John Dalrymple, 5th Earl of Stair (1720-1789) was a Scottish soldier and politician.
He was eldest son of George Dalrymple of Dalmahoy, fifth son of John Dalrymple, 1st Earl of Stair, and a baron of the court of exchequer of Scotland, by his wife Euphame, eldest daughter of Sir Andrew Myrton of Gogar. He passed advocate of the Scottish bar in 1741, but he entered the army and attained the rank of captain. He was a favourite with his uncle John Dalrymple, 2nd Earl of Stair, who having in 1707 obtained a new charter containing, in default of male issue, a reversionary clause in favour of any one of the male descendants of the first Viscount Stair whom he should nominate, selected him to succeed him in the states and honours on his own death. He therefore, in 1745, assumed the title, and voted as Earl of Stair in 1747, but by a decision of the House of Lords in 1748 the titles were assigned to his cousin James Dalrymple, who became 3rd Earl of Stair.
John Dalrymple succeeded to the title as fifth earl on the death of his cousin William, William Dalrymple-Crichton, 5th Earl of Dumfries, 4th Earl of Stair, on 27 July 1768. He was chosen a representative peer in 1771, and in the House of Lords opposed the measures which led to the American War of Independence. He presenting a petition on behalf of Massachusetts in 1774. In the general election of 1774 he was not returned to parliament.
Stair died on 13 October 1789.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1888). "Dalrymple, John (1720-1789)". Dictionary of National Biography. 13. London: Smith, Elder & Co.