Born near Dover, Kentucky, Foley received a limited schooling. He was employed on a flatboat on the Mississippi River in 1823. He moved to Greensburg, Indiana, in 1834. He engaged in mercantile pursuits 1834-1837, and afterwards in farming. Treasurer of Decatur County 1841-1843. He served as member of the State constitutional convention in 1850. He was appointed commander of the Fourth Brigade of State militia in 1852.
Foley was elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-fifth Congress (March 4, 1857 - March 3, 1859). He resumed agricultural pursuits in Decatur County. He died in Greensburg, Indiana, December 5, 1886. He was interred in South Park Cemetery.
This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.