Get Japan%E2%80%93United Kingdom Relations essential facts below. View Videos or join the Japan%E2%80%93United Kingdom Relations discussion. Add Japan%E2%80%93United Kingdom Relations to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Japan%E2%80%93United Kingdom Relations
Diplomatic relations between Japan and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Japan-United Kingdom relations (?, Nichieikankei) are the bilateral and diplomatic relations between Japan and the United Kingdom.
The history of the relationship between Japan and England began in 1600 with the arrival of William Adams (Adams the Pilot, Miura Anjin) on the shores of Kyushu at Usuki in ?ita Prefecture. During the Sakoku period (1641-1853), there were no formal relations between the two countries. The Dutch served as intermediaries. The treaty of 1854 began formal diplomatic ties which, improved to become a formal alliance 1902-1922. The British Dominions pressured Britain to end the alliance. Relations deteriorated rapidly in the 1930s, over Manchuria and China, and the cutoff of oil supplies in 1941. Japan declared war in December 1941 and seized Hong Kong, British Borneo (with its oil), and Malaya. They sank much of the British fleet and forced the surrender of Singapore, with many prisoners. They reached the outskirts of India until being pushed back. Relations improved in the 1950s and, as memories of the wartime atrocities fade, have become warm. On 3 May 2011, British Foreign Secretary William Hague said that Japan is "one of [Britain]'s closest partners in Asia".
Chronology of Japanese-British relations
1587. Two young Japanese men named Christopher and Cosmas sailed on a Spanish galleon to California, where their ship was seized by Thomas Cavendish. Cavendish brought the two Japanese men with him to England where they spent approximately three years before going again with him on his last expedition to the South Atlantic. They are the first known Japanese men to have set foot in the British Isles.
1600. William Adams, a seaman from Gillingham, Kent, was the first English adventurer to arrive in Japan. Acting as an advisor to the Tokugawa sh?gun, he was renamed Miura Anjin, granted a house and land, and spent the rest of his life in his adopted country. He also became one of the first known foreign Samurai.
1605. John Davis, the famous English explorer, was killed by Japanese pirates off the coast of Thailand, thus becoming the first known Englishman to be killed by a Japanese.
1613. Following an invitation from William Adams in Japan, the English captain John Saris arrived at Hirado Island in the ship Clove with the intent of establishing a trading factory. Adams and Saris travelled to Suruga Province where they met with Tokugawa Ieyasu at his principal residence in September before moving on to Edo where they met Ieyasu's son Hidetada. During that meeting, Hidetada gave Saris two varnished suits of armour for King James I, today housed in the Tower of London. On their way back, they visited Tokugawa once more, who conferred trading privileges on the English through a Red Seal permit giving them "free licence to abide, buy, sell and barter" in Japan. The English party headed back to Hirado Island on 9 October 1613. However, during the ten-year activity of the company between 1613 and 1623, apart from the first ship (Clove in 1613), only three other English ships brought cargoes directly from London to Japan.
1832. Otokichi, Kyukichi and Iwakichi, castaways from Aichi Prefecture, crossed the Pacific and were shipwrecked on the west coast of North America. The three Japanese men became famous in the Pacific Northwest and probably inspired Ranald MacDonald to go to Japan. They joined a trading ship to the UK, and later Macau. One of them, Otokichi, took British citizenship and adopted the name John Matthew Ottoson. He later made two visits to Japan as an interpreter for the Royal Navy.
1880. Japan government established Yokohama Specie Bank for only foreign transaction bank in Japan, with the support of HSBC.
1886. Normanton incident British merchant vessel sinks off the coast of Wakayama Prefecture. Crew escape while 25 Japanese passengers perish. Widespread Japanese public outrage as subsequent Board of Enquiry under extraterritorial court fails to hold British crew to account.
1921. Crown Prince Hirohito visited Britain and other Western European countries. It was the first time that a Japanese crown prince had traveled overseas.
1921. Arrival in September of the Sempill Mission in Japan, a British technical mission for the development of Japanese Aero-naval forces.
1922. Washington Naval Conference concluding in the Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty, and Nine-Power Treaty; major naval disarmament for 10 years with sharp reduction of Royal Navy & Imperial Navy. The Treaties specify that the relative naval strengths of the major powers are to be UK = 5, US = 5, Japan = 3, France = 1.75, Italy = 1.75. The powers will abide by the treaty for ten years, then begin a naval arms race.
1923. The Japanese -British alliance was officially discontinued on 17 August in response to U.S. and Canadian pressure.
1930. The London disarmament conference angers Japanese Army and Navy. Japan's navy demanded parity with the United States and Britain, but was rejected; it maintained the existing ratios and Japan was required to scrap a capital ship. Extremists assassinate Japan's prime minister, and the military takes more power.
1931. September. Japanese Army seizes control of Manchuria, which China has not controlled in decades. It sets up a puppet government. Britain and France effectively control the League of Nations, which issues the Lytton Report in 1932, saying that Japan had genuine grievances, but it acted illegally in seizing the entire province. Japan quits the League, Britain takes no action.
1934. The Royal Navy sends ships to Tokyo to take part in a naval parade in honour of the late Admiral T?g? Heihachir?, one of Japan's greatest naval heroes, the "Nelson of the East".
The surrender of Singapore is a humiliating defeat for the British; over hundred thousand Imperial soldiers become prisoners. Japanese nationalists celebrate the victory over the Europeans. Many British POWs die in very harsh conditions of captivity.
December 2018. A new trade deal between Japan and the European Union which is hoped could also act as blue-print for post-Brexit trade between Japan and the UK was approved by the European Parliament.
Katsuhiko Oku - Oxford University rugby player, diplomat in Japanese embassy in London who died in Iraq, 2003. Posthumously promoted to ambassador. See also the Oku-Inoue fund for the children of Iraq.
^The Red Seal permit was re-discovered in 1985 by Professor Hayashi Nozomu, in the Bodleian Library. Massarella, Derek; Tytler Izumi K. (1990) "The Japonian Charters" Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp 189-205.
^Thierry Mormanne : "La prise de possession de l'île d'Urup par la flotte anglo-française en 1855", Revue Cipango, "Cahiers d'études japonaises", No 11 hiver 2004 pp. 209-236.
^A.J.P. Taylor, English History: 1914-1945 (1965) pp 370-72.
^David Wen-wei Chang, "The Western Powers and Japan's Aggression in China: The League of Nations and" The Lytton Report"." American Journal of Chinese Studies (2003): 43-63. online
^Xiao Yiping, Guo Dehong, ?Chapter 87: Japan 's Colonial Economic Plunder and Colonial Culture, 1993.
^Thomas S. Wilkins, "Anatomy of a Military Disaster: The Fall of" Fortress Singapore" 1942." Journal of Military History 73.1 (2009): 221-230.
^Bond, Brian; Tachikawa, Kyoichi (2004). British and Japanese Military Leadership in the Far Eastern War, 1941-1945 Volume 17 of Military History and Policy Series. Routledge. p. 122. ISBN9780714685557.
Denney, John. Respect and Consideration: Britain in Japan 1853 - 1868 and beyond. Radiance Press (2011). ISBN978-0-9568798-0-6
Dobson, Hugo and Hook, Glenn D. Japan and Britain in the Contemporary World (Sheffield Centre for Japanese Studies/Routledge Series) (2012) excerpt and text search; online
Fox, Grace. Britain and Japan, 1858-1883 (Oxford UP, 1969).
Kowner, Rotem. "'Lighter than Yellow, but not Enough': Western Discourse on the Japanese 'Race', 1854-1904." Historical Journal 43.1 (2000): 103-131. online
Langer, William. The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890-1902 (2nd ed. 1950), pp. pp 745-86, on treaty of 1902
Lowe, Peter. Britain in the Far East: A Survey from 1819 to the Present (1981).
Lowe, Peter. Great Britain and Japan 1911-15: A Study of British Far Eastern Policy (Springer, 1969).
McOmie, William. The Opening of Japan, 1853-1855: A Comparative Study of the American, British, Dutch and Russian Naval Expeditions to Compel the Tokugawa Shogunate to Conclude Treaties and Open Ports to their Ships (Folkestone, Kent: Global Oriental, 2006).
Marder, Arthur J. Old Friends, New Enemies: The Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy, vol. 1: Strategic illusions, 1936-1941(1981); Old Friends, New Enemies: The Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy, vol. 2: The Pacific War, 1942-1945 (1990)
Morley, James William, ed. Japan's foreign policy, 1868-1941: a research guide (Columbia UP, 1974), toward Britain, pp 184-235
Nish, Ian Hill. China, Japan and 19th Century Britain (Irish University Press, 1977).
Nish, Ian. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance: The Diplomacy of Two Island Empires 1984-1907 (A&C Black, 2013).
Nish, Ian. Alliance in Decline: A Study of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1908-23 (A&C Black, 2013).