J?do-sh? (, "The Pure Land School"), also known as J?do Buddhism, is a branch of Pure Land Buddhism derived from the teachings of the Japanese ex-Tendai monk H?nen. It was established in 1175 and is the most widely practiced branch of Buddhism in Japan, along with J?do Shinsh?.
H?nen () was born in 1133, the son of a prominent family in Japan whose ancestry could be traced back to silk merchants from China. H?nen was originally named Seishimaru after the mah?sattva Seishi (Sanskrit Mah?sth?mapr?pta). After a rival official assassinated his father in 1141, H?nen was initiated into his uncle's monastery at the age of 9. From then on, H?nen lived his life as a monk and eventually studied at the famous monastery of Mount Hiei.
H?nen was well respected for his knowledge and for his adherence to the Five Precepts, but in time, H?nen became dissatisfied with the Tendai teachings he learned at Mount Hiei. Influenced by the writings of Shandao, H?nen devoted himself solely to Amit?bha as expressed through the practice of nembutsu.
In time, H?nen gathered disciples from all walks of life, and developed a large following, notably women, who had been excluded from serious Buddhist practice up to this point. This included fishermen, prostitutes and fortune tellers. H?nen also distinguished himself by not discriminating against women who were menstruating, who were thought at the time to be unclean. All of this caused concern among the religious and political elite of Kyoto and eventually Emperor Go-Toba issued a decree in 1207 to have H?nen exiled to a remote part of Japan and given a criminal's name. Some of H?nen's followers were executed, while others, including Bench?, Ryukan and Shinran, were exiled to other regions of Japan away from H?nen.
Eventually, H?nen was pardoned and returned to Kyoto in 1211, but died soon after in 1212, just two days after writing his famous One-Sheet Document.
Because H?nen and his disciples were largely exiled to remote provinces, and due to differences in background and monastic training, the teachings began to take on regional differences. Some sub-sects died out quickly, while others survive through the modern era. The main branch of J?do Sh? started under H?nen's disciple Bench?, who was exiled to Chinzei on the island of Kyushu. There, Bench? actively preached H?nen's doctrine while refuting what he considered deviations taught by other disciples (particularly Kosai's controversial "once-calling" teaching).
Another monk named Ry?ch? became his disciple for a year, and then spread Bench?'s and H?nen's teachings throughout Japan before reaching the capital at Kamakura. Ry?ch? helped to legitimize the "Chinzei branch" of J?do Sh? as the mainstream one, and is credited as the 3rd Patriarch accordingly. He also referred to Bench?, his teacher, as the 2nd Patriarch after H?nen. Ry?ch? also met with Renjaku-bo, whose own teacher Genchi, had been another disciple of H?nen. Renjaku-bo felt that Genchi and Bench? had been in complete agreement, so he willingly united his lineage with Ry?ch?'s, helping to further increase its standing.
J?do Sh? through the Chinzei lineage continued to develop until the 8th Patriarch, Sh?gei (, 1341-1420) who formalized the training of priests (rather than training under Tendai or Shingon lineages), thus formally establishing it as an independent sect.
J?do-sh? is heavily influenced by the idea of Mapp? or the "Age of Dharma Decline". The concept of Mapp? is that over time society becomes so corrupt that people can no longer effectively put the teachings of the Buddha into practice anymore. In medieval thought, signs of Mapp? included warfare, natural disasters and corruption of the sangha.
The J?do-sh? school was founded near the end of the Heian period, when Buddhism in Japan had become deeply involved in political schemes, and some in Japan saw monks flaunting wealth and power. At the end of the Heian, warfare broke out between competing samurai clans, while people suffered from earthquakes and series of famines.
H?nen sought to provide people a simple Buddhist practice that anybody could use toward enlightenment, no matter how degenerate the times. He taught devotion to Amit?bha as expressed in the repetition of his name - "Namo Amida Bu"- known as the nembutsu. Through Amit?bha's compassion a being could be reborn in the pure land (Sanskrit Sukhavati) where they could pursue enlightenment more readily.
H?nen did not believe that other Buddhist practices were wrong, but rather, they were not practical on a wide-scale, especially during the difficult times of the late Heian.
Repetition of the nembutsu is the most fundamental practice of J?do-sh?, which derives from the Primal Vow of Amit?bha. In home practice, or in temple liturgy, the nembutsu may be recited in any number of styles including:
However, in addition to this, practitioners are encouraged to engage in "auxiliary" practices, such as observing the Five Precepts, meditation, the chanting of sutras and other good conduct. There is no strict rule on this however, as J?do-sh? stresses that the compassion of Amit?bha is extended to all beings who recite the nembutsu, so how one observes auxiliary practices is left to the individual to decide.
The Infinite Life Sutra is the central Buddhist scripture for J?do-sh? Buddhism, and the foundation of the belief in the Primal Vow of Amit?bha. In addition to this, the Amit?yurdhy?na S?tra and the Amitabha Sutra are important to the J?do-sh? school. The writings of H?nen, contained mostly in the Senchaku-hongan-nembutsu-sh? (often abbreviated to Senchakush?), are another source for J?do-sh? thought as is his last writing, the Ichimai-Kish?mon (, "One-Sheet Document"). Most of what is known about Honen and his thought is attributed through sayings collected in the following century, the Senchakush?, and letters to his students and disciples.
J?do-sh?, like other Buddhist schools, maintains a professional, monastic priesthood, who help to lead the congregation, and also maintain the well-known temples such as Chion-in. The head of the J?do-sh? school is called the monshu in Japanese, and lives at the head temple of Chion-in, Kyoto, Japan.
The main 'Chinzei' branch of Jodo Shu was maintained by the so-called "Second Patriarch" and disciple of Honen, Bench?. However, other disciples of H?nen branched off into a number of other sects and interpretations, particularly after they were exiled in 1207:
Another disciple, Shinran, founded J?do Shinsh?, which diverges somewhat doctrinally, but otherwise is heavily influenced by H?nen and his teachings. In J?do Shinsh?, H?nen is considered the Seventh Patriarch. Depending on the viewpoint, Shinran and J?do Shinsh? can be considered another branch of J?do-sh?.
Although J?do-sh? is mainly found in Japan, a sizable J?do-sh? community exists in Hawaii as well as a few temples in the continental United States.