Juglandaceae
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Juglandaceae

Juglandaceae
Juglans regia Broadview.jpg
Juglans regia
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Juglandaceae
DC. ex Perleb[1]
Type genus
Juglans
Subfamilies

See text

Engelhardioideae Distribution.svg
The range of subfamily Engelhardioideae
Juglandoideae Distribution.svg
The range of subfamily Juglandoideae
Synonyms[2]
  • Platycaryaceae Nakai ex Doweld
  • Pterocaryaceae Nakai, nom. inval.
  • Rhoipteleaceae Hand.-Mazz. 1932, nom. cons.

The Juglandaceae are a plant family known as the walnut family. They are trees, or sometimes shrubs, in the order Fagales. Members of this family are native to the Americas, Eurasia, and Southeast Asia.

The nine or ten genera in the family have a total of around 50 species,[3] and include the commercially important nut-producing trees walnut (Juglans), pecan (Carya illinoinensis), and hickory (Carya). The Persian walnut, Juglans regia, is one of the major nut crops of the world. Walnut, hickory, and gaulin are also valuable timber trees while pecan wood is also valued as cooking fuel.

Description

Members of the walnut family have large, aromatic leaves that are usually alternate, but opposite in Alfaroa and Oreomunnea. The leaves are pinnately compound or ternate, and usually 20-100 cm long. The trees are wind-pollinated, and the flowers are usually arranged in catkins.

Some fruits are borderline and difficult to categorize. Hickory nuts (Carya) and walnuts (Juglans) grow within an outer husk; these fruits are sometimes considered to be drupes or drupaceous nuts, rather than true botanical nuts. "Tryma" is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes.[4][5]

The fruits of the Juglandaceae are often confused with drupes but are accessory fruit because the outer covering of the fruit is technically an involucre and thus not morphologically part of the carpel; this means it cannot be a drupe but is instead a drupe-like nut. These odd nuts fall into two different types: in the walnut genus (Juglans), it is a pseudodrupe and in the hickory genus (Carya), it is a tryma.[6]

Taxonomy

The known living genera are grouped into subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes as follows:[7]

Systematics

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[9]

Myricaceae (outgroup)

Juglandaceae
Rhoipteleoideae

Rhoiptelea

Engelhardioideae

Engelhardia

Alfaroa

Oreomunnea

Juglandoideae

Carya

Annamocarya

Platycarya

Cyclocarya

Pterocarya

Juglans

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "Family: Juglandaceae DC. ex Perleb, nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. Archived from the original on 2015-10-03. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201-217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  4. ^ Armstrong, W.P. "Identification Of Major Fruit Types". Wayne's World. Archived from the original on 2011-11-20. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Armstrong, W.P. (2009-03-15). "Fruits Called Nuts". Wayne's World. Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved .
  6. ^ John Derek Bewley, Michael Black, Peter Halmer (2006) The Encyclopedia of Seeds: Science, Technology And Uses
  7. ^ Manos, P. S.; D. E. Stone (2001). "Evolution, phylogeny and systematics of the Juglandaceae" (PDF). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 88 (2): 231-269. doi:10.2307/2666226. JSTOR 2666226.
  8. ^ "GRIN Genera of Juglandaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Xiang XG, Wang W, Li RQ, Lin L, Liu Y, Zhou ZK, Li ZY, Chen ZD (2014). "Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal fagalean diversification promoted by the interplay of diaspores and environments in the Paleogene". Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 16 (3): 101-110. doi:10.1016/j.ppees.2014.03.001.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Juglandaceae
 



 



 
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