Jai Hind
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Jai Hind

Jai Hind (Hindi: , IPA: [dj nd]) is a salutation and slogan that means "Victory to India"[1] or "Long live India".[2] Coined and used during India's freedom movement from the British Raj,[3][4] it emerged as a form of national greeting under Jawaharlal Nehru,[5] and a battle cry particularly among Indian army personnel and in political speeches.[6]

Etymology and nomenclature

The word "jai" is derived from jaya (Sanskrit), which means "triumph, victory, cheers, bravo, rejoice".[7] The word jaya appears in Vedic literature such as in Atharvaveda 8.50.8 and in post-Vedic literature such as the Mahabharata.[8]

History

It was Chempakaraman Pillai, a close associate of Subash Chandra Bose, who coined the term "Jai Hind" in 1907,[9][10]. According to the Independence Day speech in 1968 by Indira Gandhi - a prime minister of India and president of the Indian National Congress, it was Bose who gave "Jai Hind" slogan to Indians, and her father Jawaharlal Nehru who carried the "Jai Hind" slogan to "every nook and corner" of India, making it a symbol of their unity and strength as a nation.[11]

According to Sumantra Bose, the phrase is devoid of any religious tone. The term became popular as a slogan and greeting of the Indian National Army organized by Subash Chandra Bose and his colleagues, particularly between 1943-45.[6] After India's independence, it emerged as a national slogan, and has been a common form of greeting the people of India by its political leaders and prime ministers such as Jawaharlal Nehru,[12] Indira Gandhi,[13] Rajiv Gandhi, P V Narasimha Rao, and others.[14][15] Indira Gandhi would end her political speeches with triple shouts of "Jai Hind".[13] Since the mid-1990s, came to be used as a greeting among the Indian Army personnel.[6]

In popular culture

A follower of Indian nationalist Subhas Chandra Bose, Ramchandra Moreshwar Karkare, of Gwalher (Gwalior) Madhya Bharat, wrote a patriotic drama Jai Hind in March 1947 and published a book in Hindi, with the same title. Later, Karkare became Congress president of Central India Province.[]

The Jai Hind postmark was the first commemorative postmark of Independent India. The first stamps of Independent India were issued on November 21, 1947 with Jai Hind inscribed on them, in 1.5 anna, 3.5 anna and 12 anna denominations. Along with Jai Hind, they carried images of Ashoka capital, national flag and an aircraft respectively.[16] " " is also stated on the first, Independence series of Indian stamps.

The phrase is used on All India Radio at the end of a broadcast.[] It occurs in the patriotic song "Aye Mere Watan Ke Logo" sung by Lata Mangeshkar in 1963.[17]

Mahatma Gandhi sent a piece of crocheted, cotton lace made from yarn personally spun by himself, with the central motif Jai Hind, to British Royal couple Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip as a wedding gift in 1947.[18]

The phrase appeared in the early years of Air India slogans, with a 1965 Lok Sabha debate mentioning it being a part of the tagline of the government-owned national airline as "One Nation, One Leader, One India, Jai Hind".[19]

Other uses

The phrase has also given its name to

See also

References

  1. ^ Chopra, Pram Nath (2003). A comprehensive history of modern India. Sterling Publishing. p. 283. ISBN 81-207-2506-9. Retrieved 2010.
  2. ^ James, Lawrence (1997). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. Macmillan. p. 548. ISBN 978-0-312-16985-5. Retrieved 2010.
  3. ^ Ian W. Archer (2014). Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-107-06386-0.
  4. ^ Gyanendra Pandey (2001). Remembering Partition: Violence, Nationalism and History in India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 100-101. ISBN 978-0-521-00250-9.
  5. ^ Aleander Werth (1996). A Beacon Across Asia: A Biography of Subhas Chandra Bose. Orient Blackswan. p. 109. ISBN 978-81-250-1028-9.
  6. ^ a b c Sumantra Bose (2018). Secular States, Religious Politics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 49-50. ISBN 978-1-108-47203-6.
  7. ^ Duncan Forbes (1958). A Dictionary, Hindustani & English: Accompanied by a Reversed Dictionary, English and Hindustani. W.H. Allen and Company. p. 307.
  8. ^ Monier Monier-Williams. "jaya ()". Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary 1899 (Updated 2009). Harvard University Press.
  9. ^ Charles Stephenson (2009). Germany's Asia-Pacific Empire: Colonialism and Naval Policy, 1885-1914. Boydell Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-84383-518-9. ...Champakaraman Pillai, a committed anti-imperialist. He is credited with coining the phrase 'Jai Hind' meaning 'Victory for India'...
  10. ^ Saroja Sundararajan (1997). Madras Presidency in pre-Gandhian era: a historical perspective, 1884-1915. Lalitha Publications. p. 535. To Champakaraman Pillai goes the credit of coining the taraka mantra "Jai Hind" in 1907...
  11. ^ Indira Gandhi (1985). SK Dhawan (ed.). Selected Thoughts of Indira Gandhi: A Book of Quotes. Mittal Publications. p. 171.
  12. ^ Benjamin Zachariah (2004). Nehru. Routledge. pp. 126-127. ISBN 978-1-134-57740-8.
  13. ^ a b Indira Gandhi (1984). Selected speeches and writings of Indira Gandhi, September 1972-October 30, 1984. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. p. 273.
  14. ^ Jagdish Bhagwati; Arvind Panagariya (2013). Why Growth Matters: How Economic Growth in India Reduced Poverty and the Lessons for Other Developing Countries. Public Affairs. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-61039-272-3.
  15. ^ Economic and Political Weekly, Volume 24. Sameeksha Trust. 1989. p. 1325.
  16. ^ Gopa Sabharwal (2017). India Since 1947: The Independent Years. Penguin Random House. p. 24. ISBN 978-93-5214-089-3.
  17. ^ Chaturvedi, Mamta (2004). Filmi & non-filmi songs. Diamond Pocket Books. p. 38. ISBN 81-288-0299-2.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 8, 2015. Retrieved 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ Asian Recorder. K. K. Thomas at Recorder Press. 1965. p. 6220.
  20. ^ Jai Hind on IMDb

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