^ "Shemoneh Esrei 34: Davening For The Majority Part I". OU.org.
  28. ^ Reuven P. Bulka (1986). "Jewish Marriage: A Halakhic Ethic". p. 218. ISBN 0881250775.
  29. ^ translated as
  30. ^ The Lemberg 1904 cover has 3 lines: The word Siddur on one line, then B.. Yaakov ?, followed by a 3rd line with ?' ? R' Yaakov of/from Emden
  31. ^ (no Yud after Samech on bottom, but this may be an error of the reprinters)
  32. ^ doesn't have Tikkun Leil Shavuot, for example
  33. ^ (the first 2 books on the left side/see photo)

External links


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