|History of Vietnam
Jiaozhi (Chinese: , ; pinyin: Ji?ozh?; Wade-Giles: Chi?o-ch?h; Vietnamese: Giao Ch?), was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (c. 7th-10th centuries) and again during the Fourth Chinese domination (1407-1427).
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According to James Chamberlain, 'Jiao' originated as a cognate of Lao. According to Michel Ferlus, the Sino-Vietnamese 'Jiao' in Jiaozhi (ji?o zh? ), together with the ethnonym and autonym of the Lao people (l?o ?), and the ethnonym Gelao (G?l?o ), a Kra population scattered from Guizhou (China) to North Vietnam, would have emerged from the Austro-Asiatic *k(?)ra:w 'human being'. The etymon *k(?)ra:w would have also yielded the ethnonym Keo/ Kæw k?:wA1, a name given to the Vietnamese by Tai speaking peoples, currently slightly derogatory. In Pupeo (Kra branch), kew is used to name the Tay (Central Tai) of North Vietnam.
Some scholars like Joachim Schliesinger and James Chamberlain claim that the Vietnamese language was not originally based in the area of the Red River in what is now northern Vietnam. According to them, the Red River Delta region was originally Tai-speaking, ethnic Li people in particular. They claim that the area become Vietnamese-speaking only between the seventh and ninth centuries AD, or even as late as the tenth century, as a result of immigration from the south, i.e., modern central Vietnam. According to ancient records, Jiaozhi in the Han and Tang eras was heavily populated by Ethnic Li people.
On the other hand, Ferlus (2009) showed that the inventions of new terms for pestle, oar and a pan to cook sticky rice took place in Northern Vietic (Vi?t-Mng) and Central Vietic (Cuoi-Toum). The new vocabularies of these inventions were proven to be derivatives from original verbs rather than borrowed lexical items. The current distribution of Northern Vietic also correspond to the area of Dong Son culture. Thus, Ferlus conclude that the Northern Vietic (Viet-Muong) is the direct heirs of the Dongsonian, who have resided in Southern part of Red river delta and North Central Vietnam since the 1st millennium BC.
Furthermore, John Phan (2013, 2016) argues that "Annamese Middle Chinese" and northern Vietic was spoken in the Red River Valley and Annamese was later absorbed into the coexisting Proto-Viet-Muong, one of whose divergent dialect evolved into Vietnamese language.
The name of the territory was also used to refer to the Lac people and their ancient language. It seems to be a Yue or Viet endonym of uncertain meaning, although it has had various folk etymologies over the years. In his Tongdian, Du You wrote that "The Jiaozhi are the southern people: the big toe points to the outside of the foot, so if the man stands up straight, the two big toes point to each other, so people call them the "jiaozhi"." (The Chinese character ? means "hallux, big toe".) The Ciyuan disputed this:
The meaning of the word Jiaozhi cannot be understood literally, but the ancient Greek method of "opposite pillar" and "connecting pillar" to label humans on earth--where "opposite pillar" stood for the South side and its logical opposite the North side, whilst "connecting pillar" stood for the East side with the West side connected to it--could provide a suggested origin. If Jiaozhi was intended to characterize "opposite pillar" because this was what people of the North called the people of the South, then the feet of the North side (chân phía B?c') and feet of the South side (chân phía Nam) must oppose each other, therefore rendering it impossible for the feet of a person to cross or intersect each other (không ph?i th?c là chân ngi "giao" nhau).
Jiaozhi, pronounced Kuchi in the Malay, became the Cochin-China of the Portuguese traders c. 1516, who so named it to distinguish it from the city and the Kingdom of Cochin in India, their first headquarters in the Malabar Coast. It was subsequently called "Cochinchina". However by viewpoint of researcher Tr?n Nh? V?nh L?c, or in the transcribing a pronunciation "Viet" (?), as "/'?w:?t/" in the ancient Annamese.
The native state of V?n Lang is not well attested, but much later sources name as one of the realm's districts (b?). Its territory purportedly comprised present-day Hanoi and the land on the right bank of the Red River. The Van Lang fell to the Âu under prince Th?c Phán around 258 BC. By researcher Lê V?n Lan, "" was the Chinese script of the "urang" or "orang" in the Proto-Malayo-Polynesian.
Zhao Tuo declared his independent kingdom of Nanyue in 204 and organized his Vietnamese territory as the two commanderies of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen (Vietnamese: C?u Chân; present-day Thanh Hóa, Ngh? An, and Hà T?nh). Following a native coup that killed the Zhao king and his Chinese mother, the Han launched two invasions in 112 and 111 BC that razed the Nanyue capital at Panyu (Guangzhou).
The Han received the submission from the Nanyue commanders in Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen, confirming them in their posts and ushering in the "First Northern Domination" of Vietnam. (Shu Âu L?c and Chinese Nanyue both reckoned by the Vietnamese as "native" states.) These commanderies were headed by grand administrators (taishou) who were later overseen by the inspectors (, cishi) of Jiaozhou or (Giao Ch? b?), the first of whom was Shi Dai.
Under the Han, the capital of Jiaozhi was first Miling (within Hanoi's Me Linh district) and then Leilou (Luy Lâu, within Bac Ninh's Thuan Thanh district). According to the Book of Han's "Treatise on Geography", Jiaozhi contained 10 counties: Leilou (), Anding (), Goulou (), Miling (), Quyang (), Beidai (), Jixu (), Xiyu (), Longbian (), and Zhugou (). ?ào Duy Anh stated that Jiaozhi's territory contained all of Tonkin, excluding the regions upstream of the Black River and Ma River. Southwestern Guangxi was also a part of Jiaozhi. The southwest area of present-day Ninh Bình was the border of Jiuzhen. Later, the Han dynasty created another commandery named Rinan (Nh?t Nam) located south of Jiuzhen from the Ngang Pass to Qu?ng Nam Province.
Ma Yuan's bronze column was supposedly erected by Ma Yuan after he had suppressed the uprising of the Tr?ng Sisters in the early 40s. Ma Yuan followed his conquest with a brutal course of assimilation, destroying the natives' bronze drums in order to build the column at the edge of Chinese territory. Six Chinese characters were carved upon it: "If this bronze column collapses, Jiaozhi will be destroyed" ( The location of the column is unknown, with various explanations given for its disappearance. One popular story is that locals developed a superstitious habit of placing rocks to support the column as they passed and that, over time, this pile grew so large that it completely covered the columns. Another is that they threw the rocks from hatred. Later rationalist Chinese and Vietnamese scholars opined that it had probably simply fallen into the sea in the course of an earthquake or change of shoreline.
During the rule of Emperor Ling (168-189) of the Eastern Han, Lý Ti?n was the first native of Jiaozhi to be the inspector of Jiaozhou. Lý Ti?n then petitioned the Han emperor to allow natives of Jiaozhi to be officers and mandarins in the Han court, but the emperor only accepted the ones who were awarded maocai () or xiaolian () titles. Another native of Jiaozhi named Lý C?m petitioned the throne and eventually the natives were allowed to take higher positions in other regions of the Han empire. For example, a Jiaozhi native named Trng Tr?ng was grand administrator of the Jincheng Commandery.
During the Three Kingdoms period, Jiaozhi was administered from Longbian (Long Biên) by Shi Xie on behalf of the Wu. This family controlled several surrounding commanderies, but upon the headman's death Guangzhou was formed as a separate province from northeastern Jiaozhou and Shi Xie's son attempted to usurp his father's appointed replacement. In retaliation, Wu executed the son and all his brothers and demoted the remainder of the family to common status.
Jiaozhi underwent attacks from the neighboring kingdom of Linyi (Champa) starting from 270 and continuing until at least 280. In 280, the governor of Jiaozhi wrote to the emperor of the Western Jin complaining about these attacks aided by allies from the Kingdom of Funan.
In 679, this was renamed Annan (Annam), fully the "Protectorate General to Pacify the South". This comprised 12 prefectures (?), one of which continued under the old name Jiaozhou. This prefecture contained 8 counties: Jiaozhi, Songping, Zhuyuna, Pingdao, Wuping (), Nanding (), and Taiping ().
In 938 Ngô Quy?n defeated the Southern Han kingdom at the Battle of B?ch ng River north of modern Haiphong. He took C? Loa as his capital. In 1257, after invading China in 1251, the Mongol Empire invaded i Vi?t but they had to draw back in 1258 because of local resistance. Between 1284 and 1287, the Mongol Empire tried to invade i Vi?t twice but they were defeated both times.
H? Quý Ly had violently taken the Tr?n throne and changed the country's name to i Ngu. When the Ming government found out, they demanded that he reestablish the Tr?n dynasty, which he agreed to. However, H?'s forces instead ambushed the Ming convoy escorting the Tr?n pretender, who was killed during the attack, and started harassing the Ming border.
After this, the Ming dynasty invaded i Ngu, destroyed the H? dynasty, and began the Fourth Northern domination (1407-1427). The Ming created "Jiaozhi Province" (). At this time, the Jiaozhi Province area contained all the territory of Vietnam under the H? dynasty. The Jiaozhi Province was divided into 15 prefectures (?) and 5 independent prefectures ():
Together with the 5 independent prefectures, there were other administrative divisions, which were under the normal prefectures. There were 47 divisions in total.
In 1408, the independent administrative division Taiyuan, Xuanhua was promoted to a prefecture, which increased the number to 17. Afterwards the Yanzhou prefecture was dismissed and its territory became an independent prefecture.
The Ming dynasty crushed Lê L?i's rebellion at first but court debates concluded that Vietnam was an unnecessary distraction and the Ming decided to withdraw their armies from Vietnam, long before the rebels started scoring any victories. When Lê offered to become a vassal of China, the Ming immediately declared him as ruler of Vietnam. Lê dismissed all former administrative structure and divided the nation into 5 o. Thus, ever since that time, the name Giao Ch? and Giao Châu have never been applied to official administrative units.
In the ninth Yanxi year [AD 166], during the reign of Emperor Huan, the king of Da Qin [the Roman Empire], Andun (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, r. 161-180), sent envoys from beyond the frontiers through Rinan... During the reign of Emperor He [AD 89-105], they sent several envoys carrying tribute and offerings. Later, the Western Regions rebelled, and these relations were interrupted. Then, during the second and the fourth Yanxi years in the reign of Emperor Huan [AD 159 and 161], and frequently since, [these] foreigners have arrived [by sea] at the frontiers of Rinan [Commandery in modern central Vietnam] to present offerings.
The Book of Liang states:
The merchants of this country [the Roman Empire] frequently visit Funan [in the Mekong delta], Rinan (Annam) and Jiaozhi [in the Red River Delta near modern Hanoi]; but few of the inhabitants of these southern frontier states have come to Da Qin. During the 5th year of the Huangwu period of the reign of Sun Quan [AD 226] a merchant of Da Qin, whose name was Qin Lun came to Jiaozhi [Tonkin]; the prefect [taishou] of Jiaozhi, Wu Miao, sent him to Sun Quan [the Wu emperor], who asked him for a report on his native country and its people."
The capital of Jiaozhi was proposed by Ferdinand von Richthofen in 1877 to have been the port known to the geographer Ptolemy and the Romans as Kattigara, situated near modern Hanoi. Richthofen's view was widely accepted until archaeology at Óc Eo in the Mekong Delta suggested that site may have been its location. Kattigara seems to have been the main port of call for ships traveling to China from the West in the first few centuries AD, before being replaced by Guangdong.
In terms of archaeological finds, a Republican-era Roman glassware has been found at a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou along the South China Sea, dated to the early 1st century BC. At Óc Eo, then part of the Kingdom of Funan near Jiaozhi, Roman golden medallions made during the reign of Antoninus Pius and his successor Marcus Aurelius have been found. This may have been the port city of Kattigara described by Ptolemy, laying beyond the Golden Chersonese (i.e. Malay Peninsula).