Jasenovac Concentration Camp
Get Jasenovac Concentration Camp essential facts below. View Videos or join the Jasenovac Concentration Camp discussion. Add Jasenovac Concentration Camp to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Jasenovac Concentration Camp

Jasenovac concentration camp
Concentration and extermination camp
Logor Jasenovac.JPG
Stone Flower, a monument to the victims of Jasenovac, Croatia
Jasenovac concentration camp is located in Croatia
Jasenovac concentration camp
Location of Jasenovac concentration camp within Croatia
Coordinates45°16?54?N 16°56?6?E / 45.28167°N 16.93500°E / 45.28167; 16.93500Coordinates: 45°16?54?N 16°56?6?E / 45.28167°N 16.93500°E / 45.28167; 16.93500
LocationJasenovac, Independent State of Croatia (present-day Republic of Croatia)
Operated byUsta?e Supervisory Service (UNS)
First builtAugust 1941
OperationalAugust 1941 - 21 April 1945
InmatesMainly Serbs, Jews, and Roma; also some Croatian and Bosnian Muslim political dissidents
KilledAround 100,000[1][2][3] consisting of:
Serbs 45,000-52,000
Roma 15,000-20,000
Jews 12,000-20,000
Croats and Bosnian Muslims 5,000-12,000
Liberated byYugoslav Partisans
Notable inmatesSee List of notable prisoners section

The Jasenovac concentration camp (Serbo-Croatian: Logor Jasenovac / , pronounced [lô:gor jas?no?at?s]; Yiddish: ?‎) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II. The camp was established and operated solely by the governing Usta?e regime rather than by Nazi Germany as in the rest of occupied Europe.[4] It was one of the largest concentration camps in Europe[5] and it has been referred to as "the Auschwitz of the Balkans" and "the Yugoslav Auschwitz".[6]

It was established in August 1941 in marshland at the confluence of the Sava and Una rivers near the village of Jasenovac, and was dismantled in April 1945. It was "notorious for its barbaric practices and the large number of victims".[7]

In Jasenovac the majority of victims were ethnic Serbs (as part of the Genocide of the Serbs); others were Jews (The Holocaust), Roma (The Porajmos), and some political dissidents. Jasenovac was a complex of five subcamps[8] spread over 210 km2 (81 sq mi) on both banks of the Sava and Una rivers. The largest camp was the "Brickworks" camp at Jasenovac, about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of Zagreb. The overall complex included the Stara Gradi?ka sub-camp, the killing grounds across the Sava river at Donja Gradina, five work farms, and the U?tica Roma camp.[1]

During and since World War II, there has been much debate and controversy regarding the number of victims killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp complex during its more than three-and-a-half years of operation. After the war, a figure of 700,000 reflected the "conventional wisdom", although estimates have gone as high as 1.4 million.[9][10][11][12][13] The authorities of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia conducted a population survey in 1964 that resulted in a list of 59,188 victims of Jasenovac and Stara Gradi?ka, the findings were not published until 1989.[14] Croatian academic Vladimir ?erjavi? published books in 1989 and 1992 in which he "meticulously analysed the available data" and concluded that some 83,000 people had been killed at Jasenovac. His findings were criticized by the director of the Museum of Victims of Genocide in Belgrade, Milan Bulaji?, who defended his figure of 1.1 million, although his rebuttal was later dismissed as having "no scholarly value". Since Bulaji?'s retirement from his post in 2002, the Museum has no longer defended the figure of 700,000 to 1 million victims of the camp. In 2005, Dragan Cvetkovi?, a researcher from the Museum, and a Croatian co-author published a book on wartime losses in the NDH which gave a figure of approximately 100,000 victims of Jasenovac.[15]

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) in Washington, D.C. presently estimates that the Usta?a regime murdered between 77,000 and 99,000 people in Jasenovac between 1941 and 1945, comprising; "between 45,000 and 52,000 Serbs; between 12,000 and 20,000 Jews; between 15,000 and 20,000 Roma (Gypsies); and between 5,000 and 12,000 ethnic Croats and Muslims, political and religious opponents of the regime."[2] The Jasenovac Memorial Site quotes a similar figure of between 80,000 and 100,000 victims.[1]


The Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was founded on 10 April 1941, after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. The NDH consisted of the present-day Republic of Croatia and modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina together with Syrmia in modern-day Serbia. It was essentially an Italo-German quasi-protectorate, as it owed its existence to the Axis powers, who maintained occupation forces within the puppet state throughout its existence.[16] However, its day-to-day administration was comprised almost exclusively of Croatians, including monks and nuns.

NDH legislation

Some of the first decrees issued by the leader of the NDH Ante Paveli? reflected the Usta?e adoption of the racist ideology of Nazi Germany. The regime rapidly issued a decree restricting the activities of Jews and seizing their property.[17] These laws were followed by a decree for "the Protection of the Nation and the State" of 17 April 1941, which mandated the death penalty for the offence of high treason if a person did or had done "harm to the honour and vital interests of the Croatian nation or endangered the existence of the Independent State of Croatia".[18] This was a retroactive law, and arrests and trials started immediately. It was soon followed by a decree prohibiting the use of the Cyrillic script, which was an integral part of the rites of the Serbian Orthodox Church.[19]

Another decree concerning nationality determined that only citizens of Aryan origin could be nationals of the NDH, and only nationals of the NDH were under the protection of the NDH.[20] These decrees were enforced not only through the regular court system, but also through new special courts and mobile courts-martial with extended jurisdiction.[21] In July 1941, when existing jails could no longer contain the growing number of new inmates, the Usta?e government began clearing ground for what would become the Jasenovac concentration camp.[]

The influence of Nazi Germany

On 10 April 1941, the Independent State of Croatia was established, supported by Nazi Germany and fascist Italy, and it adopted similar racial and political doctrines. Jasenovac contributed to the Nazi "final solution" to the "Jewish problem", the killing of Roma people and the elimination of political opponents, but its most significant purpose for the Usta?e was as a means to achieve the destruction of Serbs inside the Independent State of Croatia (NDH).[22]

Jasenovac was located in the German occupation zone of the Independent State of Croatia. The Nazis encouraged Usta?e anti-Jewish and anti-Roma actions and showed support for the intended extermination of the Serb people.[] Soon, the Nazis began to make clear their genocidal goals, as in the speech Hitler gave to Slavko Kvaternik at a meeting on 21 July 1941:

The Jews are the bane of mankind. If the Jews will be allowed to do as they will, like they are permitted in their Soviet heaven, then they will fulfill their most insane plans. And thus Russia became the center to the world's illness ... if for any reason, one nation would endure the existence of a single Jewish family, that family would eventually become the center of a new plot. If there are no more Jews in Europe, nothing will hold the unification of the European nations ... this sort of people cannot be integrated in the social order or into an organized nation. They are parasites on the body of a healthy society, that live off of expulsion of decent people. One cannot expect them to fit into a state that requires order and discipline. There is only one thing to be done with them: To exterminate them. The state holds this right since, while precious men die on the battlefront, it would be nothing less than criminal to spare these bastards. They must be expelled, or – if they pose no threat to the public – to be imprisoned inside concentration camps and never be released.[23]

At the Wannsee Conference, Germany offered the Croatian government transportation of its Jews southward, but questioned the importance of the offer as "the enactment of the final solution of the Jewish question is not crucial, since the key aspects of this problem were already solved by radical actions these governments took."[24]

In addition to specifying the means of extermination, the Nazis often arranged the imprisonment or transfer of inmates to Jasenovac.[25][26] Kasche's emissary, Major Knehe, visited the camp on 6 February 1942. Kasche thereafter reported to his superiors:

Capitan Luburic, the commander-in-action of the camp, explained the construction plans of the camp. It turns out that he made these plans while in exile. These plans he modified after visiting concentration-camps installments in Germany.[27]

Kasche wrote the following:

The Poglavnik asks General Bader to realize that the Jasenovac camp cannot receive the refugees from Kozara. I agreed since the camp is also required to solve the problem in deporting the Jews to the east. Minister Turina can deport the Jews to Jasenovac.[28]

Stara-Gradi?ka was the primary site from which Jews were transported to Auschwitz, but Kashe's letter refers specifically to the subcamp Ciglana in this regard. In all documentation, the term "Jasenovac" relates to either the complex at large or, when referring to a specific camp, to camp nr. III, which was the main camp since November 1941. The extermination of Serbs at Jasenovac was precipitated by General Paul Bader, who ordered that refugees be taken to Jasenovac. Although Jasenovac was expanded, officials were told that "Jasenovac concentration and labor camp cannot hold an infinite number of prisoners". Soon thereafter, German suspicions were renewed that the Usta?e were more concerned with the extermination of Serbs than Jews, and that Italian and Catholic pressure was dissuading the Usta?e from killing Jews.[29]

The Nazis revisited the possibility of transporting Jews to Auschwitz, not only because extermination was easier there, but also because the profits produced from the victims could be kept in German hands, rather than being left for the Croats or Italians.[30] Instead Jasenovac remained a place where Jews who could not be deported would be interned and killed: In this way, while Jews were deported from Tenje, two deportations were also made to Jasenovac.[31]

It is also illustrated by the report sent by Hans Helm to Adolf Eichmann, in which it is stated that the Jews will first be collected in Stara-Gradi?ka, and that "Jews would be employed in 'forced labor' in Usta?e camps", mentioning only Jasenovac and Stara Gradi?ka, "will not be deported".[32] The Nazis found interest in the Jews that remained inside the camp, even in June 1944, after the visit of a Red Cross delegation. Kasche wrote: "Schmidllin showed a special interest in the Jews. ... Luburic told me that Schmidllin told him that the Jews must be treated in the finest manner, and that they must survive, no matter what happens. ... Luburic suspected Schmidllin is an English agent and therefore prevented all contact between him and the Jews".[33]

Hans Helm was in charge of deporting Jews to concentration camps. He was tried in Belgrade in December 1946, along with other SS and Gestapo officials, and was sentenced to death by hanging, along with August Meyszner, Wilhelm Fuchs, Josef Hahn, Ludwig Teichmann, Josef Eckert, Ernst Weimann, Richard Kaserer and Friedrich Polte.[]

Creation and operation

Location of main camp Ciglana and additional camps.
Plan of Jasenovac main camp

Jadovno concentration camp was the first camp used for extermination by the Usta?e. Jadovno was operational from May 1941 but was closed in August of the same year, coinciding with the formation of the camp at Jasenovac in the same month. The Jasenovac complex was built between August 1941 and February 1942. The first two camps, Krapje and Bro?ice, were closed in November 1941.[34]

Three newer camps continued to function until the end of the war:

  • Ciglana (Jasenovac III)
  • Ko?ara (Jasenovac IV)
  • Stara Gradi?ka (Jasenovac V)
Usta?e militia executing people over a mass grave near Jasenovac concentration camp

The camp was constructed, managed and supervised by Department III of the "Usta?e Supervisory Service" (Usta?ka nadzorna slu?ba, UNS), a special police force of the NDH. Vjekoslav "Maks" Luburi? was head of the UNS. Individuals managing the camp at different times included Miroslav Filipovi?-Majstorovi? and Dinko ?aki?. The camp administration in times used other Usta?e battalions, police units, Domobrani units, auxiliary units made up of Bosnian Muslims, as well as Germans and Hungarians. The Usta?e interned, tortured and executed men, women and children in Jasenovac. The largest number of victims were Serbs, but victims also included Jews, Roma (or "gypsies"), as well as some dissident Croats and Bosnian Muslims (i.e. Partisans or their sympathizers, all categorized by the Usta?e as "Communists").[35]

Upon arrival at the camp, the prisoners were marked with colors, similar to the use of Nazi concentration camp badges: blue for Serbs, and red for communists (non-Serbian resistance members), while Roma had no marks. This practice was later abandoned.[36] Most victims were killed at execution sites near the camp: Granik, Gradina, and other places. Those kept alive were mostly skilled at needed professions and trades (doctors, pharmacists, electricians, shoemakers, goldsmiths, and so on), and were employed in services and workshops at Jasenovac.[37]

Inmate population

The bodies of prisoners executed by the Usta?e in Jasenovac[38]

Serbs constituted the majority of inmates in Jasenovac.[5][39] Serbs were generally brought to Jasenovac concentration camp after refusing to convert to Catholicism. In many municipalities around the NDH, warning posters declared that any Serb who did not convert to Catholicism would be deported to a concentration camp.[40] The Usta?e regime's policy of mass killings of Serbs constituted genocide.[41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49]

The Jasenovac Memorial Area list of victims is more than 56% Serbs, 45,923 out of 80,914, see victim lists. In some cases, inmates were immediately killed upon acknowledging Serbian ethnicity, and most considered it to be the sole reason for their imprisonment.[50] The Serbs were predominantly brought from the Kozara region, where the Usta?e captured areas that were held by Partisan guerrillas.[51] These were brought to the camp without sentence, almost destined for immediate execution, accelerated via the use of machine-guns. The exact number of Serbian casualties in Jasenovac is uncertain, but the lowest common estimates range around 60,000 people, and is one of the most significant parts of overall Serbian casualties of World War II.[52]

A report on the deportation of Travnik area Jews to Jasenovac and Stara Gradi?ka camps, March 1942

Jews, the primary target of Nazi genocide, were the second-largest category of victims of Jasenovac. The number of Jewish casualties is uncertain, but ranges from about 8,000[53] to almost two thirds of the Croatian Jewish population of 37,000 (meaning around 25,000).[54]

Most of the executions of Jews at Jasenovac occurred prior to August 1942. Thereafter, the NDH deported them to Auschwitz. In general, Jews were initially sent to Jasenovac from all parts of Croatia after being gathered in Zagreb, and from Bosnia and Herzegovina after being gathered in Sarajevo. Some, however, were transported directly to Jasenovac from other cities and smaller towns.[]

Circular made by General Ivan Prpi?, following the orders of Marshal Kvaternik, which informed General Staff of Army (Glavni Sto?er Domobranstva), Ustasha militia headquarters (Glavni sto?er Usta?ke Vojnice), Ministry of Interior (Ministarstvo unutarnjih dela) and Chief Command of Gandarmery (Vrhovno zapovjedni?tvo oru?ni?tva) as follows: "The command of ustasha surveillance service - the chief adjutant, with top secret No 139/42, has informed us that the assembly and labor camp in Jasenovac can accept an unlimited number of inmates. Therefore, please issue orders to your all subortinate (sic) command posts to send to Jasenovac all Communists who are caught during the clearing of areas in which military operations are conducted."

Roma in Jasenovac consisted of both Roma and Sinti, who were captured in various areas in Bosnia, especially in the Kozara region. They were brought to Jasenovac and taken to area III-C, where nutrition, hydration, shelter and sanitary conditions were all below the rest of the camp's own abysmally low standards.[55] The figures of murdered Roma are estimated between 20,000 and 50,000.[55]

Anti-fascists consisted of various sorts of political and ideological opponents or antagonists of the Usta?e regime. In general, their treatment was similar to other inmates, although known communists were executed right away, and convicted Usta?e or law-enforcement officials,[56] or others close to the Usta?e in opinion, such as Croatian peasants, were held on beneficial terms and granted amnesty after serving a duration of time. The leader of the banned Croatian Peasant Party, Vladko Ma?ek was held in Jasenovac from October 1941 to March 1942, after which he was kept under strict house arrest.[57] Unique among the fascist states during World War II, Jasenovac contained a camp specifically for children in Sisak. Around 20,000 Serb, Jewish and Roma children perished at Jasenovac.[58]

Living conditions

The living conditions in the camp evidenced the severity typical of Nazi death camps: a meager diet, deplorable accommodation, and the cruel treatment by the Usta?e guards. As in many camps, conditions would be improved temporarily during visits by delegations – such as the press delegation that visited in February 1942 and a Red Cross delegation in June 1944 – and reverted after the delegation left.[59]

  • Food: Again, typical of death camps, the diet of inmates at Jasenovac was insufficient to sustain life: The sorts of food they consumed changed during the camp's existence. In camp Bro?ice, inmates were given a "soup" made of hot water with starch for breakfast, and beans for lunch and dinner (served at 6:00, 12:00 and 21:00).[60] The food in Camp No. III was initially better, consisting of potatoes instead of beans; however, in January[when?] the diet was changed to a single daily serving of thin "turnip soup," often hot water with two or three cabbage leaves thrown into the pot. By the end of the year, the diet had been changed again, this time to three daily portions of thin gruel made of water and starch.[61] Food changed repeatedly thereafter.
  • Water: Jasenovac was even more severe than most death camps in one respect: a general lack of potable water. Prisoners were forced to drink water from the Sava river.
  • Accommodation: In the first camps, Bro?ice and Krapje, inmates slept in standard concentration-camp barracks, with three tiers of bunks. In the winter, these "barracks" freely admitted rain and snow through their roofs and gaps in their walls. Prisoners would have to wade through ankle deep water inside the cabin. Inmates who died were often left inside the "barracks" for several days before they were removed. In Camp No. III, which housed some 3,000 people, inmates initially slept in the attics of the workshops, in an open depot designated as a railway "tunnel", or simply in the open. A short time later, eight barracks were erected.[62][63] Inmates slept in six of these barracks, while the other two were used as a "clinic" and a "hospital", where ill inmates were sent to die or be executed.[64]
  • Forced labor: As in all concentration camps, Jasenovac inmates were forced daily to perform some 11 hours of hard labor, under the eye of their Usta?e captors, who would execute any inmate for the most trivial reasons.[65][66] The labor section was overseen by Usta?a's Dominik "Hinko" Piccili (or Pi?ili) and Tihomir Kordi?. Piccili (or Pi?ili) would personally lash inmates to force them to work harder.[67]

He divided the "Jasenovac labor force" into 16 groups, including groups of construction, brickworks, metal-works, agriculture, etc. The inmates would perish from the hard work. Work in the brickworks was hard.[68][69] Blacksmith work was also done, as the inmates forged knives and other weapons for the Usta?e. Dike construction work was the most feared.[70]

  • Sanitation: Inside the camp, squalor and lack of sanitation reigned: clutter, blood, vomit and decomposing bodies filled the barracks, which were also full of pests and of the foul stench of the often overflowing latrine bucket.[71] Due to exposure to the elements, inmates suffered from impaired health leading to epidemics of typhus, typhoid, malaria, pleuritis, influenza, dysentery and diphtheria. During pauses in labor (5:00-6:00; 12:00-13:00, 17:00-20:00)[72] inmates had to relieve themselves at open latrines, which consisted of big pits dug in open fields, covered in planks. Inmates would tend to fall inside, and often died. The Usta?e encouraged this by either having internees separate the planks, or by physically drowning inmates inside. The pit would overflow during floods and rains, and was also deliberately drained into the lake, from which inmate drinking water was taken.[73] The inmate's rags and blankets were too thin to prevent exposure to frost, as was the shelter of the barracks.[74] Clothes and blankets were rarely and poorly cleansed, as inmates were only allowed to wash them briefly in the lake's waters once a month[75] save during winter time, when the lake froze. Then, a sanitation device was erected in a warehouse, where clothes were insufficiently boiled.[72]
  • Lack of personal possessions: Inmates were stripped of their belongings and personal attire. As inmates, only ragged prison-issue clothing was given to them. In winter, inmates were given thin "rain-coats" and they were allowed to make light sandals. Inmates were given a personal food bowl, designed to contain 0.4 liters (0.088 imp gal; 0.11 U.S. gal) of "soup" they were fed with. Inmates whose bowl was missing (e.g.: stolen by another inmate to defecate in) would receive no food.[76] During delegation visits, inmates were given bowls twice as large with spoons. At such times, inmates were given colored tags.
  • Anxiety: The fear of death, and the paradox of a situation in which the living dwell next to the dead, had great impact on the internees. Basically, an inmate's life in a concentration camp can be viewed in the optimal way when looking at it in three stages: arrival to camp, living inside it, and the release. The first stage consisted of the shock caused by the hardships in transit to camp. The Usta?e would fuel this shock by murdering a number of inmates upon arrival and by temporarily housing new-arrivals in warehouses, attics, in the train tunnel and outdoors.[77]

After the inmates grew familiar with the life in camp, they would enter the second and most critical phase: living through the anguish of death, and the sorrow, hardships and abuse. The peril of death was most prominent in "public performances for public punishment" or selections, when inmates would be lined in groups and individuals would be randomly pointed out to receive punishment of death before the rest. The Usta?e would intensify this by prolonging the process, patrolling about and asking questions, gazing at inmates, choosing them and then refrain and point out another.[78][79] As inmates, people could react to the Usta?e crimes in an active or passive manner. The activists would form resistance movements and groups, steal food, plot escapes and revolts, contacts with the outside world.[80]

All inmates suffered psychological trauma to some extent: obsessive thoughts of food, paranoia, delusions, day-dreams, lack of self-control. Some inmates reacted with attempts at documenting the atrocities, such as survivors Ilija Ivanovi?, Dr Nikola Nikoli? and ?uro Schwartz, all of whom tried to memorize and even write of events, dates and details. Such deeds were perilous, since writing was punishable by death and tracking dates was extremely difficult.[81]

Mass murder and cruelty

Bodies of Jasenovac prisoners in the Sava River[82]

According to Ja?a Almuli, the former president of the Serbian Jewish community, Jasenovac was a much more terrifying concentration camp in terms of brutality than many of its German counterparts, even Auschwitz. In the late summer of 1942, tens of thousands of ethnic Serb villagers were deported to Jasenovac from the Kozara region in Bosnia, where NDH forces were fighting the Partisans.[83] Most of the men were murdered in Jasenovac, and the women were sent to forced labor camps in Germany. Children were either murdered or dispersed to Catholic orphanages.[84]

On the night of 29 August 1942, prison guards made bets among themselves as to who could slaughter the largest number of inmates. One of the guards, Petar Brzica, boasted[85] that he had cut the throats of about 1,360 new arrivals.[86]

Other participants who confessed to participating in the bet included Ante Zrinu?i?-Sipka, who killed some 600 inmates, and Mile Friganovi?, who gave a detailed and consistent report of the incident.[87] Friganovi? admitted to having killed some 1,100 inmates. He specifically recounted his torture of an old man named Vukasin Mandrapa; he attempted to compel the man to bless Ante Paveli?, which the old man refused to do, even after Friganovi? had cut off both his ears and nose after each refusal. Ultimately, he cut out the old man's eyes, tore out his heart, and slashed his throat. This incident was witnessed by Dr Nikoli?.[88]


An agricultural knife nicknamed "Srbosjek" or "Serbcutter", strapped to the hand. It was used by the Usta?e militia for the speedy killing of inmates at Jasenovac

The Usta?e slaughtered inmates with a knife that became known as the "Srbosjek" (Serbian Cyrillic?, "Serb-cutter").[89][90][91][92][93]

The construction was originally a type of wheat sheaf knife, manufactured prior to and during World War II by the German factory Gebrüder Gräfrath from Solingen-Widdert, under the trademark "Gräwiso".[94][95][96][97] The upper part of the knife was made of leather, as a sort of a glove, designed to be worn with the thumb going through the hole, so that only the blade protruded from the hand. It was a curved, 12-centimetre-long (4.7 in) knife with the edge on its concave side. The knife was fastened to a bowed oval copper plate, while the plate was fastened to a thick leather bangle.[98] Its agricultural purpose was to enable field workers to cut wheat sheaves open before threshing them. The knife was fixed on the glove plate to prevent injuries and to increase work speed.[97]

Systematic extermination of prisoners

Besides sporadic killings and deaths due to the poor living conditions, many inmates arriving at Jasenovac were scheduled for systematic extermination. An important criterion for selection was the duration of a prisoner's anticipated detention. Strong men capable of labor and sentenced to less than three years of incarceration were allowed to live. All inmates with indeterminate sentences or sentences of three years or more were immediately scheduled for execution, regardless of their physical fitness.[99]

Systematic extermination varied both as to place and form. Some of the executions were mechanical, following Nazi methodology, while others were manual. The mechanical means of extermination included:

  • Cremation: The Usta?e cremated living inmates, who were sometimes drugged and sometimes fully awake, as well as corpses. The first cremations took place in the brick factory ovens in January 1942. Croatian engineer Dominik "Hinko" Piccili (or Pi?ili) perfected this method by converting seven of the kiln's furnace chambers into more sophisticated crematories.[100][101] Crematoria were also placed in Gradina, across the Sava River. According to the State Commission, however, "there is no information that it ever went into operation."[102] Later testimony, however, say the Gradina crematory had become operational.[103] Some bodies were buried rather than cremated, as shown by exhumation of bodies late in the war.[why?][]
  • Gassing and poisoning: The Usta?e tried to employ poisonous gas to kill inmates arriving in Stara Gradi?ka. They first tried to gas the women and children who arrived from Djakovo with gas vans that Simo Klai? called "green Thomas".[104] The method was later replaced with stationary gas-chambers with Zyklon B and sulfur dioxide.[105][106][107][108]

Manual methods were executions that took part in utilizing sharp or blunt craftsmen tools: knives, saws, hammers, et cetera. These executions took place in various locations:

  • Granik: Granik was a ramp used to unload goods of Sava boats. In winter 1943-44, season agriculture laborers became unemployed, while large transports of new internees arrived and the need for liquidation, in light of the expected Axis defeat, were large. Vjekoslav "Maks" Luburi? devised a plan to utilize the crane as a gallows on which slaughter would be committed, so that the bodies could be dumped into the stream of the flowing river. In the autumn, the Usta?e NCO's came in every night for some 20 days, with lists of names of people who were incarcerated in the warehouse, stripped, chained, beaten and then taken to the "Granik", where weights were tied to the wire that was bent on their arms, and their intestines and neck were slashed, and they were thrown into the river with a blow of a blunt tool in the head. The method was later enhanced, so that inmates were tied in pairs, back to back, their bellies cut before they were tossed into the river alive.[109]
  • Gradina: The Usta?e utilized empty areas in the vicinity of the villages of Donja Gradina and Ustice, where they encircled an area marked for slaughter and mass graves in wire. The Usta?e slew victims with knives or smashed their skulls with mallets. When Roma arrived in the camp, they did not undergo selection, but were rather concentrated under the open skies at a section of camp known as "III-C". From there the Roma were taken to liquidation in Gradina, working on the dike (men) or in the corn fields in Ustice (women) in between liquidations. Thus Gradina and Ustica became Roma mass grave sites. Furthermore, small groups of Roma were utilized as gravediggers that actually participated in the slaughter at Gradina. Thus the extermination at the site grew until it became the main killing-ground in Jasenovac. Grave sites were also located in Ustica and in Draksenic.[110]
  • Mlaka and Jablanac: Two sites used as collection and labor camps for the women and children in camps III and V, but also as places where many of these women and children, as well as other groups, were executed at the Sava bank in between the two locations.[]
  • Velika Kustarica: According to the state-commission, as far as 50,000 people were killed here in the winter amid 1941 and 1942.[111] There is evidence suggesting that killings took place there at that time and afterwards.[]

The Usta?e carried out extensive means of torture and methods of killing against detainees which included but not limited to: inserting hot nails under finger nails, mutilating parts of the body including plucking out eyeballs, tightening chains around ones head until the skull fractured and the eyes popped and also, placing salt in open wounds.[112] Women faced untold horrors including rape, cutting off ones breasts and also, cutting out wombs from pregnant women.[113][112] Many of these mutilated and murdered bodies were disposed of into the adjacent river. The Usta?e took pride in the crimes they committed and even wore necklaces of human eyes and tongues that were cut out from their Serb victims.[114]

Inmate help

In July 1942, Diana Budisavljevi?, with the help of a German officer, Albert von Kotzian, obtained written permission to take the children from the Stara Gradi?ka concentration camp.[115] With the help of the Ministry of Social Affairs, including Kamilo Bresler, she was able to relocate child inmates from the camp to Zagreb, and other places.[115]

The Red Cross has been accused of insufficiently aiding the persecuted people of Nazi Europe. The local representative, Julius Schmidllin, was contacted by the Jewish community, which sought financial aid. The organisation helped to release Jews from camps, and even debated with the Croatian government in relation to visiting the Jasenovac camp. The wish was eventually granted in July 1944. The camp was prepared for the arrival of the delegation, so nothing incriminating was found.[116] Inmate resistance groups were aided by contacts among the Usta?e. One of these groups, operating in the tannery, was assisted by an Usta?e, Dr Marin Jurcev (and his wife), who were later hanged for this on orders of Dinko ?aki?, as was any Ustasha found guilty of consorting or collaborating with inmates were executed.[117]

End of the camp

On 22 April, 600 prisoners[] revolted; 516 were killed and 84 escaped. Before abandoning the camp shortly after the prisoner revolt, the Usta?e killed the remaining prisoners and torched the buildings, guardhouses, torture rooms, the "Piccili Furnace", and all the other structures in the camp. Upon entering the camp in May, the Partisans came across only ruins, soot, smoke, and the skeletal remains of hundreds of victims.

During the following months of 1945, the grounds of Jasenovac were thoroughly destroyed by prisoners of war. The Allied forces captured 200 to 600 Domobran soldiers of the army of the Independent State of Croatia. Laborers completed the destruction of the camp, leveling the site and dismantling the two-kilometre-long (1.2 mi), four-metre-high (13 ft) wall that surrounded it.

Victim numbers

Memorial signs with claims of victim counts, situated on the Bosnian side of the Sava river at Gradina.

Since World War II, scholars and Holocaust institutions have advanced diverse estimates of the number of victims killed at Jasenovac, ranging from 1.1 million to 30,000.[118] Most modern sources place it at around 100,000.[5][119][120][121][122]

The Jewish Virtual Library states that "the most reliable figures" estimate the number of Serbs killed by the Usta?e overall to be "between 330,000 and 390,000, with 45,000 to 52,000 Serbs murdered in Jasenovac" sourced to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.[39] Historian Tomislav Duli? disputes the often quoted 700,000 figure in Jasenovac, but states that an estimated 100,000 victims still makes it one of the largest camps in Europe during World War II.[5][121]

Contemporary sources

Train that carried prisoners to Jasenovac.

The documentation from the time of Jasenovac originates from the different sides in the battle for Yugoslavia: The Germans and Italians on the one hand, and the Partisans and the Allies on the other. There are also sources originating from the documentation of the Usta?e themselves and of the Vatican. German generals issued reports on the number of victims as the war progressed. German military commanders gave different figures for the number of Serbs, Jews and others killed by the Usta?e in the territory of the Independent State of Croatia. They circulated figures of 400,000 Serbs (Alexander Löhr); 350,000 Serbs (Lothar Rendulic); around 300,000 (Edmund Glaise von Horstenau) in 1943; "600-700,000 until March 1944" (Ernst Fick); and 700,000 (Massenbach). Hermann Neubacher calculates:

The recipe, received by the Usta?e leader and Poglavnik, the president of the Independent State of Croatia, Ante Paveli?, resembled genocidal intentions from some of the bloodiest religious wars: "A third must become Catholic, a third must leave the country, and a third must die!" This last point of the Usta?e program was accomplished. When prominent Usta?e leaders claimed that they slaughtered a million Serbs (including babies, children, women and old men), that is, in my opinion, a boastful exaggeration. On the basis of the reports submitted to me, I believe that the number of defenseless victims slaughtered to be three quarters of a million.[123]

Italian generals reported similar figures to their commanders.[124] The Vatican's sources also speak of similar figures, for example 350,000 ethnic Serbs slaughtered by the end of 1942 (Eugene Tisserant).[125]

For Jasenovac itself, the Nazi intelligence service, Sicherheitsdienst, in a report from Zagreb in 1943., stated that the Usta?e had killed 120,000 people in Jasenovac, 80,000 in Stara Gradi?ka, and 20.000 in other Usta?e concentration camps [126]

The Usta?e themselves gave more exaggerated estimates of the number of people they killed. Vjekoslav "Maks" Luburi?, the commander-in-chief of all the Croatian camps, announced the great "efficiency" of the Jasenovac camp at a ceremony on 9 October 1942. During a banquet that followed, he reported:

We have slaughtered here at Jasenovac more people than the Ottoman Empire was able to do during its occupation of Europe.[101]

A circular from the Usta?e general headquarters reads: "the concentration and labor camp in Jasenovac can receive an unlimited number of internees." In the same spirit, Filipovi?-Majstorovi?, once captured by Yugoslav forces, admitted that during his three months of administration, 20,000 to 30,000 people died.[127] As it became clear that his confession was an attempt to somewhat minimize the rate of crimes committed in Jasenovac, his claim to have personally killed 100 people being extremely understated, Filipovi?-Majstorovi?'s figures are reevaluated so that in some sources they appear as 30,000-40,000.[]

Yugoslav and Croatian official estimates

A 15 November 1945 report of the National Committee of Croatia for the investigation of the crimes of the occupation forces and their collaborators, which was commissioned by the new government of Yugoslavia under Josip Broz Tito, indicated that between 500,000-600,000 people were murdered at Jasenovac. These figures were cited by researchers Israel Gutman and Menachem Shelach in the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust from 1990.[128] Shelach wrote that some 300,000 bodies were found and exhumed.[129] The Simon Wiesenthal Center's Museum of Tolerance adopted the same number at some point.[130]

Various Yugoslav officials used the total number of around 1,700,000 victims in all of Yugoslavia in the war reparations meetings between 1945 and 1947.[131] The proponents of these numbers were subsequently accused of artificially inflating them for the purpose of obtaining war reparations. The State Commission's report has been the only public and official document about number of victims during 45 years of second Yugoslavia. Tomasevich states that these numbers are indeed exaggerated, but that the original copy of the State Commission report cited 400,000 victims.[132]

Vladeta Vu?kovi?[who?] wrote in Bogoljub Ko?ovi?'s 1985 book that, back in 1947, while he was a math student at the Federal Bureau of Statistics, he was tasked with producing the state's total war casualties estimate for the foreign minister Edvard Kardelj. She [Vu?kovi?] says he calculated a statistical estimate of 1,700,000 demographic population loss (i.e., also factoring in the estimated population increase), while actual losses would have been significantly lower.[131][133] Nevertheless, Kardelj subsequently presented this as Yugoslavia's real loss at the Paris Peace Treaties.[131][133] These estimates were rejected by Germany during war reparations talks. The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust's casualty figure for the whole of Yugoslavia was a more conservative 1,500,000.[when?] of the number of victims of Jasenovac in SFR Yugoslavia was 700,000.[15]

In 1964, the Yugoslav Federal Bureau of Statistics created a list of World War II victims with 597,323 names and deficiency estimated at 20-30%, giving between 750,000 and 780,000 victims. Together with the estimate of 200,000 "collaborators and quislings"[clarification needed] killed, the total number would reach about one million. The bureau's list was declared a state secret in 1964 and published only in 1989.[14] The survey results showed a far lower figure of 59,188 killed at Jasenovac, of whom 33,944 were recorded as Serbs.[15]

The second edition of Vojna enciklopedija (1972) reproduced the figure of the State Commission of Crimes, 600,000 victims in Jasenovac up to 1943.[134] In August 1983, General Velimir Terzi? of the Partisans asserted that, according to the newest data, at least one million Serbs were killed at Jasenovac. Novelist Milan D. Mileti? (1923-2003) speculated the number at one million or more.[134] Based on documentary material and information from inmates and camp officials, and from official war crimes commissions, archivist Antun Mileti? quoted from the sources the estimation at 600-700,000 victims, most Serbs.[135]

In his 1982 book, Franjo Tu?man (the later President of Croatia), deliberately misinterpreted the 1964 survey and claimed 60,000 deaths in all camps in the NDH.[136] During the breakup of Yugoslavia, the Croatian side began publicly suggesting substantially smaller numbers of victims. President Franjo Tu?man's 1989 book, Horrors of War: Historical Reality and Philosophy, had questioned the official numbers of victims killed during World War II in Yugoslavia, which later brought him in conflict with Simon Wiesenthal and others.[137]

The Jasenovac Memorial Site, the museum institution sponsored by the Croatian government since the end of the Croatian War of Independence,[138][139][140] has posted claims that current research estimates the number of victims at between 80,000 and 100,000.[122]

The State Commission of Croatia for the Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupation Forces and their Collaborators from 1946 concludes:

Such a manner of preconceived and inhumane torture and slaughter of a people has never been recorded in history. The Ustase criminals followed precisely the model of their German masters, most consciously executed all their orders, and did so in pursuit of a single goal: to exterminate as many of our people as possible, and to create a living space as large as possible for them. The total dependence by the Ustase on their German masters, the foundation of the camp itself, the dispatch of the "disloyal", the brutal implementation of Hitler's racist Nazi theories and the deportation to the camps and extermination of the racially and nationally "impure", the same methods of torture and atrocities with minor varieties of Ustase cruelty, the building of furnaces and incineration of victims in furnaces (the Picilli furnace) -- all of the evidence points to the conclusion that both Jasenovac and the crimes committed in it were fashioned from a German recipe, owing to a German Hitlerite order as implemented by their servants, the Ustase. Subsequently, responsibility for the crimes of Jasenovac falls equally on their German masters and the Ustase executioners.[141]

1960s forensic investigations

On 16 November 1961, the municipal committee of former partisans from Bosanska Dubica organized an unofficial investigation at the grounds of Donja Gradina, led by locals who were not forensic experts. This investigation uncovered three mass graves and identified 17 human skulls in one of them. Based on this, along with the fact that 120 other untouched graves were identified, they extrapolated the number of victims to 350,800.[142] In response, scientists were called in to verify the site. Dr Alojz ?ercelj started preliminary drilling to identify the most likely grave locations, and then between 22 and 27 June 1964, exhumations of bodies and the use of sampling methods was conducted at Jasenovac by Vida Brodar and Anton Poga?nik from Ljubljana University and Srboljub ?ivanovi? from Novi Sad University. They examined a total of seven mass graves, which held a total of 284 victims' remains, and concluded that the entire Jasenovac complex could have around 200 similar sites.[142]

In October 1985, a group of investigators from the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, led by Vladimir Dedijer, visited Jasenovac and made a record of it, in which the record taker, Antun Mileti?, mentioned the 1961 excavation, but misquoted the number of victims it identified as 550,800. They also noted the 1964 excavation, and estimated that Gradina held the remains of 366,000 victims, without further explanation.[142]

In 1989, prior to the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbian anthropologist Srboljub ?ivanovi? published what he claimed were the full results of the 1964 studies, which in his words has been "suppressed by Tito's government in the name of brotherhood and unity, in order to put less emphasis on the crimes of the Croatian Usta?e."[143][144]

In November 1989, ?ivanovi? claimed on television that their research resulted in victim counts of more than 500,000, with estimates of 700,000-800,000 being realistic, stating that in every mass grave there were 800 skeletons.[142] Vida Brodar then commented on that statement and said the research never resulted in any victim counts, and that these numbers were ?ivanovi?'s manipulations, providing a copy of the research log as corroboration. A Croatian historian, ?eljko Kru?elj, publicly criticized ?ivanovi? and labeled him a fraud over this.[142]

Victim lists

  • The Jasenovac Memorial Area maintains a list of the names (collected until March 2013) of 83,145 Jasenovac victims, including 47,627 Serbs, 16,173 Romani, 13,116 Jews, 4,255 Croats, 1,128 Bosnian Muslims, and 266 Slovenes, among others. Of the 83,145 named victims, 20,101 are children under the age of 14, and 23,474 are women.[58] The memorial estimates total deaths at 80,000 to 100,000.[122] The list is subject to update - in 2007, it had 69,842 entries.[145]
  • Antun Mileti?, a researcher at the Military Archives in Belgrade, has collected data on Jasenovac since 1979.[146] His list contains the names of 77,200 victims, of whom 41,936 are Serbs.[146]
  • In 1997, the Museum of Genocide Victims in Belgrade identified 10,521 Jewish victims at Jasenovac, with full names.[147]
  • In 1998, the Bosniak Institute published SFR Yugoslavia's final List of war victims from the Jasenovac camp (created in 1992).[148] The list contained the names of 49,602 victims at Jasenovac, including 26,170 Serbs, 8,121 Jews, 5,900 Croats, 1,471 Romani, 787 Bosnian Muslims, 6,792 of unidentifiable ethnicity, and some listed simply as "others."[148]
  • In 1998, the Croatian State Archives issued an announcement that a notebook had been found containing partial raw data of the State Commission for War Crimes, where the number of victims of Jasenovac from the territory of the People's Republic of Croatia was 15,792, with victims by year: 2,891 persons in 1941, 8,935 in 1942, 676 in 1943, 2,167 in 1944, and 1,123 in 1945. The notebook was generally described as incomplete, particularly the Jasenovac records, but the said numbers were deemed credible as all the other numbers of victims mentioned in the book were consistent with those from the other documents released by the State Commission.[149]

Estimates by Holocaust institutions

The Yad Vashem Center has stated that "more than 500,000 Serbs were murdered [in all of the Independent State of Croatia] in horribly sadistic ways, 250,000 were expelled, and another 200,000 were forced to convert to Catholicism."[54]

In the 1990 Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Menachem Shelach and Israel Gutman wrote:

Some six hundred thousand people were murdered at Jasenovac, mostly Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, and political opponents of the Usta?e regime. The number of Jewish victims was between twenty thousand and twenty-five thousand, most of whom were murdered there up to August 1942, when deportation of the Croatian Jews to Auschwitz for extermination began.

-- Israel Gutman (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Holocaust[34]

As of 2009, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates that the Usta?e murdered between 66,000 and 99,000 people (mostly Serbs) at Jasenovac between 1941 and 1945, and that during the period of Usta?e rule, a total of between 330,000 and 390,000 ethnic Serbs and more than 30,000 Croatian Jews were killed, either in Croatia or at Auschwitz-Birkenau.[53]

Statistical estimates

In the 1980s, calculations were done by Serbian statistician Bogoljub Ko?ovi?, and by Croatian economist Vladimir ?erjavi?, who claimed that total number of victims in Yugoslavia was less than 1.7 million, an official estimate at the time, both concluding that the number of victims was around one million. Ko?ovi? estimated that, of that number, between 370,000 and 410,000 ethnic Serbs died in the Independent State of Croatia.[5][150] ?erjavi?, claimed the number of victims in the Independent State of Croatia was between 300,000 and 350,000, including 80,000 victims in Jasenovac as well as deaths in other camps and prisons, first calculated 53,000, but later brought his estimate up to 70,000 and eventually to 80,000.[]

In the 1980s, ?erjavi? published two books in which he concluded that approximately 83,000 people had perished at Jasenovac, 50,000 of them Serbs.[15] ?erjavi?'s research was criticised by Antun Mileti?, director of Belgrade's military archives, who in 1997 claimed the figure for Jasenovac was 1.1 million. Another critic of ?erjavi?, Dr Milan Bulaji?, former director of the Museum of the Victims of Genocide in Belgrade, maintained that the numbers were in the range of 700,000-1,000,000. After Bulaji? retired from his post, a researcher from the Museum and a Croatian co-author published a book on wartime losses giving a figure of approximately 100,000 victims in Jasenovac.[15]

Testimony of Jasenovac survivors and other eyewitnesses

A number of former camp prisoners and others testified about the horrors they witnessed in Jasenovac, including:

Cijordana Friedlender, Stara Gradi?ka

A former prisoner, Cijordana Friedlender, testified at the trial of Ante Vrban, Ustasha commandant of the concentration camp at Stara Gradi?ka. During the trial, Vrban (later executed) confessed to this crime, admitting he killed children with zyklon gas.

At that time fresh women and children arrived daily at the Camp in Stara Gradi?ka. About fourteen days later, Vrban [the Commandant of the Camp] ordered all children to be separated from their mothers and put into one room. Ten of us were told to carry them there in blankets. The children crawled about the room, and one child put an arm and leg through the doorway, so that the door could not be closed. Vrban shouted: 'Push it!' When I did not do that, he banged the door and crushed the child's leg. Then he took the child by its whole-leg, and banged it on the wall until it was dead. After that we continued carrying the children in. When the room was full, Vrban brought poison gas and killed them all.[151]

Egon Berger, Jasenovac

In his book 44 Months in Jasenovac, former inmate Egon Berger described the following atrocity, by the camp commander, a Franciscan friar, Miroslav Filipovi?-Majstorovi?:

The priestly face of Fra Majstorovic, all made-up and powdered, dressed in an elegant suit and a green hunter's hat, watched with delight the victims. He approached the children, even stroked their heads. The company was joined by Ljubo Milos and Ivica Matkovic. Fra Majstorovic told the mothers there will now be a baptism for their children. They took the children from the mothers, the child whom Father Majstorovic was carrying, in his child's innocence caressed the painted face of his killer. The mothers, distraught, perceived the situation. They offered their lives for mercy for the children. Two children were placed on the ground, while the third was thrown like a ball into the air, and Fra Majstorovic, holding a dagger upwards, missed three times, while the fourth time with a joke and a laugh, a child was impaled on the dagger. Mothers began throwing themselves on the ground, pulling their hair, and began to shout terribly. Ustasha guards of the 14th Osijek Company took them away and killed them. When all three children were so brutally killed, these three two-legged beasts exchanged money, because they seem to have a bet on who would be the first to stick a dagger in a child.[152]

Milko Riffer, Jasenovac

In his memoir, Jasenovac survivor Milko Riffer described many horrendous crimes, including the wholesale extermination of tens-of-thousands:

At one time in the camp there was a large number of Gypsies, who, though innocent, were captured throughout the Independent State of Croatia and driven to Jasenovac. There were perhaps ten-, perhaps twenty-thousand, and of those only two remained. As seedstock.[153]

From one rather large group of Gypsies they formed the so-called grave-diggers' group, which was transferred to Gradina [an area adjacent to Jasenovac]. They had the duty to undress slain victims and sort the resulting clothes ... It was an enormous, hard job, accompanied by desperate screams and cries of the victims, who in continuous columns arrived at the slaughterhouse. They plied [the Gypsies] with large quantities of brandy, because only in an almost completely drunk state could they be made to carry out that infernal work in the pits, in which there lay thousands of battered and slaughtered human bodies. Many of them lost their mind, and were taken to perform "lighter work" elsewhere. They, of course, never returned. The campaign of slaughter lasted long, almost continuously for two years[153]

General von Horstenau, Jasenovac

The Nazi general, Edmund Glaise von Horstenau, Hitler's plenipotentiary in the Independent Croatian State, described in his book, Ein General im Zwielicht, his visit to Jasenovac, as follows:

We now entered the concentration camp in a converted factory. Appalling conditions. A handful of men, many women and children, without enough clothing, sleeping on a stone tablet at night, screams all around, cries and sobbing. The camp commander - a scoundrel - I ignored him, but instead told my Ustasha guide: "This is enough to make a person vomit."
And then worst of all: a room along whose walls, lay on straw which had just been brought for my inspection, something like fifty naked children, half of them dead, the other half dying. We should not forget that the inventors of concentration camps were the British during the Boer War. However, these camps have reached the height of hideousness here in Croatia, under the Poglavnik [Ustasha leader] installed by us. The greatest of all evils must be Jasenovac, which no ordinary mortal can glimpse.[154]

Von Horstenau also described how Serb villagers were transported to Jasenovac, following a massacre perpetrated by Ustasha troops, in the nearby village of Crkveni Bok[154] (the quote below was translated by R. West):

At Crkveni Bok, an unhappy place where, under the leadership of an Ustasha lieutenant-colonel, some 500 yokels (Lumpen) of from fifteen to twenty years old met their end, all murdered, the women raped and then tortured to death, the children killed. I saw in the Sava river a woman's corpse with the eyes gouged out and a stick shoved into the sexual parts. This woman was at most twenty years old when she fell into the hands of these monsters. Anywhere in a corner, the pigs are gorging themselves on an unburied human being. All the houses were looted. The 'lucky' inhabitants were consigned to one of the fearsome goods trains; many of these involuntary 'passengers' cut their veins on the journey.[113]

Camp officials and their respective fates

Some of the camp officials and their post-war fate are listed below:

  • Eugen Dido Kvaternik, chief of the NDH's internal security service, was head of all camps in the NDH territory until 1943. He emigrated to Argentina after the war, where he died in a traffic accident in 1962.
  • Andrija Artukovi? was the creator and signatory of most of the decrees pursuant to which genocide and acts of terror were carried out against the population of the Independent State of Croatia, on the grounds of racial, religious, national or ideological affiliation. From October 1942 to April 1943 he was Minister of Religion and Education. After the war he fled to the USA via Ireland, where Catholic Church authorities assured the government he was a refugee from the Communists [Evidence required for claims]. Attempts at extradition failed in United States courts until new legislation enabled his extradition to Yugoslavia in 1986. He was sentenced to death for war crimes but the sentence was not carried out due to his age and health. He died in 1988.
  • Miroslav Filipovi?-Majstorovi?, an Usta?e infamous for his command periods in Jasenovac and Stara-Gradi?ka,[155] and a Franciscan friar, known by the epithet Fra Satana (Brother Satan) was captured by the Yugoslav communist forces, tried and executed in 1946; he was wearing his priestly garb when he was hanged.
  • Vjekoslav "Maks" Luburi? was the commandant of the Usta?ka Odbrana, or Usta?e defense, thus being held responsible for all crimes committed under his supervision in Jasenovac, which he visited two-three times a month or so,[156] fled to Spain, where he was assassinated by a former confederate in 1969.
  • Dinko ?aki? fled to Argentina, but was eventually extradited, tried and sentenced in 1999 by Croatian authorities to 20 years in prison; he died in 2008 in prison. His wife, Nada, who was also a camp guard, was a half-sister of Maks Luburi?. She evaded capture and Argentina refused to extradite her. She faced no trial and served no sentence.
  • Petar Brzica was an Usta?a officer who, on the night of 29 August 1942, allegedly slaughtered over 1,360 people. Brzica's fellow Usta?e took part in the competition of throat cutting. Brzica is also known for having killed an inmate by beating him, on the departure of administrator Ivica Matkovi?, in March 1943.[157] Brzica's post-war fate and year of death are unknown.
  • Ljubo Milo?, ex-second in command of the Jasenovac concentration camp and former commander of the Lepoglava prison, executed after the war by Partisans.
  • Ivica Matkovi?, prominent Usta?a, executed by the Partisans.

List of notable prisoners

Notable people whose relatives perished at Jasenovac include:

Memorial site

Usta?e death camp reconstruction, museum exhibit in Banja Luka

The Socialist Republic of Croatia adopted a new law on the Jasenovac Memorial Site in 1990, shortly before the first democratic elections in the country.[196]

When Franjo Tu?man was elected for Croatia's president that year, revisionist views on the concentration camp's history came into prominence. The memorial's status was demoted to that of a nature park, and its funding was cut. After Croatia declared its independence and exited the Yugoslav Federation in June 1991, the memorial site found itself in two separate countries. Its grounds at Donja Gradina belonged to Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was then still part of Yugoslavia.[197]

Simo Brdar, assistant director of the Jasenovac Memorial Site, doubted that the Croatian authorities, dominated by nationalists, were committed to preserve the artifacts and documentation of the concentration camp. In August 1991, he transported some of the materials to Bosnia and Herzegovina. As the Yugoslav wars unfolded, Croatian forces vandalized, devastated and looted the memorial site and its museum during September 1991. They were driven out from Jasenovac after a month by the Yugoslav People's Army. Brdar returned to the site and collected what was left of the museum's exhibits and documentation. He kept the collections until 1999, when they were housed in the Archives of Republika Srpska.[197][198][199]

President Franjo Tu?man had announced plans to relocate to Jasenovac bodies of the Usta?e.[200][201]

At the end of 2000, the collections were transferred to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), after an agreement with the government of Republika Srpska. A year later, the USHMM transported the collections to Croatia and gave them to the Jasenovac Memorial Site.[197] Israeli President Moshe Katsav visited Jasenovac in 2003, and was the first Israeli head of state to officially visit the country.[]

In 2004, at the yearly Jasenovac commemoration, the Croatian authorities presented new plans for the memorial site, changing the concept of the museum as well as some of the content. The director of the Memorial Site, Nata?a Jovi?i?, explained how the permanent museum exhibition would be changed to avoid provoking fear, and cease displaying the "technology of death" (mallets, daggers, etc.), rather it would concentrate on individualizing it with personal stories of former prisoners. The German ambassador to Croatia at the time, Gebhard Weiss, expressed skepticism towards "the avoidance of explicit photographs of the reign of terror".[202]

The New York City Parks Department, the Holocaust Park Committee and the Jasenovac Research Institute, with the help of former U.S. Representative Anthony Weiner (D-NY), established a public monument to the victims of Jasenovac in April 2005 (the sixtieth anniversary of the liberation of the camps). The dedication ceremony was attended by ten Yugoslav Holocaust survivors, as well as diplomats from Serbia, Bosnia and Israel. It remains the only public monument to Jasenovac victims outside of the Balkans. Annual commemorations are held there every April.[203]

The Jasenovac Memorial Museum reopened in November 2006 with a new exhibition designed by Croatian architect Helena Paver Njiri?, and an educational center designed by the firm Produkcija. The Memorial Museum features an interior of rubber-clad steel modules, video and projection screens, and glass cases displaying artifacts from the camp. Above the exhibition space, which is quite dark, is a field of glass panels inscribed with the names of the victims. Njiri? won the first prize of the 2006 Zagreb Architectural Salon for her work on the museum.[145]

However, the new exhibition was described as "postmodernist trash" by Efraim Zuroff, and criticized for the removal of all Usta?e killing instruments from the display and a lack of explanation of the ideology that led to the crimes committed there in the name of the Croatian people.[145]

Israeli President Shimon Peres visited Jasenovac on 25 July 2010, dubbing it a "demonstration of sheer sadism".[204]

On 17 April 2011, in a commemoration ceremony, former-Croatian President Ivo Josipovi? warned that there were "attempts to drastically reduce or decrease the number of Jasenovac victims ... faced with the devastating truth here that certain members of the Croatian people were capable of committing the cruelest of crimes, I want to say that all of us are responsible for the things that we do." At the same ceremony, then Croatian Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor said, "there is no excuse for the crimes and therefore the Croatian government decisively rejects and condemns every attempt at historical revisionism and rehabilitation of the fascist ideology, every form of totalitarianism, extremism and radicalism ... Paveli?'s regime was a regime of evil, hatred and intolerance, in which people were abused and killed because of their race, religion, nationality, their political beliefs and because they were the others and were different."[205]

In film & literature

Witness to Jasenovac's Hell by camp survivor Ilija Ivanovi?, was released in english language in 2002, and tells the author's experiences as an 8 year old boy deported to the camp and one of few who survived the escape from it.[206]

44 Months in Jasenovac is a book written by camp survivor Egon Berger which was published in serbocroatian in 1966 and in english in 2016.[207]

The movie Dara iz Jasenovca (Dara in Jasenovac) is an upcoming historical drama, directed by Predrag Antonijevic, with release date 2020 at the 75th anniversary of the liberation. The first modern Holocaust-film about Jasenovac, it stars Marko Janketic as commandant Luburic and Vuk Kostic as Filipovic 'Majstorovic'.[208][209]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Official website of the Jasenovac Memorial Site
  2. ^ a b United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  3. ^ Kolstø 2011, pp. 226-241.
  4. ^ Ljiljana Radoni? (2009), Heinz Fassmann; Wolfgang Müller-Funk; Heidemarie Uhl (eds.), "Krieg um die Erinnerung an das KZ Jasenovac: Kroatische Vergangenheitspolitik zwischen Revisionismus und europäischen Standards", Kulturen der Differenz- Transformationsprozesse in Zentraleuropa Nach 1989 (in German), Göttingen: V&R unipress, p. 179
  5. ^ a b c d e Pavlowitch 2008, p. 34.
  6. ^ Dedijer 1992.
  7. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 399.
  8. ^ Brietman (2005), p. 204
  9. ^ Ze?evi?, Aleksandar (2004). Amendments I to the Charter of the United Nations. p. 169. ISBN 9788690575329.
  10. ^ Bulaji?, Milan. Jasenovac-1945-2005/06: 60/61.-godi?njica herojskog proboja zato?enika 22. aprila 1945 : dani se?anja na ?rtve genocida nad jermenskim, gr?kim, srpskim, jevrejskim i romskim narodima.
  11. ^ Adriano, Pino (2018-04-02). Nationalism and Terror: Ante Paveli? and Ustasha Terrorism from Fascism to the Cold War. p. 280. ISBN 9789633862063.
  12. ^ Bousfield, Jonathan. Croatia. p. 122.
  13. ^ Geddes, Andrew (2013-05-02). The European Union and South East Europe: The Dynamics of Europeanization and Multilevel Governance. p. 217. ISBN 9781136281570.
  14. ^ a b Federal Bureau of Statistics in 1964; published in Danas, 21 November 1989
  15. ^ a b c d e Kolstø 2011, pp. 226-41.
  16. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 233-41.
  17. ^ Lemkin (2008), pp 259, 625-26.
  18. ^ Lemkin (2008), pp. 259, 613.
  19. ^ Lemkin (2008), pp. 260, 626.
  20. ^ Lemkin (2008), pp. 259, 626-27.
  21. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 383-84.
  22. ^ Aristotle Kallis. Genocide and Fascism: The Eliminationist Drive in Fascist Europe, Routledge, New York, 2009, pp. 236-44.
  23. ^ Hilgruber, Staatsmanner und Diplomaten bei Hitler, p. 611.
  24. ^ Wansee, Nuremberg trail documents, NG-2568-G.
  25. ^ Shelach et al., 1990, pp. 166-71, 185-89, 192, 194-96, 208, 442-43.
  26. ^ Schwartz, p. 301
  27. ^ Shelach et al., 1990, p. 195.
  28. ^ A.A. Nachlass Kasche, p. 105
  29. ^ Shelach et al., 1990, pp. 207-339.
  30. ^ Shelach et al., 1990, p. 153, n. 20
  31. ^ Shelach et al., 1990
  32. ^ Adolf Eichmann's Crimes in Yugoslavia: Facts and Views, pp. 8-9.
  33. ^ M. Persen, Ustaski Logori, p. 97[full ]
  34. ^ a b Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 1990, pp. 739-40.
  35. ^ "JUSP Jasenovac - MUSLIMS IN JASENOVAC CONCENTRATION CAMP". jusp-jasenovac.hr. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ Schwartz, p. 329
  37. ^ Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 1990, "Jasenovac".
  38. ^ "The bodies of prisoners executed by the Ustasa in Jasenovac. - Collections Search - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum". collections.ushmm.org.
  39. ^ a b United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Jasenovac". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2012.
  40. ^ Paris, Edmond (1961). Genocide in Satellite Croatia 1941-1945. King's. p. 157. ISBN 1258163462.
  41. ^ "Genocide of the Serbs". The Combat Genocide Association.
  42. ^ "Ustasa" (PDF). yadvashem.org. Retrieved 2018.
  43. ^ "The Last Bullet for the Last Serb":The Usta?a Genocide against Serbs: 1941-1945". doi:10.1080/00905990903239174. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  44. ^ MacDonald, David Bruce (2002). Balkan Holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian Victim Centered Propaganda and the War in Yugoslavia (1.udg. ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-7190-6467-8.
  45. ^ Mylonas, Christos (2003). Serbian Orthodox Fundamentals: The Quest for an Eternal Identity. Budapest: Central European University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-963-9241-61-9.
  46. ^ Crowe, David (2011). Crimes of State Past and Present: Government-Sponsored Atrocities and International Legal Responser. Routledge. pp. 45-46.
  47. ^ McCormick, Robert B. (2014). Croatia Under Ante Paveli?: America, the Usta?e and Croatian Genocide. London-New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 9781780767123.
  48. ^ Ivo Goldstein. "Uspon i pad NDH". Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  49. ^ Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons (1997). Century of genocide: critical essays and eyewitness accounts. p. 430. ISBN 0-203-89043-4. Retrieved 2010.
  50. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 30, 40-41.
  51. ^ Sindik (ed.), pp. 40-41, 98, 131, 171.
  52. ^ See victim numbers.
  53. ^ a b "Jasenovac". Ushmm.org. Archived from the original on 16 September 2009. Retrieved 2013.
  54. ^ a b "Croatia" (PDF). Yad Vashem.
  55. ^ a b State Commission, 1946, pp. 43-44.
  56. ^ State Commission, 1946, p. 32
  57. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 359.
  58. ^ a b "List of individual victims of Jasenovac concentration camp". Jasenovac Memorial Site. Retrieved 2015.
  59. ^ Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 1990, pg. 739
  60. ^ Schwartz, pp. 299-300
  61. ^ Lazar Lukajc: "Fratri i Ustase Kolju", interview with Borislav Seva, pp. 625-39.
  62. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 19-20, 40.
  63. ^ Schwartz, pp. 299, 302-03, 306, 313, 315, 319-22.
  64. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 20, 39 (testimonies: Hinko Steiner, Marijan Setinc, Sabetaj Kamhi, Kuhada Nikola)
  65. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 20-22
  66. ^ various examples in: Schwartz, pp. 299-301, 303, 307, and many more examples therein
  67. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 30-31
  68. ^ Schwartz, p. 308.
  69. ^ Compare with Elizabeta Jevric, "Blank pages of the holocaust: Gypsies in Yugoslavia during World-war II", pp. 111-12, 120
  70. ^ Compare with Schwartz, pp. 299-303, 332
  71. ^ Schwartz, p. 313
  72. ^ a b Schwartz, p. 311
  73. ^ Schwartz, pp. 311-13
  74. ^ State Commission, 1946, pg. 20.
  75. ^ State Commission, 1946, pg. 20
  76. ^ Schwartz, p. 324
  77. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 16-18.
  78. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 23-24.
  79. ^ Marijana Cvetko testimony, New York Times, 3 May 1998. "War crimes revive as Croat faces possible trial"
  80. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 53-55.
  81. ^ See: Schwartz, who said that a father and his three sons were killed for writing. The witness wrote his memories on a piece of paper in tiny script and planted it in his shoe.
  82. ^ "The bodies of Jasenovac prisoners floating in the Sava River - Collections Search - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum". collections.ushmm.org.
  83. ^ Shelach et al., 1990, pp. 432-34.
  84. ^ Shelach et al., 1990, pp. 192, 196.
  85. ^ Alan Greenhalgh. The Glass Half Full; ISBN 0-9775844-1-0, p. 68
  86. ^ Howard Blum. Wanted!: The Search for Nazis in America (Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co. 1977).[page needed]
  87. ^ Wanda B. Schindley. "Hidden History: The Horror of Jasenovac". Jasenovac-info.com. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009.
  88. ^ Avro Manhattan, The Vatican's Holocaust, p. 48.
  89. ^ Margaret E. Wagner; David M. Kennedy; Linda Barrett Osborne; Susan Reyburn (2007). The Library of Congress World War II Companion. Simon & Schuster. pp. 640, 646-47, 683. ISBN 978-0-7432-5219-5. At Jasenovac, a series of camps in Croatia, the ultranationalist, right-wing Usta?e murdered Serbs, Jews, Romani, Bosnian Muslims, and political opponents not by gassing, but with hand tools or the infamous graviso or Srbosjek ("Serb cutter") - a long, curved knife attached to a partial glove and designed for rapid, easy killing.
  90. ^ Israeli 2013, p. 135: "Surviving inmates of Jasenovac remember the Srbosjek (the knife for killing Serbs) that was devised, besides ordinary knives, for the manual and individual slaughter of the Serbs."
  91. ^ Frucht Levy 2013, p. 71: "One, the srbosjek, or Serb-cutter, was a long, curved knife attached to a partial glove and designed for cutting throats."
  92. ^ Michael Freund (30 May 2013). "Time to confront Croatia's hidden Holocaust". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. The Ustashe even employed a special knife they called a "Srbosjek", or "Serb-cutter", to slaughter as many Serbs as possible.
  93. ^ Hunt, Dave (1994). "Das Abschlachten der Serben". Die Frau und das Tier Geschichte, Gegenwart und Zukunft der römischen Kirche. Eugene, Oregon: Harvest House Publishers. pp. 289-301.
  94. ^ Vladimir Dedijer (1992). The Yugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican: The Croatian Massacre of the Serbs During World War II. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-752-6.
  95. ^ Hanspeter Born (1987). Für die Richtigkeit: Kurt Waldheim. Schneekluth. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-7951-1055-0. Beliebt war das sogar wettbewerbsmäßig organisierte Kehledurchschneiden mit einem speziellen Krumm-messer Marke Gräviso
  96. ^ Nikoli?, Nikola (1969). Taborie smrti - Jasenovac (in Slovenian). Translated by Jo?e Zupan?i?. Ljubljana: Zalo?ba "Borec". pp. 72-73. Na koncu no?a, tik bakrene ploice, je bilo z vdolbnimi ?rkami napisano "Grafrath gebr. Solingen", na usnju pa reliefno vtisnjena nem?ka tvrtka "Graeviso" ... Posebej izdelan no?, ki so ga usta?i uporabljali pri mno?i?nih klanjih. Pravili so mu "kota?" - kolo - in ga je izdelovala nem?ka tvrtka "Graeviso"
  97. ^ a b "Srbosjek in action! Warning: Shocking truth video". YouTube. Retrieved 2015.
  98. ^ Nikola Nikoli? (1969). Taborie smrti--Jasenovac. Zalo?ba "Borec". pp. 72-73. Na koncu no?a, tik bakrene ploice, je bilo z vdolbnimi ?rkami napisano "Grafrath gebr. Solingen", na usnju pa reliefno vtisnjena nem?ka tvrtka "Graeviso" [Picture with description]: Posebej izdelan no?, ki so ga usta?i uporabljali pri mno?i?nih klanjih. Pravili so mu "kota?" - kolo - in ga je izdelovala nem?ka tvrtka "Graeviso"
  99. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 9-11, 46-47.
  100. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 14, 27, 31, 42-43, 70.
  101. ^ a b Paris 1961, p. 132.
  102. ^ State Commission, 1946, p. 43
  103. ^ Schwartz, pp. 331-32.
  104. ^ Dragan Roller, statement to the press during the Dinko Saki? trial, New York Times, 2 May 1998.
  105. ^ "Zlocini Okupatora Nijhovih Pomagaca Harvatskoj Protiv Jevrija", pp. 144-45[full ]
  106. ^ Shorthand notes of the Ljubo Milo? trial, pp. 292-93. Antun Vrban admitted of his crimes: "Q. And what did you do with the children A. The weaker ones we poisoned Q. How? A. We led them into a yard... and into it we threw gas Q. What gas? A. Zyklon." (Qtd. Shelach et al., 1990)
  107. ^ M. Persen, "Ustasi Logore", p. 105[full ]
  108. ^ Sindik (ed.), pp. 40-41, 58, 76, 151
  109. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 13, 25, 27, 56-57, 58-60.
  110. ^ State Commission, 1946,[page needed]
  111. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 38-39
  112. ^ a b Paris, Edmond (1961). Genocide in Satellite Croatia 1941-1945. King's. p. 189. ISBN 1258163462.
  113. ^ a b Richard West. Tito and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia, Faber & Faber, November 15, 2012.
  114. ^ Paris, Edmond (1961). Genocide in Satellite Croatia 1941-1945. King's. p. 284. ISBN 1258163462.
  115. ^ a b Dr Mirjana Ajdukovi?, "The Activity of Diana Budisavljevi? with the child victims of World War II", Annual of Social Work, Vol. 13, No. 1, October 2006.
  116. ^ Shelach et al., 1990, pp. 313-14.
  117. ^ Schwartz, pp. 304, 312, 332-33
  118. ^ Kolstø 2011, pp. 230, 242.
  119. ^ "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 29 November 2001. Retrieved 2010.
  120. ^ "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 25 April 2005. Retrieved 2010. No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000.
  121. ^ a b Duli?, Tomislav (2005). Utopias of Nation. Local mass killings in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1941-1942. Uppsala, Sweden. p. 281.
  122. ^ a b c "How many victims were there of [sic] Jasenovac Concentration Camp?". FAQs. Jasenovac Memorial Site. Retrieved 2015.
  123. ^ Neubacher, Hermann (1958). Sonderauftrag Südost. Musterschmit-Verlag. p. 31.
  124. ^ Le Operazioni della unita Italiane in Jugoslavia. Rome 1978. pp. 141-48.
  125. ^ C. Falconi, The Silence of Pius XII, London 1970, p. 3308
  126. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 722.
  127. ^ State Commission, 1946, p. 62
  128. ^ Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 1990
  129. ^ Shelach et al., 1990, p. 189
  130. ^ "Jasenovac". Museum of Tolerance. Simon Wiesenthal Center. Archived from the original on 12 May 2006. Retrieved 2015.
  131. ^ a b c Tomasevich 2001, p. 723.
  132. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 718-.
  133. ^ a b Danijela Nadj. "Vladimir ?erjavi? - How the number of 1.7 million casualties of the Second World War has been derived". Hic.hr. Retrieved 2013.
  134. ^ a b Tomasevich 2001, pp. 725.
  135. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 726.
  136. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 736.
  137. ^ Schemo, Diana Jean (22 April 1993). "Anger Greets Croatian's Invitation To Holocaust Museum Dedication". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011.
  138. ^ "Renovation of Jasenovac Memorial Site". Jasenovac Memorial Site. Retrieved 2015.
  139. ^ "Jasenovac Memorial Site - From the return of the museum inventory to the present day". Jasenovac Memorial Site. Retrieved 2015.
  140. ^ "Propisi" [Regulations] (in Croatian). Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 2015. Zakon o Spomen-podru?ju Jasenovac (NN 15/90; NN 28/90 Ispravak, NN 22/01)
  141. ^ Guy Walters (2010-05-04). Hunting Evil: The Nazi War Criminals Who Escaped and the Quest to Bring Them ... p. 461. ISBN 9780307592484. Retrieved 2016.
  142. ^ a b c d e Kru?elj, ?eljko (23 April 2005). "Kako je ?ivanovi? 284 kostura pretvorio u 700.000 ?rtava". Vjesnik.hr (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 25 November 2005. Retrieved 2015.
  143. ^ Milan No?ica (28 November 1989). "Okom nau?nika sagledana mostruoznost zlo?ina". Informativni glasnik (in Serbian). Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad (231): 8-9. Archived from the original on 11 August 2007. Retrieved 2012.
  144. ^ Ognjan Radulovi? (2007). "Jasenovac je i danas moja no?na mora". Ilustrovana Politika (in Serbian). Politika Newspapers & Magazines d.o.o. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 2015.
  145. ^ a b c "Exhibition aims to show the truth about Jasenovac". Southeast European Times. 8 January 2007. Retrieved 2012.
  146. ^ a b Anzulovic, Branimir (1999). Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide. London, UK: Hurst & Company. p. 104. ISBN 1-85065-342-9.
  147. ^ Bulaji? 2002, p. 55.
  148. ^ a b Bosniak Institute (1992). Jasenovacrtve rata prema podacima statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije. Zürich & Sarajevo: Bosniak Institute Sarajevo. ISBN 3-905211-87-4. Retrieved 2015.
  149. ^ "U Hrvatskom dr?avnom arhivu prona?ena bilje?nica o ?rtvama rata" (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 7 July 1998. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  150. ^ Ko?ovi?, Bogoljub (2005). Sahrana jednog mita. ?rtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji. Belgrade.
  151. ^ Statement made by witness Cijordana Friedlender, from the shorthand notes of the Ljubo Milo? trial. pp. 292-93.
  152. ^ Berger, Egon (1966). 44 mjeseca u Jasenovcu. Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Hrvatske. p. 57.
  153. ^ a b Riffer, Milko. "Grad mrtvih, Jasenovac 1943". Znaci.net. Retrieved 2015.
  154. ^ a b von Horstenau, Edmund Glaises (1980). Ein General im Zwielicht: die Erinnerungen Edmund Glaises von Horstenau. Wien; Koln; Graz: Bohlau. pp. 167-68. ISBN 3-205-08740-2.
  155. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 31-32 as posted here "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-04. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  156. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 28-29.
  157. ^ State Commission, 1946, pp. 50, 72
  158. ^ a b c d Pajovi?, Radoje (1987). History (in Serbo-Croatian). Zagreb: Centar za informacije i publicitet. p. 100. ISBN 978-86-7125-006-1.
  159. ^ Francisca de Haan, Krasimira Daskalova, Anna Loutfi - Biographical dictionary of women's movements and feminisms in ... - 2006, pg. 381;
    "In 1934, an antifascist and women's rights activist, Julia Batino (born in Bitola 1914 - died in Jasenovac concentration camp, Croatia 1942) was made President of the Bitola ZICO. The organization became actively involved in the progressive women's movement in Yugoslavia and Batino herself directed her energies towards the emancipation of Jewish women, with a special emphasis on young women."
  160. ^ a b c "Between Local and Universal: Daniel Kabiljo, a Jewish artist in Sarajevo on the Eve of the Holocaust" (PDF). Retrieved 2013.
  161. ^ Profile, Hrvatska enciklopedija; accessed 8 October 2013.(in Croatian)
  162. ^ Bulaji?, Milan. Tudjman's "Jasenovac myth". Belgrade: Stru?na knjiga. 1994. pg. 66
  163. ^ Profile, Hrvatski biografski leksikon; accessed 24 March 2015.(in Croatian)
  164. ^ Martin Gilbert (1987, p. 148)
  165. ^ "Mavro Frankfurter". Yad Vashem. 5 February 2013.
  166. ^ "MosheFrankfurter". Yad Vashem. 5 February 2013.
  167. ^ Profile, matica.hr; accessed 8 October 2013.(in Croatian)
  168. ^ "Izidor Gross". Pages of testimony by Edit Anav (granddaughter). Yad Vashem.
  169. ^ Joseph Levine and Solomon Mendelson. Ishei yisrael u-t'fillatam; A Memorial List of European Cantors Martyred During the Shoah, pg. 10, 1 January 2013.
  170. ^ "Han?ekovi?, Boris" (in Croatian). Hrvatski biografski leksikon.
  171. ^ ?ivakovi?-Ker?e, Zlata; Igor Galir (30 October 2010). "Osje?ki spomendan 29. o?ujka". osijek.hr (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  172. ^ "Slavko Hirsch". Pages of testimony by Lea Marberger (sister). Yad Vashem.
  173. ^ "Slavko Hirsch". Pages of testimony by Avraham Marberger (brother in law). Yad Vashem.
  174. ^ "Svjetski dan pjesni?tva". www.knjiznica-vz.hr (in Croatian). Gradska knji?nica i ?itaonica Metel O?egovi?.
  175. ^ "Me?unarodni dan sje?anja na Holokaust". www.zoz.hr (in Croatian). ?idovska op?ina Zagreb.
  176. ^ Vladko Ma?ek, In the Struggle for Freedom, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park and London, 1957, (Chapter XVI: Prison Again, pp. 244-53)
  177. ^ Mira Kolar Dimitrijevi?, Knji?evnik Mihovil Pavlek Mi?kina i politika, Podravinaasopis za multidisciplinarna istra?ivanja, Vol. 5, No. 9, Svibanj 2006; accessed 8 October 2013.
  178. ^ Snje?ka Kne?evi? (2011, p. 42)
  179. ^ Snje?ka Kne?evi? (2011, p. 55)
  180. ^ "Müllerovi - Povijest jedne zagreba?ke obitelji". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 20 April 2008. Archived from the original on 2016-03-07.
  181. ^ Klara Ro?man (4 February 2010). "Zrinka Cvite?i? i Ana Vilenica u filmu o 'hrvatskoj Shirley Temple'". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 2012.
  182. ^ Nina O?egovi? (14 February 2012). "Simbol tragedije ?idova u Hrvatskoj" [Symbol of tragedy of Jews in Croatia]. Nacional (in Croatian). No. 848. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 2018.
  183. ^ "Nova sapunica dekana Akademije". Nacional (in Croatian). No. 670. 15 September 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 2019.
  184. ^ Snje?ka Kne?evi? (2011, p. 60)
  185. ^ Goldstein 2007, p. 112, Dizdar 1997, p. 359
  186. ^ Davor Kova?i?, Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Nova Gradi?ka i procjene broja ?rtava, Radovi - Zavod za hrvatsku povijest, Vol. 34-35-36, br.1., stranica 229-41. Zagreb, 2004.(in Croatian)
  187. ^ ?ivakovi?-Ker?e, Zlata; Nevenka Drahotuski (29 July 2011). "Osje?ki spomendan 29. srpnja". Osijek.hr (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 2013.
  188. ^ (in Croatian) B.M.; HR-DAZG-1154 Obitelj Vinski; Dr?avni arhiv u Zagrebu; 30 Listopad 2008, Zagreb
  189. ^ Goldstein 2005, p. 299.
  190. ^ (in Croatian) Stribor Uzelac Schwendemann: Leksikon mrtvih; Prilog za prou?avanje povijesti brodske ?idovske zajednice: stranica 80, 88: godina 2010.
  191. ^ "Croatian Schooling 'Leaves Pupils Ill-Informed' About WWII Regime". Balkan Insight. 2019-01-31. Retrieved .
  192. ^ "Tesla's relatives died in Croat death camp, documents show". B92.net. Retrieved .
  193. ^ "Dragoje Lukic: RAT I DJECA KOZARE". www.znaci.net.
  194. ^ "Bakir Izetbegovi?: " Moje daid?e Muhamed i Bakir ubijeni su usta?kim logorima Jasenovac i Lepoglava"". SAFF.
  195. ^ "U II SVJETSKOM RATU NA MOSTU U BR?KOM, ALI I U JASENOVCU SU STRADALI I BO?NJACI!". Otisak. 13 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 2015.
  196. ^ "Ukaz o progla?enju Zakona o Spomen-podruèju Jasenovac". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. 17 April 1990. Retrieved 2013.
  197. ^ a b c Walasek 2015, pp. 83-87.
  198. ^ "H.CON.RES. 219 | Congressional Chronicle | C-SPAN.org". www.c-span.org.
  199. ^ Kennedy, Patrick J. (25 September 1996). "Text - H.Con.Res.219 - 104th Congress (1995-1996): Calling for the proper preservation of the memorial at the site of the Jasenovac concentration and death camp in Croatia in a way that accurately reflects the historical role of that site in the Holocaust". www.congress.gov.
  200. ^ "H.CON.RES. 171 | Congressional Chronicle | C-SPAN.org". www.c-span.org.
  201. ^ Kennedy, Patrick J. (2 May 1996). "Text - H.Con.Res.171 - 104th Congress (1995-1996): Condemning the proposed relocation to the site of the Jasenovac death camp in Croatia of the remains of individuals who were not killed there, including soldiers of the Croatian Ustashe regime who participated during the Holocaust in the mass murder of Jews and others". www.congress.gov.
  202. ^ Radoje Arseni? (22 June 2004). "Changes in the Museum". Newsletter of the Jasenovac Research Institution. Politika; translated by JRI Director Milo Yelesiyevich. I (1): 4-5.
  203. ^ "Sabor ?alje Kosor u Bleiburg". Zadarski list (in Croatian). 17 April 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  204. ^ "Peres at Croatian WWII Camp: I Wish Iran's President Would Come Here". Haaretz (in Croatian). 25 July 2010. Retrieved 2015.
  205. ^ "Jasenovac must not be forgotten, Croat president says". B92.net. 17 April 2011. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012.
  206. ^ Witness to Jasenovac's Hell. Ilija Ivanovi?. Dallas Publishing, 2002
  207. ^ 44 Months in Jasenovac. Egon Berger. Sentia Publishing, 2016
  208. ^ https://m.imdb.com/title/tt10554232/
  209. ^ http://www.rts.rs/page/magazine/sr/story/411/film-i-tv/3722842/da-li-ce-dara-iz-jasenovca-postati-srpska-sindlerova-lista.html




Further reading

  • Witness to Jasenovac's Hell. Ilija Ivanovi? (with Wanda Schindley, ed.), Aleksandra Lazic (translator), Dallas Publishing, 2002
  • State Commission investigation of crimes of the occupiers and their collaborators in Croatia (1946). Crimes in the Jasenovac Camp. Zagreb.
  • Ustasha Camps by Mirko Percen, Globus, Zagreb, 1966; 2nd expanded printing 1990.
  • Ustashi and the Independent State of Croatia 1941-1945, by Fikreta Jeli?-Buti?, Liber, Zagreb, 1977.
  • Romans, J. Jews of Yugoslavia, 1941- 1945: Victims of Genocide and Freedom Fighters, Belgrade, 1982
  • Antisemitism in the anti-fascist Holocaust: a collection of works, The Jewish Center, Zagreb, 1996.
  • The Jasenovac Concentration Camp, by Antun Mileti?, Volumes One and Two, Belgrade, 1986. Volume Three, Belgrade, 1987 (2nd edition, 1993).
  • Hell's Torture Chamber by ?jor?e Milica, Zagreb, 1945.
  • Die Besatzungszeit das Genozid in Jugoslawien 1941-1945 by Vladimir Umelji?, Graphics High Publishing, Los Angeles, CA, 1994.
  • Srbi i genocidni XX vek (Serbs and 20th century, Ages of Genocide) by Vladimir Umelji?, (vol 1, vol 2), Magne, Belgrade, 2004
  • Kaputt, by Curzio Malaparte; translated by Cesare Foligno, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL, 1999.
  • Der kroatische Ustascha-Staat 1941-1945, by Ladislaus Hory and Martin Broszat, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1964.
  • Novak, Viktor (2011). Magnum Crimen: Half a Century of Clericalism in Croatia. 1. Jagodina: Gambit. ISBN 9788676240494.
  • Novak, Viktor (2011). Magnum Crimen: Half a Century of Clericalism in Croatia. 2. Jagodina: Gambit. ISBN 9788676240494.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes